(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The principles of grammar : being a compendious treatise on the languages, English, Latin, Greek, German, Spanish and French. Founded on the immutable principle of the relation which one word sustains to another"

CO 




Oi 


O 

^ 

(O 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/principlesofgraOObarr 



BARRETT'S 



lAK 




a a, Subject and Predicate, b, Complements. 



BOSTON: 
BRADLEY, DAYTON & CO., 

No. 20 WaSHINGION STEiET. 



THE 



PRINCIPLES 



OP 



GRAMMAR: 

BEING 

A COMPENDIOUS TREATISE ON THE LANGUAGES, 

ENGLISH, LATIN, GREEK, GERMAN, 
SPANISH AND FRENCH. 

POUNDED ON THE 

IMMUTABLE PRINCIPLE OF THE RELATION WHICH ONE 
WORD SUSTAINS TO ANOTHER. 



He brought in a new way of arguing by induction, and that grounded 
on observation and experience. — Bak^r. 



By SOLOMON BAURETT, Jr., 

PHILOLOGIST. 



REVISED EDITION. 

BOSTON: 
GEO. C. RAND AND AVERY, 

PRINTERS, 3 CORNHILL. 
1860. 



(L JUL 9 2003 



^^^TYOf:^ 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by 

s. barhett, 7B., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States 

for the Northern District of Nev YcHc. 



PRINTED BT 

GEORGE C. RAND k. AVERY. 



A K I 



TO THE ENGLISH GRAMMAR; 

BEING A PRACTICAL AND NATURAL ILLUSTRATION OF ORTHOGRAPHY, 

ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX. AND PROSODY, DEMONSTRATED 

BY A PROCESS OF REASONING. 

" Stttdt things, not words. Use your brains more, and your books less." 

To reason and form correct conclusions without a com 
parison, is an impossibility. We can never know for a cer- * 
tainty that we have a pound of coffee or a yai'd of cloth, 
without first comparing the one with the pound weight, and 
the other with the yard measure. And in all cases, the 
meas2ire and the thing measured are called the premises^ or 
the premised propositions, the measure being the known^ 
and the thing to be measured, the unhnoion quantity y and 
the comparinrf of these premises is called reasoning^ by 
which we conclude that the premises, or terms premised, 
either agree or disagree. 

Now, in grammar, the standard for measuring loords is 
the Table given on the 28th page ; and the business of pars- 
ing, or ascertaining the part of speech, is effected by insti- 
tuting a comparison between the words in the sentence about 
to be parsed, and the word or words having a correspond- 
ing relation in the Table. That is to say : an equation is 
formed by making the unknown term equal ( = , mathemat- 
ical sign) the known ; thus, the expression, "aviiitl:^ paper" 
equals ( = ) " cold^ day," in the Tab>le of I^elations; or 
"moon^ smiles " = (equals) " man'-^ walks." : 

Hence we have : first. Analysis^ or the separating ol 
words ; second, Sy^itax^ or the unUlng of words ; third, 
Equations^ or the comparison of words with the Table of 
Relations (page 28) ; and fourth, the Conclusions^ naturally 
formed by the comparison, Avhich shows us at once the true 
classification (or etymology) of the word about to be parsed. 

V 



Vl 



. BLACK-BOAKD EXEKCI8E8. 



• 


:• 




a 


o 




u. 






UJ 


of 








"» 


a 


_o 


i. 


JZ 




!3 


*•> 


o 


3 






1 


o 


"s> 


'^ 


Gl, 




•^ 




"U 


i. 


CO 

E 


KM 


1 


13 


05 




a 




•v» 


o 


r^ 


3 


•X3 

3 


^ 


^ 


^j 


^ 




00 






-t-> 


o 


S 






§ 


1^ 


•-S* 


^ 




w 


«* 


CO 


"^ 


o 


a 


>4J 


Ctj 


B 


?^ 


s 


^ 


MO 


•ro 


o 




1 




<^ 


.9 


c3 




•o 


e 


en 


k 


is 


>% 


ea 


s 


V 




O 


^ 




5rj 


■*^ 


zn 


'TS 


CO 


a 
.2 


J 


<u 






K 


^ 




>-> 


o 






o 
O 


o 


a> 


•T3 


«u 


t; 


a 




ed 


a 


s 


TO 


CO 


^ 




.2 




o 


O 




<— < 




a> 


»-' 


t<i 


+j 


H 


CO 


w 


a 


« 


GO 


o 


rS 




2 


fe^ 




^ 


■Si 


« 


c 


<« 

►< 


S8 


^ 

^ 


&i 


o 


-a 


•<?» 


X> 


a 


o 


,M 


0j 


s 


O 




s 


Oj 


d' 


§ 


S 


.2 




C3 


c5 


o 


rfl 


O 


^ 


-tJ 


^ 


%. 


c 
1— 1 


^ 


•!> 


1 


•5 


"O 


1 


o 




H 


^ 


cc 


H 


>-. 


. (M 


o 


^ 


Oi 


ki 


eg 








o 
o 



t?-- ^ 
**^. "ii 



-^^ 
c 



• '9 

O ^ J^ 



M2) 









C3 

'to' 

"I 



•<s> 






Si S <w 

:2 '^^ "i) 



So <>. ?^ _< -^ J^ 



<^ ^ JT 






p 

^ re 






h 






OT 

>^ 
O 
I— I 
Eh 



jr c3 G) 

d 

03 

a 



*^ « GO '^ 

rt ^ J2 cJ 

rt p s: r::! 

I J i ^ 



J- 

"3 

I- 









2 S 






02 



05 ^ — ' ^ ^ CO 

o 



>i 



^ 



^ § 



^ ^ „ 2? '^ 

J r^ '^ g r^ 



w. 






r^ 'H G 









C3 






"•i ^ ^ ^ 
V. -ii 2 '• 



.8 



t>^ 3 'o e 



^ g 
§ 



5^ 



«» 
^ 
e 






in «^ 



p: T^ S 



0) 

o 



c3 O 









r~i » . /^i i^ <~t 



2 2 2^^ 



OT 


^ 






t— t 








OT 






tH 


e 






1-3 


b 






-tj 


e 


o 


f^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




< 


Vl 


H 


OQ 



g ~ a s 

s s S S» 

1 § 

-to 



O 






m 

O 

■"^ 1-1 *-i 
:- O S 



o 
o 



5^ 









n:3 






5^2 







^ 






tE 


M 




• ^ 


r-*i 






O 

O 




midi 
air. 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



Vll 



o 

I— I 


}^ 
O 

o 



o 

Eh 

< 

<y 






^ 

« 












> 

^ 

-< 
<•>» 



•<s> 

s 

I- 



^ 



i<b 






g ^ 



.^ 












<4J 






o o 






05 > 



CO 

o 



^ 



o 


<o 


^ 




'W 


•r«.i 


<^ 


?i 


#N 


^ 


•to 






g 
S 


•^ 
to 


O 


se 


^ 


o 


"4> 


5^ 


c3 


^ 


$t 


^ 


5^ 




;S 


c3 


!5 


c5 




c3 


o 




t-l 




M 




r* 


tf 


»^ 


o 


^ 




+J 


4:^ 


^ 


o 


o 


c3 


o 

OQ 




"A 



'to 

•<s> 

<4J 



5i 






be c3 



CO 

O 



O) 



O 



<4i 


M 


^_ 


g 




C 


-^ 


S 


2? 


cS 


r— 1 




S: 


CL 


O 


o 


cc 


S 


O 


•Si 



^ 



:3 
O 

Q 



•♦o 

c3 



O 



"•o 






S 



(D 

O) 

^ ^^ 

o "^ 

"•o J— .< 

<« 8 



"«o 

c3 ce ^ 

J? o ^ 






<^ 



OQ 



^ 3 






■♦o 

CO 



>i 



S C 



«o 



1^ 



!l II il ii II II II II II II II II II 



Eh 

m 



m 



!> 



t§ 






CD 



c S =3 ^ 








2» 




1^ 


V 


CO 












O »3 



<0 

O 
'to ?^ 
so ^ 

a. ift 
'^ ^ 






O 



c3 Q 



CO 

O 

O 



O ^ m u 
CO 5* 

"5i <to 



• rH <-< r< 



3 -»^ ^ i^ o 



s 

^s 

■o 



^2 .=! £i. 



■o u 



Q_, •-' > 



o 






o 



bJO 



>i 



^ bo o g 



13 

o 
o 



CO 

<^ 

»<) 

"»o 
CO 
<i5 



>i 



%:* ^^ 



Si ^ 



_, <D ^ 



O 



r^ O 
02 G 

5i .^" 



•G Q^ 

G o 



O 00 

CO ^ 



OQ 

a> 

r-t 

G 
o 

2 3? >-. 






^ 

3 



CO 

O 



bo «i 

G S OQ 

^ i=J o 



VIU 



BLACK-IiOAKD EXEKC1SE8. 



03 

o 



5: « 






?3 



O) 









t^6 






i>. ^ '^v ^ %S ~ 
»< -^ •>« ».a* lij >* o« 



Si S 
Si '"^ 

S rt ^ 



c3 












to 



« 5S « 



CO 

"to -I (M 



=3 a rO 






■K) 

C3 



CQ 



CO 

O 

r 



§ ss 



o s 



?-< S. S en 
•"l- ^^ 1^ ^ «2 

2 -' rH <N SS - 






^ 
3 
o 



C 
CO 

O 



o 

o 

>^ 



s 

CO 






-: o 



"to 



=0 ^ 






il '1 1! II II II 



Eh 
02 



<to 



'>> 



5^. 



I— 1 '-I 

fe Tl ■-':' r^ 

^ C^ aj '^ 

2 > ^ • = 









C? 














<;i 














»< 












1«i 


'be 


«0 




•JO 






Oa 


<%> 




*>• 








3 


(TO 






•* 




'a 


O 








+i 


r-i 


+^ 


■^ 


f^ 




OQ 


Si 


no 












•.s> 










.^-^ 




«0 










f^. 











■"■ ct 5 ^ 5 

r"', t> >— ,0 ru '^ 
tH p +J Vi c3 CO 






< 



5^ 



OQ 






o 

)2; 



Ol Pi CQ 



o 



to 

"^ o ^ ^ * 

Ji -r^ •*-» 1— < I— I 



c 
o 

H 
H 

o 



^ 



* 



© 



c^ 2 ^ 



I 

08 GO 



BLACK-BOAED EXERCISES. IX 

The war I| that for || a space || did fail || 

Now treb || ly thund | 'ring swell'd || the gale J 

And Stan || ley was || the cry || 
A light II on Mar || mion's vis || age spread || 

And fired || his glaz || ing eye 1| 




.5^ 




QQ 



to 



V rt 9 ;; 






A N A L Y S [ S . 

The Sobjkct, a beivg, existing or acting. 

Thk Pukdicatk, tlic cristcnce or action of the being. 

Of the Subject, quantity and quality. 
CosirLEMKNTS, \- Of the Predicate, manner^ time^ place ; 

i. e., /tow, wheuy where. 



•■\ 



{See paye IV.) 

" The Assyrian came clown like the wolf on the fold," is 
a Sentence, because it contains a Subject and Predicate. 

Assyrian is the Subject^ because its existence is predicated 
by ca?ne. 

Came is the Predicate, because it j^^edicates the existence 
of Assyrian. 

The is a comjylement of Assyrian, having no separate ex- 
istence, but holding a- collateral relation to Assyrian. 

" Like the wolf " and '^ ox tiie fold," are complements 
of came, qualifying it like adverbs of manner and place, 
{Like the wolf, adverb of manner / on the fold, adverb of 
flace ) 

"And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold," 
is a Sentence, containing a Subject and Predicate. 

ConorvTS is the Subject, because its existence is predicated 
by were gleaming. 

Were gleaming is the Predicate, because it predicates 
the existence of cohorts. 

His is a complement of cohorts, to which it holds a col- 
lateral relation. 

" Like purple " and " {lilie) gold," are complements of 
the predicate, expressing the manner in which the cohorts 
were gleaming. 

2^^^ The relation between Assyrian and came, as also 
that between cohorts and were gleaming, is correlative. 
The relation of the complements is always collateral. 



ANALYSIS. XI 

In order the better to elucidate the principle of Subject^ 
Predicate^ and Comj^leonents to the young schoLir, it is re- 
commended to the teacher to employ some simple sentence, 
containing a Subject that will be at once recognized by all 
the class ; and let both Subject and Predicate present a 
living exemplification^ that shall make an indelible impres- 
sion on the mind of the scholar. 

Let the teacher call up a boy, and form this sentence: 
" The small white boy stands there." 

Boy is the Subject^ because his existence is predicated by 
stands. 

Stands is the Predicate^ because it predicates the exist- 
ence of the boy. 

Small and ichite are complements of hoy^ to which they 
belong as adjectives holding a collateral relation. 

There is a complement of stwids, pointing out the place 
where the boy exists. 

"N'ow if the boy is dismissed, or sent out of the room, it 
will at once become apparent that the Subject of the sen- 
tence has disappeared, and with it, of course, all the rest 
of the sentence. 

Take, again, the sentence : " The black pencil rolls on 
the slate." 

Pencil is the Subject, having its existence predicated by 
rolls. 

Rolls is the Predicate, because it predicates the exist- 
ence of pencil. 

The and black are com^Dlements of pencil, to which they 
hold an adjective and collateral relation. 

On the slate is a complement holding a collateral and 
adverbial relation to rolls, and showing where the pencil 
exists. Hence, an adverb oi place. 

K. B. All that any predicate can predict, predicate, or 
assert of its subject is, that it exists, acts, or is acted upon 
(that is ; to be, to do, or to suffer.) 



Xll 



KEY TO ELACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



KEY TO THE BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



{Sec page 42.) 

eWhat^ 2 2 
[thati] {lig/U) 
[light^] (was) 
(light) [^wbich^] shone 
shone on^* Mighteous 
the^ Mighteous 
on Righteous'^ 
which shone® 
{light) of 13 light 

foreign^ light 
of Hght^ 
{light) was® 

alP® redundant 
reiiundant^ day 
day 2 was 
Righteous ^tliey^ needed 

they needed^o {which) 
needed not^^ 



{See page 42.) 

John2 rode 
John rode® 
rode for^* Jay^ 
two^ days 
for days"'^ 

t?ay5 [^which^] came 
{which) [came®] 
{came) together^^ 

{See page 44.) 

do do How^^ 
do^^ do 
John ^you^ do do 
you do do® 
(0)Jolin?3 



KEY TO METHOD OF CORRECTING SENTENCES. 



FALSE SYNTAX. 
{See page 45.) 

1. Objects charm. 

2. There remains. 

3. Piety and virtue consist. 

{See page 46.) 

4. Pains has been taken. ' 
6. Who raised. 

6. Faith removes. 

{See page 47.) 

7. Who will give. 

8. -He and ^/^.ey know. 

9 Precept nor disciplioe are 



TRUE SYNTAX. 

Variety charms. 
Points remain. 
Happiness consists. 

Pains have been taken. 

Raised whom. 

Patience and diligence remove* 

To whom. 

Know him and them. 

Precept nor discipline is. 



NEW INDUCTIVE GRAMMAR 



OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 



FOUNDED ENTIRELY ON THE PRINCIPLE 



OF RELATIONS: 



BY 

SOLOMON BARRETT, 

AUTHOR OP A SERIES OP GRAMMARS, ENGLISH, LATIN, GREEK, GERMAN, 
SPANISH AND FRENCH. 



"He brought in a new way of arguing by induction." — Baker. 
"One WORD belongs to another." — Barrett. 



BOSTOK: 
PUBLISHED BY BRADLEY, DAYTON & CO. 

1860. 




Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1858, 

By SOLOMON BARRETT, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Southern District of Oliio. 

Electrotyped at the Franklin Type Foundry, Cincinnati, O. 



PRINTED BY 
GEO. C. HAND ft AViinV. 



1 



PREFACE. 



The object and design of this work may be expressed 
in two words, Utility aud Progress. The author has 
aimed to make the work practically useful, by construct- 
ing it on those simple principles of Belations which 
existed antecedent to, and independent of any written 
treatise on Grammar. 

And by condensing and abbreviating all subjects of 
minor importance, by collecting and classifying various 
subjects under one general head, by avoiding, to a con- 
siderable extent, the discussion of those points about 
which grammarians differ, by preparing exercises in 
blank, to be filled and worked out by the student, thus 
teaching him to use the language correctly, the author 
flatters himself that he has succeeded in removing from 
the path of the student every obstacle of importance 
that miglit have obstructed his progress. 

The Tables (or Scales), Avhich have been prepared to 
exhibit the relations of words and phrases, may not im- 
properly be denominated The Constitution of English 
Grammar; because the parts of speech in Grammar are 
constituted by these Kelations, since every definition 
and rule (law) of Grammar, to be of any validity or 
force must he founded on, and conform to one of these Ee- 
lations; and, as the Tables contain the Supreme Laws 
of Grammar, every Eule or definition not based on these 
Kelative principles, is not only false, but null and void. 



(3) 




NOTE TO THE TEACHER. 



Let the scholars commence parsing at once. They 
should repeat the parsing lessons as given on page 32, 
and following, until they have committed them to 
memor}^ By this means, they will be led, almost at 
once, to a knowledge of the true relations of words, 
which constitute the whole framework of grammar, and 
on which alone the Rules and definitions are founded. 

The scholars are not expected to learn anything more 
than the ^^ coarse print ; ^^ though the accompanj'ing 
observations should always be read over a sufficient 
number of times to enable the student to answer the 
questions given at the bottom of each page, as they 
serve to give a better knowledge of the general subject. 

Let the teacher recollect that scholars learn more by 
oral instruction than by committing Rules to memory. 
They should be required to demonstrate a great num- 
ber of sentences on the black-board, after the manner 
of the Exercises given on page 29 and 38. 

It will be found a very interesting and instructive 
exercise to let the various classes unite in one, and jDarse 
in concert. The author has tried it with great success. 

The marked exercises, commencing on page 70, will 
be found of great benefit both to pupil and teacher; 
but one thing should be strictly borne in mind : 

Never allow a pupil to parse a word until he has 

GIVEN IT A relation, BY JOINING IT TO THE WORD TO 
WHICH IT BELONGS ; NOR TO LEAVE THE " BlACK-BOARD 
exercises" until THEY ARE PERFECTLY UNDERSTOOD.^ 

An ordinary term of tliree months is sufficient to 
communicate, to a child of common capacity, a good 
knowledge of the j^rinciples of grammar. 

* 

'"^ No Student, Teacher, nor Author is able to parse a word of 
whose relation he is ignorant. To give the relation is to parse. 

(4) 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Black-board is a modern invention, and is found 
to be of great practical utility, by enabling the teacher 
to hold a direct communication with his class, and 
daguerreotyping, as it were, the principles of an art or 
science directly upon the mind or brain of the student. 
For let it be remembered, that at the very moment the 
delineations or demonstrations are being made on the 
board, they are, at the same time, indelibly written on 
the brain of each student, not to be forgotten or effaced 
like impressions made on the board ; but which are to 
remain as part and parcel of his education as long as 
he lives. As the largest fortune is only the accumu- 
lated savings of years of industry, so the finest educa- 
tion is the result of the hoardings and savings of 
thought — the remembered impressions made on the 
brain through the medium of the five common senses, 
as the cause, manner or instrument by which the com- 
munication is made. As impressions made on the mind 
by seeing, are more important and lasting than those 
made by any other of the senses, the instructor or edu- 
cator should make a constant use of this faculty in 
communicating his instructions. 

Now, as the black-board is used to demonstrate almost 
every science or study taught at schools, except, as a 
general thing, that of English grammar, the author of 
this work has sought to remedy this defect by prepar- 
ing exercises especially for the black-board, and ar- 
ranging them in such a way that the pages tl.omselves 
represent the black-board, giving the exercises in blank, 
to be filled with pencil by the student, or transferred to 

(5) 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

the black-board itself, and there demonstrated in full. 
By this method tlio lesson is presented to the whole 
class at once, and the reason or relation on which the 
definitions and rules are founded becomes at once np* 
parent, being a deduction from the relations themselves; 
for every rule is reasonable if the reason on which it is 
founded is understood, and made the base on which the 
rule is to rest; for an arbitrary rule means nothiu/^ 
more, in the mind of the novitiate, than a rule resting 
on unknown principles. Hence it comes to pass, that 
students have, for ages, been learning "Rules" and 
"Definitions," both in arithmetic and grammar, with- 
out understanding the principles on which these Rules 
and Definitions are founded. The principle, origin, or 
foundation of a thing must be known before the rule or 
law of its nature can be understood. The relation is 
the SUBSTANCE : the rule or definition, the shadow of 
that substance. 

The only method to render the study of grammar 
inviting and interesting to children possessing reasoning 
faculties, is to communicate to them a true knowledge 
of the PRINCIPLES on which the science about to be 
taught is founded ; for no person ever becomes inter- 
ested in playing a game of draughts, chess, cards, etc., 
until he understands the principles of the, game; other- 
wise, he will be comj)elled to make all his moves, as it 
were, by chance, without any guide to direct him. ]S^o 
one becomes fond of fishing or gunning until he is ex- 
pert in those sj)orts. 

On receiving a new book, a child first looks for the 
pictures, for the simple reason that he can understand 
them, by comparing them (mentally) with the real ob- 
jects in nature which they represent. The comparing 
of any two objects, as a horse with the pticture of a horse, 
etc., involves a process of reasoning, and forming con- 
clusions. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

The object of arranging the words in columns, in the 
Black-board exercises, is to analyze the sentence before 
the student commences to parse it; for the mere act of 
placing the words in this position is the simplest plan 
of analysis, especially for children, that could be given; 
and gives the student a better opportunity of exercising 
his judgment in uniting the words again, according to 
their synthetic relation. 

Analysis is placing the ivords in a column. 
Synthesis is the reduplication of these words. 

The student will be guided in doubling these words 
by the natural relation which they hold to each other; 
for each word in a sentence has some other word or 
words with which it naturally unites itself, independent 
of arbitrary rules or laws. 

Let it be remembered that the separating of a sentence 
into icoi'ds, constitutes analysis^ (or etymology,) and the 
reunion of these words, so as to reproduce the original 
sentence, or to exhibit their grammatical relations, con- 
stitutes synthesis or syntax; and that a thorough know- 
ledge of analysis and synthesis renders the scholar a 
finished grammarian. 

It is not only desirable, but essentially necessary, that 
the teacher should pronounce each of these words sepa- 
rately, after the manner of spelling lessons, that the 
pupils may give it a relation by joining it to (speaking it 
with) some other word or words, to which it has a natu- 
ral dependent relation: on the 29th page 
the teacher pronounces: and the pupil responds: 

"The"— "TAesun" 

"sun" — "5w?i went" 

"went" — "sun icenV 

"down." "went ^oi^-n." 

"nor" "tho'sun went nor the carnage ceased." 

In this way any teacher that can teach a class to spell, 
can teach it grammar. 




THESES. 



1. TiJK Etymology of a word depends entirely on its 
Syntax, or relation to another Avord ; hence, a word 
that has no Syntax can have no Etymology : i. e.. be- 
fore any word becomes a part (of speech) of a sentence, 
it must be incorporated into that sentence of which it 
is a part. 

2. The Case of nouns and pronouns is that relation 
or position which tlic^^ have to another icord ; therefere, 
a word having no relation to any other word, is in no 
case or position whatever; as, nominative, man; posses- 
sive, man's; objective, man. Now, the word man^ as 
arranged above, is in no case, neither is it a '-part of 
speech y 

3. A word never becomes a noun or any other part 
of speech by being used technically, or independent of 
its meaning ; but by having the syntax of a noun (or 
other part of speech), as John is a scholar : is is a verb, 
THEM is a pronoun, in which John, is and them become 
nouns by having the syntax of nouns. 

4. Detached words, as arranged in the columns of 
sj)elling books and lexicons, are no parts (of speech or) 
of a sentence, until they are actually used in a sentence. 

5. Every word, before it becomes a part of speech or 
sentence, and before it can be parsed, must be connected 
to not more than two, nor less than one other word, 
called the single and doiiUe relation. 

Note. — The interjection being a virtual sentence, has no relation, 
except with the vocative or case independent. 



(8) 



PART I. 

PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE. 

9 

OF THE SUBJECT, PHEDICATE, AND COMPLEMENT. 



The Philosophy of Grammar is only that rehvtion 
"which exists between our ideas or modes of thinking, 
and the words used to expr<jgs such ideas. That is, a 
sentence is only the embodiment of our thoughts, and 
affords the best and only reliable means of tracing the 
origin of words. Tlie structure of a language being 
based on these mental operations, is, therefore, appli< 
cable to all languages, each of which is only a different 
method of expressing the same idea. 

Thoughts constitute ideas. 
Speech constitutes language. 

Language, derived from the Latin lingua, the tongue, 
is a succession of mental ideas expressed in words, and 
may be either spoken or written. 

As our ideas are of different kinds, so there are differ- 
ent kinds or classes of words, called Parts of Speech, 
used to express such ideas. 

In all operations of the mind, we either entertain a 
SINGLE IDEA,^' Or Compare tw^o ideas. The latter consti- 
tutes a Proposition. A Proposition is, therefore, a 
JUDGMENT of THE MIND, expressed in words. 

■*■ The expression of a sinjlc idea constitutes a simple sentence. 

(9) 



10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

A JUDGMENT of thc mind is an opinion. 

In forming an oj^inion, the mind naturally first sug- 
gests thc SUBJECT. The quality or description of the 
subject is called the attribute. 

Every subject must be in a state of existence or action; 
and this existence or action constitutes the predicate. 

A sentence or proposition is formed by the union of 
the subject and predicate. 

Subject. Predicate. 

John walks. 

Jessamine clambers. 

As a jiid^Tnent of the mind consists in comparing two 
ideas, so a proposition must consist of three parts: 1. 
The hciiKj or subject ; 2. The quality or atti'ibute ; and 3. 
A verb lo join tiie attribute to its subject. 

All words, besides the subject and predicate, found in 
a sentence are complements (or completements)^ and are 
joined to the subject or attribute to complete the sense. 

" The jessamine clambers, in flower, o'er the thatch." 

The^ in Jloicer, and o'er the thatch, are complements 
of jessamine and clambers. 

To analyze is to ascertain the different parts of which 
a thing is composed, and to reduce any compound to its 
simple elements. 

A sentence is comprised within a period, and. in 
written language, terminates at a full point or stop/'"^ 
Every sentence must contain, at least, one simple pro- 
position. 

Propositions or sentences are of two kinds, principal 
and dependent. 

Every being or subject contains and concentrates 
within itself the qualities^ the existence, the action and 



See division of sentences, page 181. 



PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE. 11 

wanner of acting which are afterward drawn out and ex- 
pressed by other words. 

(See frontispiece.) 

God is the subject. 

Hath spoken is the predicate. 

And every other word in the sentence is a complement 
of either the subject, God, or the predicate, hath spoken. 

God is the trunk ; and every other word or phrase is 
a branch of that trunk, and depends upon it for svp- 
port. The relative proposition, who spake at sundry 
times, etc., is a dependent complement of God, and has 
a direct relation to that word ; while the phrases, in 
these latter days, unto us, by his Son, are complements of, 
and hold a direct relation to the predicate hath spoken, 
and an indirect relation through that predicate to the 
subject God, expressing the time icheji, the person to 
ichoni, and the person hy ichom God hath spoken. Hence 
every word in the sentence has either a direct or indirect 
relation to God in the trunk. 

All the parts of speech are determined by a process 
of interrogation, in which each word, successively, be- 
comes the subject of the question. 

Thus : — The subject is found by interrogating the verb, 
as who hath spoken? answer, God. Hence, God is the 
subject, or nominative. To find the predicate, interro- 
gate the subject. What hath God done? God hath 
spoken. Hence, hath spoken is the predicate. By a simi- 
lar process of interrogation, each part of speech may 
be determined with precision, as it leads at once to the 
syntactic relation of tlw3 words. 

In anal^^zing a sentence, you should first reduce it to 

simple propositions. 

First Proposition. 
The jessamine clambers ia flower o'er the thatch; 

Second Proposition. 
And the swallow chirps sweet from her nest in tlie wall. 




12 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

And in analyzing a proposition, you should reduce it 
to its constituent parts by separating subject, jjredicate 
and complements li'om cacli other. 

Comp. Suhj. Predicate. Comp. Comp. 

The I jessamine | clambers | in flower [ o'er 'the thatch. 

Comp. Suhj. Predicate. Comp. Comp. Comp. 

And the | swallow | chirps | sweet | from her nest | in the wall. 

Some tense of the verb to he (i. e., existence*) is always 
^expressed or understood in every proposition, coui^ling 
the predicate to its subject, and is called the copula of 
the proposition. 

Subj. Cop. Predicate. Suhj. Cop. Predicate. 

Jessamine 1 is | clamb'ring. || Swallow | is I chirping. 



EXERCISES, IN ANALYSIS. 

"The jessamine clambers in flower o'er the thatch, 
And the swallow chirps sweet from her nest in the wall," 

Is a compound sentence, containing two propositions, 
the first ending at the word thatch, and the second com- 
mencing with and. 

[Read the first proposition, and determine the subject 
by interrogation. What clambers? Answer (syntax or 
relatio7i), jessamine clambers.] 

Jessamine, the subject. 

[AYhat does the jessamine do? Ans. (rel.), the jessa- 
mine clambers.'] 

Clambers, the predicate. 

[The what? Ans., the jessamine.] 

The is a complement of jessamine. 

[What is in flower ? Jessamine is in flower.] 

In flower, a complement of jessamine. 

* See definition of yerbs, page 103. 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 13 

[Where clambers the jessamine ? O'er the thatch.'] 
O'er the thatch, complement of clambers, 
[What chirps? Ans. iSwalloio chirps.] 
Swallow, the subject. 
[What does the swallow ? Chirps^ 
Chirps, the predicate. 
[How chirps the swallow? Siveet (ly)-] 
Sweet (??/), complement of ehirps. 
[Where does she chirp ? From her nest.] 
From her nest, complement of chirps. 
[Where is (or was) the nest ? In the icall.] 
In the wall, complement of the verb is or was under- 
stood, (i. e., the nest which is or was in the wall.) 



" God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake, in times 
past, unto the fathers by the prophets, hath, in these latter days 
spoken unto us by his Son," 

Is a compound sentence, divided into two propositions 
by the word who. (See frontispiece.) 

[Who hath spoken ? God hath spoken.] 

God, the subject. 

[What hath God done ? God hath spoken.] 

Hath spoken, the predicate. 

[Who was the God ? Ans. God, 



Who, at sundry times and ^ 
in divers manners, 

SPAKE, in times past, unto 
the fathers, by the 
prophets.] 



Hence, all this is a com- 
plement of the word God, 
to which it is joined by 
the relative Who, in order 
to bound or describe that 



noun. 

The prepositional phrases, in these latter days, unto us, 
by his Son, are all complements of hath spoken. 

And, at sundry times, in divers manners, in times past, 
unto, the fathers, by the prophets^ are all complements of 
the verb (^predicate) spake. 




14 ENGLISH URAMMAll. 

" The vessel, wliile tlic dread event draws nigli, 
Seems more impatient o'er the waves to fly," 

Is {I compound sentence, divided into simple propositions 
by the word while. 

Vessel, principal subject. 

Seems, princij)al 2^redicate. 

Event, dependent subject. 

Draws, dependent predicate. 

The. complement of vessel. 

While the dread event draws nigh, complement of 
to fly. 

More impatient, complement of seems. 

O'er the waves, complement of to fly. 

To FLY, complement of seems. 



" Fate spurs her on " 
Is a simple sentence. 
Fate, the subject. 
Spurs, the predicate. 
Her and on, complements of spurs. 



" Thus issuing from afar, 
Advances to the sun some blazing star; 
And, as it feels the attraction's kindling force, 
Springs onward with accelerated course," 

Is a compound sentence, divided into propositions by 
and, and as. 

Star, subject of the entire sentence. 

Advances and Springs,* principal 2)redicates. 

Thus issuing from afar, complement of star.\ 

To THE sun, complement of advances. 

* If we consider '•'■and springs onward^'' etc., a complement of ad^ 
vances, springs will be a dependent predicate, 
t Connected by the participle. 



EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS. 15 

Some, blazing, complements of sta?'. 

As IT FEELS THE ATTRACTION'S KINDLING FORCE, Comple- 
ment of springs. 

The attraction's kindling force, complement of feels. 

Onward, complement of springs. 

"With accelerated course, comj^lement of springs. 



"But,"* 0,t thou sacred power, -whose law connects 
The eternal chain of causes and eifects, 
Let not. thy chastening ministers of rage 
Afflict with sharp remorse his feeble age," 

Is a compound sentence, separated into propositions by 
the relative ichose, etc. 

Power, independent subject. 

Thou (understood)^ principal subject. 

Let, principal predicate. 

Sacred, complement of power. 

Whose law connects the eternal chain of causes 
and effects, complement of power. 

Law, dependent subject. 

Connects, dependent predicate. 

The, eternal, complement of chain. 

Chain, complement of connects. 

Of causes and effects, complement of chain. 

Not, complement of let. 

Thy, chastening, complements of ministers. 

Ministers, complement of let. 

Of rage, complement of ministers. 

(To) afflict, with sharp remorse, his feeble age, 
complement of let. 

With sharp remorse, complement of afflict. 

His feeble, complements of age. 

Age, complement of afflict. 

* But, as an adverb, qualifies let, and belongs to tliat sentence, 
t The interjection has no relation. 



16 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

"Full many a glorjous flower and stately tree 
Floats on the ruthless tide, whose unfelt sway 
Moves not the mire that stagnates at the bottom," 

Is a compound sentence, separated into simple proposi- 
tions by dividing at the words whose and that. 

Flower and tree, principal subjects. 
Full many a glorious, complement oi flower. 
And stately, complement of tree. 
Floats, principal predicate. 
On the ruthless tide, complement of floats. 
The, Euthless, complements of tide. 
Whose unfelt sway moves not the mire, complement 
of tide. 

Unfelt, complement of sicay. 

Sway, dependent subject. 

Moves, dependent predicate. 

Not the mire, complement of moves. 

That stagnates at the bottom, complement of mire. 

That, dependent subject. 

Stagnates, dependent predicate. 

At the bottom, complement of stagnates. 



I 



*' The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming with purple and gold ; 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
When blue waves roll nightly on deep Galilee. 

"Like the leaves on the forest, when summer is green, 
That host with their banners at sunset were seen ; 
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn has blown, 
That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. 

" And there lay the steed with his nostril spread wide, 
But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride ; 
And there lay the rider, distorted and pale. 
With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail. 

" For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast, 
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed ; 
And the eyes of the sleeper waxed deadly and chill; 
Their hearts but once heaved and forever grew still." 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



17 



( The figures refer io the Table of Relations^ page 28.) 

Subject. Predicate. Complement. 

Assyrian 2 "the''l 

CAME 9 " down " 12 " like 14 the wolf," " on i* 

the fold," 



(avd^-') 
Cohorts 2 



Sheen 2 



( Vrlien 1(3) 
Waves 2 



Host 2 



Summer 2 
Host 2 



(Tr/ienlC) 

AUTUM^- 2 



(andlQ) 
Steed 2 



(ButlG) 
Breath 2 



(anc/lO) 
Rider 2 



(For 10) 

A.N GEL 2 



(and 16) 
.2 



"his "5 
WERE GLEAMING^ " with 14: purple and gol(?J" 

" the," 1 " of 13 their spears." 
WAS LIKE 10 '' stars G on l* the sea," 

"blue"l 
ROLL 9 " nightly," 12 on 14^ deep Galilee. 

"that"l 
WERE SEEN 11 "atl* sunset " "with 14 their ban- 
ners," "like 14 leaves," "on 14 the 
forest." 




IS 9 (green) 
LAY 9 

HAS BLOWN 
LAY 9 

ROLLED 9 
LAY 9 

SPREAD 10 



BREATHED 9 

2 



" green," l 

(iVo complement.) 

" that," 1 "■ withered," 1 " strown." 1 
"on 14 the morrow," " like 14 leaves," 
"of 13 the forest." 

(Ho com^ilement.) 
(i\^o complement.) 

"the"l 

"there," 12 with 14 his nostril spread 
wide;" 

"the,"l "of 13 ills pride." 

"not," 12 " there," 12 u tJirough 14 it," 

" the," 1 " distorted ' and 15 pulc^l 
"there "12 "with 14 tlie dew " "onU- 

his broAV," "and ( — 14) the rust 

on 14 his mail." 

"the,"l "of 13 death" 

" his wing," G " on 14 the blast ; " 

(No complement.) 
" in 14 the face of the foe," 



18 



Subject 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 
Predicate. Complement. 



(as 16) 
He 2 



Eyes 2 



Hearts 2 * 



(andlG) 
. 2 



PASSED ;9 

■WAXED.9 
HEAVED d 



(iVb complement.) 
(No complement.) 

" the," 1 '' of 13 the sleeper " " deadly 
and chill ; 1 

(No complement.) 

"their "5 

" but once " 12 



(No complement.)' 
GREW 9 STILL " forever " 12 



" His house Tras known to all the vagrant train ; 
He chid their -wand'rings, but relieved their pain : 
The long-remembered beggar was Lis guest, 
Whose beard descending, swept his aged breast; 
The ruined spendthrift, now no longer proud. 
Claimed kindred there, and had his claims allowed. 



Subject. 
House 2 

He 2 



(But 16) 

.2 



Beggar 2 
Beard 2 
Spendthrift 2 



(%nd) 
.2 



Predicate. Complement. 

'"his"l 
WAS KNOv>^x.ll "toll all the vagrant train;" 

CHID 10 



(No complement.) 
" their wand'rings,''' 6 



(No complement.) 
RELIEVED 10 " their pain :" 6 

" the," 1 " long-remembered " 
WAS 9 HIS GUEST 2 (pred. suhj.) 

" whose," 1 " descending," 1 
" his affed breast. '"6 



SWEPT 10 



CLAIMED 10 



HAD 10 



" the," 1 " ruined," 1 now no longer 

proud," 1 
" kindred," 6 " there," 12 



(No complement.) 
" his claims 6 allowed." 



Note. — In these exercises, we make use of the word complement 
instead of either adjunct or modifier.^ as denoting more correctly tlie 
class of words which hold a relation to the subject or predicate. Any 
word may be an adjunct, since all words are joined together., or hold a 
relation to one another; and no words are modifiers except the aux- 
iliary verbs, which serve to point out the various moods., etc. 



BLACK-BOAED EXERCISES. 
" One word belongs to another" 



19 



Sentences : 

[See plate, page 33.] 

I. — The midnight moon serenely smiles 
O'er nature's soft repose; 
No low'ring cloud obscures the sky, 
Nor ruffling tempest blows. 

II. — ^Now every passion sinks to rest; 
The throbbing heart lies still; 
And varying schemes of life, no more 
Distract the lab' ring will. 

III. — In silence hushed, to reason's voice 
Attends each mental pow'r; 
Come, dear Amelia, and enjoy 
Reflection's favorite hour. 

IV. — Come, while the peaceful scene invites, 
Let 's search this ample round — 
Where shall the lovely fleeting form 
Of happiness be found ? 







ANALYSIS. 






First Verse. 


Subject. 


Predicate. 


Complements. 


Moon 


SMILES 


the, midnight 

serenely, o'er nature's soft repose. 


Cloud 


OBSCURES 


no, low'ring 
the sky 




["Nor ruffling tempest blovs " is a de- 
pendent conjunctive proposition, connected 
to the preceding sentence hv tlie conj. no?- ; 
the relation being : cloud obscures sky nor 
tempest blows.'] 



20 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



Subject. Predicate. Complements. 

Tempest Nor rufllini; 



BLOWS 



(No complement.) 



Passion 
Heart 



Schemes 



SINKS 



LIES 



Second Verse. 

every 

now, to rest, 

tlie, throbbing, still 

[No complement.) 

[" And var3'ing schemes of life no nio'.c 
distract the lab' ring will" is a dependent 
conjunctive complement of '■'■Heart //cs.'J 



varying, and of life, 
DISTRACT no more, and the lab' ring will. 



Power 
( ThoUtY' 



(Thou.y^ 



ATTENDS 



COME 



ENJOY 



Third Verse. 

each, mental. 

In silelice, and to reason's voice. 

dear Amelia t 

(No complement.) 

[" And enjoy reflection's fav'rite hour," 
dependent and conjunction, relation to 
'■'■come thou.'"^ 

{No complement.) 
Reflection's fav'rite hour. 



(ThoUfY^ 
Scene 
(Thou,)* 
Form 



Fourth Verse. 

(No complement.) 
come while the peaceful scene invites 

the, peaceful 
INVITES (us) understood. 

{No complement.) 
LET US to search this ample round 

the, lovely, fleeting, and of happiness 
SHALL BE FOUND Where. 



"-■'j Uiiflersteocl. 

t Amelia is the predicate subject, in the case independent. 



ADDITIONAL EXERCISES. 21 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES TO BE ANALYZED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH THE PRECEDING EXAMPLES. 

1. Not a drum was heard, 

2. Nor a funeral note ; 

3. As his corse to the rampart we hurried. 

4. Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero we buried. 

5. We buried him darkly, at dead of night, 
The sods with our bayonets turning ; 

By the struggling moon -beam's misty light, 
And our lanterns dimly burning. 

6. No useless coffin enclosed his breast, 

7*. Nor in sheet, nor in shroud we bound him ; 

8. But he lay like a warrior, taking his rest, 
With his martial cloak around him. 

9. Few and short were the prayers we said j 

10. And we spoke not a word of sorrow ; 

11. But we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead, 

12. And we bitterly thought of the morrow. 

13. We thought 

14. [As we hollowed his narrow bed, 

15. And smoothed down his lonely pillow,] 

16. That the foe would be rioting over his head, 

17. And we ( ) far away on the billow. 

18. Lightly they '11 talk of the spirit 

19. That 's gone, 

20. And, o'er his cold ashes, upbraid him; 

21. But nothing he '11 reck 

22. If they let him sleep on, in the grave where a 

Briton has laid him. 

23. But half of our heavy task was done 

24. When the clock tolled the hour for retiring, 

25. And we heard the distant random gun, 

26. That the foe was sullenly firing. 




22 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

27. Slowly and sadly wo laid liim down, 
From the field of his fame, fresh and gory ; 

28. We carved not a line. 20. Wc raised not a stone; 
30. But left him alone in his glory. 



Great Ocean ! too, that morning, thon the call 

Of restitution hcardst, and reverently 

To the last trumpet's voice, in silence, listened. 

Great Ocean ! strongest of creation's sons, 

Unconquerable, unreposed, untired. 

That rolled the wild, profound, eternal bass 

In Nature's anthem, and made music, such 

As pleased the ear of God ! original, 

Unmarred, unfaded work of Deity, 

And unburlcsqued by mortal's puny skill, 

From age to age enduring and unchanged) 

Majestical, inim.itable, vast, 

I^oud uttering satire, day and night, on each 

Succeeding race, and little pompous Avork 

Of man. Unfallen, religious, holy Sea! 

Thou bowedst thy glorious head to none, fcaredst none, 

Heardst none, to none didst honor, but to God 

Tliy Maker, only worthy to receive 

Thy great obeisance ! Undiscovered Sea ! 

Into thy dark, unknown, mysterious caves, 

And secret haunts, unfathomably deep 

Beneath all visible retired, none went, 

And came again, to tell the Avonders there. 

Tremendous Sea! what^time thou lifted up 

Thy waves on high, and with thy winds and storm.s 

Strange jDastime took, and shook thy mighty sides 

Indignantly, — the pride of navies fell ; 

Beyond the arm of help, unheard, unseen. 

Sunk friend and foe, with all their wealth and war. 



grammar; 



Grammar, as a science, treats of the relation 
which letters^ words and phrases hold to each 
other. 

And a grammarian is one who nnderstands 
that relation, and is able to unite Ins icords in 
such a manner as to speak and write the English 
language with propriety. 

J^OTE. — Principle, from the Latin principium, the begin- 
ning, signifies the origin, beginning, or commencement 
of any art or science : hence the beginning and the end 
— the alpha and omega — of the principles of grammar 
are contained in the simple diction that 

ONE WORD BELONGS TO ANOTHER. 

This must be true ; for to make a word a definite part 
of speech, it must be joined to some other word, as 
shown in the table of relations. 

A SPEECH 

Is a combination oftoords, forming a sentence or a 
proposition ; as, '^ God made the world." 

A PART OF SrEECII 

Is any single word, having one of the twenty-one 
relations contained in the table of relations, page 
28. There are eight parts of speech, as follows : 



What is grammar? What is a grammarian? What is the meaning 
and derivation of the word principle ? What is a speech ? What is a 
part of speech ? How many parts of speech are there ? 

(23) 




24 ENGLISH GPtAMMAR. 

Nouns, names of persons, i)laccs and things. 

Adjectives, quality or extension of nouns. 
Pronouns, words used for nouns. 
Yerbs, existence or action of nouns. 

Adverbs, manner of existing or acting. 

Prepositions, words placed before nouns or pronouns. 
Conjunctions, words used to connect words or sentences.' 
Interjections, exclamations, having no relation. 

Mr. Murray, after having defined the parts of speech, in liis gram- 
mar, accompanies his definitions "with this very just and philosophical 
observation : — 

" The preceding definitions and observations may assist the learner, 
in some degree, to establish the diircrcnt parts of speech; but it 
"would be far more interesting to him if he should be able to make out 
the part of speech from Us just nature a}id application." 

By NATURE and application, Mr. Muri-ay meant nothing more than 
the true relation of words, which is exhibited in the " table of rela- 
tions." Hence, to constitute any word a certain and definite part of 
speech, it must have the nature jlnd ajyplication (i. e., relation) of such 
part of speech; for every one of the eighty thousand words in the 
English language must have one of the relations given on the Table. 



GENERAL ORDEll OF PARSING. 
THE NOUN. 



IS a noun, or name. 



f Common, general name. 
( Proper, appropriated name. 

r Masculine gender, denotes males. 
■I Feminine gender, denotes females. 
(^Neuter gender, denotes neither sex. 

i" First person, denotes the speaker. 
Second person, denotes 'the person spoken to. 
Third j)erson, denotes the person sj^oken of. 

What are the parts of speech and their definitions ? What is meant 
by the nature and application of a part of speech ? What relation must 
every word in the language have ? What is the order of parsing a 
noun ? (repeat the order of parsing.) 



GENERAL ORDER OF PARSING. 25 

r Singular number, denotes but one object. 
I Plurul number, denotes more than one. 

( ^Nominative case, subject of the verb 

I Possessive case, possessing the noun 



Objective case, governed by the preposition _ 
Accusative (objective) case, gov'd by the verb. 
Independent (vocative) case, addressed. 
^Absolute case, before the participle 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

is an adjective, and belongs to 



THE PRONOUN. 
' is a (relative or personal) pronoun, stand- 
ing for with which it agrees in gender, person 

and number, case.* 

THE VERB. 

.-^ is a verb, expressing existence or action. 

f Eegular, it forms its past tense in ed. 

I Irregular, it will not form its past tense in ed. 

C Transitive, it governs an object. 

} Intransitive, it does not govern an object. 

(_ Passive, having a passive nominative. 

" Indicative, it declares. 

Potential mood, implies possibility. 
< Subjunctive mood, expresses uncertainty. 

Imperative mood, used to command. 
^Infinitive mood, exj)resscs unlimited action. 

^ Present tense, represents present time. 

Perfect tense, represents present time completed. 

Imperfect tense, represents past time. 

Pluperfect tense, represents past time completed. 

First future, represents future time. 
^Second future, represents future time completed. 

AVhat is the order of parsing an adjective ? A pronoun ? A verb? 



* Case of the pronoun is like that of the noun. 
3 




26 ENOLTSIT CTIAMMATI. 

C First person, Ring, or plu.. to a^rcc with 

-J Second person, sing, or plu., to agree with . 

(^ Third person, sing, or plu., to agree with 

THE ADVERB. 

is an adverb, and qualifies 

THE PREPOSITION. 

is a preposition, governing , and 



giving its phrase an , relation to 

THE CONJUNCTION. 



is a conjunction, connecting and 

THE INTERJECTION. 

is an interjection, having no relation. 

THE AUXILIARIES. 

is an auxiliary verb, forming the , 

mood and tense of 

is an aux. adjective, qualif^nng , 

is an aux. adverb, qualifying 

is an aux. preposition, qualifying 



THE PARTICIPLE. 

is a participle ; as an adjective it belongs 

to ; and as a verb is in the person, 

and number, to agree with 



RELATION. 

Avoiding, on the one hand, the technicalities of the 
Greek and Roman rhetoricians, and, on the other, the 
parrot-like systems of many modern authors, we have 



What is the order of parsing an adverb? A preposition? A 
conjunction? An interjection? The auxiliaries? The participle? 
What should we avoid in preparing a grammar ? 



RELATION. 27 

constructed a Table of Relations, whicli shall be a 
measure for every word and sentence, not only in Eng- 
lish, but in all other languages. This table will measure 
words with the same mathematical accuracy that the 
pound weight will measure all ponderous quantities, or 
the gallon measure, liquids ; for, as the pound weight 
is the standard of measure for gravity, and the foot- 
rule the standard for all distances, so is this table a 
complete measure for the parts of speech. 

Every word in the language forms an equation with one of 
the words on the table; and as the plan of parsing is such 
as to compel the student to compare every word he 
parses with the corresponding word on the table, and 
to form a conclusion for himself, the study of grammar 
becomes, in effect, mathematical or algebraical ; for as 
there is always an equation between the pound weight 
and the quantity that it balances, (equates or equals,) and 
as the only reason why a piece of cloth is a yard long, 
is because it is just as long «5* a yard measure, so the 
only reason why any word is a part of si^eech, is be- 
cause it holds a relation to some word in the sentence 
where it occurs, corresponding to that already given on 
the table. 

Let the words in the table be represented by A (as 
known quantities) , and the words in the sentence about 
to be parsed by X as unknown quantities. 

Now, if JT = A — the unknown quantity becomes 
known — the word is parsed, and the equation justified. 

*.4« — (W {Equality — i. e., comparison.) 




28 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



A TABLE 

EXHIBITING ALL THE RELATIONS OP WORDS IN THE 
ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

CoLD^ day. -A.dj., belonging to 

Man 2 walks. Noun, nom. case to 



O Man, '^ " case independent. 

Man ^ being killed. *' case absolute. 

Man's ^ horse. " possessive case. 

Saw Man. ^ " obj. (accusative) case. 

To Man. "^ IS^oun, obj. case, gov'd by 

John, He^ (is). Pronoun, standing for 

John Is.^* Yerb, intransitive 

Scott Conquered^** Mexico. " transitive. 

Mexico Was conquered." " passive. 

Moves Slowly.^2 Adverb, qualifying . 



(Book) Of^'* fate. Preposition, adj. relation.- 

(Smiles) O'er^"* repose. " adverbial relation. 

Two And^^ three. Conj., connecting words. 

, ^ i Or ^^ he may go. " connecting sentences. 

Alas ! " Interjection ; no relation. 

Can ^^ go. Auxiliary verb. 

Extremely ^^ cold. Auxiliary adjective. 
Yery^ swiftly. Auxiliary adverb. 
Almost ^^ to. Auxiliary preposition. 



Note. — Every one of the eighty thousand words in the English lan- 
guage, when arranged in a sentence, will take the place of, and, of 
course, become the same part of speech as one of the twenty-one words 
in the foregoing scale. 



■^ The infinitive has a relation to that word which immediately pre- 
cedes it, in construciion. The participle has the 1st relation as an ad- 
jective, and either the 9th, 10th or 11th, as a verb. 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 29 

" One word belongs to another J^ 



Sentence. 
The Sun went down ; nor ceased the carnage there- 
Tumultuous murder shook the midnight air. 

Syn-[Analysis.] thesis. 
The^ 

Sun 2 



-went^ 
-down j" 
jior^ 



.16 



.ceased^ 



the 



carnage ^ 



.there. ^^ 



Tumultuous ^ 

murder^ 

-shook ^® 



the 



midnights 
-air.^ 



Note. — Fill the blank with pencil, to give each word its relation. 




30 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 
" One word belongs to another." 



SECOND ANALYSIS OF THE WORDS ON THE PLATE. 



adj., and belongs to moon, 
adj., and belongs to moon, 
noun, noni. to smiles, 
adv., qualifies smiles, 
intr. v., agrees with moon, 
prep., governs repose, 
noun, poss. before repose, 
adj., belongs to repose, 
novn, object of o'er, 
adj., belongs to cloud, 
adj., belongs to cloud, 
noun, nova, to obscures. 
ir. verb, agrees with cloud, 
adj., belongs to sky. 
noun, object of obscures. 

f conj., connects cloud obscures tky 

\ and tempest bloxos. 
adj., belongs to tempest, 
noun,, nom. to blows. 

f intr. v., iRREG. 3d pers. sing., and 

1 agrees with tempest, 
adv., qualifies sinks, 
adj., belongs to passion, 
noun, nom. to sinks. 

jintr v., IRREG., 3d pers. sing., and 

1 agrees with passion. 
prep., governs rest, 
noun, obj., governed by to. 
adj., belongs to heart, 
adj., belongs to heart, 
noun, nom. to lies. 

f intr. v., IRREG. 3d pers. sing., and 

1 agrees with fieart. 
adj., belongs to heart. 

f conj., connects heart lies and 

1 schemes distract will, 
adj., belongs to schemes, 
noun, PLURAL, nora. to distract 
prep., governs life, 
noun, obj. governed by of. 
adv., qualifies distract. 

f tr. v., 3d pers. plural, and agrees 

1 with schemes. 

adj., belongs to will, 
adj., belongs to will, 
noun, object of distract. 





Thet moon 




midnight 1 moon 




moon 2 srniles 


smiles 


serenely 12 


moon 


smiles,i> 


smiles 


O'erl'l repose 




nature's 5 repose 




softl repose 


o^er 


repose ; 7 




Nol cloud 




low'ringl cloud 




cloud 2 obscures 


cloud 


obscures lo sky 




thei sky 


obscures 


sky,6 


cloud 


obscures sky 
tempest bloivs. . 


nor 16 




ruffling 1 tempest 




tempest 2 blows 


tempest 


blows,9 


shiks 


Now 12 




evex"y l passion 




passion 2 sinks 


passion 


sinks •>> 


sinks 


tol* rest 


to 


rest; 7 




Thel heart 




throbbing 1 heart 




heart 2 lies 


heart 


lies 9 




still 1 heart 


heart 


lies and 16 ") 
distract will J 


schemes 




varying 1 schemes 




schemes 2 distract 


chemes 


of 13 life 


of 


life 7 


distract 


no more 12 


schemes 


Distract 10 will | 
the 1 will 






lab'ringi will 


distract 


will 6 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



SI 



hushed 


In 14 silence 


in 


silence,7 




hushed 1 power 


attends 


to i-i voice 




reason's 5 voice 


to 


voice 7 


power 


attends 9 




eachl power 




mental l poioer 




power 2 attends 
Come,9 1 


(thou) 




dearl Amelia 



SECOND ANALYSIS OF THE WORDS ON THE PLATE. 



prep., governs silence. 

noun, obj. governed by in. 

adj., belongs to power. 

prep., governs voice. 

noun, poss. before voice. 

noun, obj. governed by io. 

inir.v., 3d sing., to agree y^Wh. power. 

adj., belongs to power. 

adj., belongs io power. 

noun, nom. to attends. 
f verb, irreg. intr., imp. mood, 2d 
1 PERS. SING., to agree with thou. 

adj., belongs to Amelia, 
(noun, prop, fern., 2d pers. sing., 

1 CASE IND. 

jconj., connects (thou) come and 

( (do thou) enjoy hour. 

f tr. v., reg. imperative, 2d pers. 

1 sing., to agi'ee with thou, 
noun, poss. before hour, 
adj., belongs to hour, 
noun, object of enjoy. 

f intr. v., irreg. imp., 2d singular, 

1 agrees with thou, 
adv., qualifies invites. 
adj., belongs to scene, 
adj., belongs to scene, 
noun, nom. to invites. 
tr. v., agrees with scene, 

f tr. v., irreg. imperative, 2d sing. 

1 agrees with thou, 
pron., object of let. 
tr. v., infinitive, governed by us. 
adj., belongs to round, 
adj., belongs to round, 
noun, object of to search. 

adv., qualifying shall he found. 

aux. verb, joined to he found. 

adj., belongs to form. 

adj., belongs to form. 

adj., belongs to form. " 

noun, nom. to shall he found. 

prep., governs happiness. 

noun, obj. governed by './. 

auz. verb, joined io found. 
f pa^s. verb, irreg. indie, future, 3d 
1 pers. sing., to agree with form. 



( 0) Amelia,3 

(do thou) come and 16 ") 
(do thou) enjoy hour J 

(thou) enjoy 10 hour \ 

Reflection's 5 hour 
fav'rite l hour 
enjoy hour.6 

(thou) Come 9 

invites while 12 

the 1 scene 
peaceful 1 scene 
scene 2 invites 

scene invites 10 (us) 

(thou) Let 10 us 

let 8 us 

us (to) search 10 round. 
this 1 round 
ample 1 round 

search round ;6 

shall be 
found 

shall 18 be found 
the 1 form 
lovely 1 form 
fleeting 1 form 
form 2 shall be found 

form ofi'^ happiness 

of happiness 7 

be 18 found 



I Where 12 




32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



PARSING FROM THE PLATE. 



Belatiorij midnight moon. 
1 * Midnight — is an adjective, and belongs to 



Eule 1. — Every adjective belongs to a noun or pro- 
noun ; as 

Helation, moon smiles. 

2 Moon — is a noun, or name ; 

common, a general name ; 
feminine gender, by personification ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one ; 
nominative case to the verb ^ 



Eule 2. — The nominative case is the subject of the 
verb J as, . 1 

Belation, moon smiles. 
9 Smiles — is a verb, expressing existence ; 

regular, it forms its past tense in ed; 
intransitive, having no object, 
indicative mood, simply indicates or declares; 
present tense, represents present time ; 
third person singular, to agree with 

Eule 9. — A verb agrees with its nominative case in 
number and person ; as, 

Belation, smiles serenely. 
12 Serenely — is an adverb, and qualifies " 
Eule 12. — Adverbs qualify verbs ; as, 



* All words on the plate, marked 1, are adjectives, and parsed like 
midnight. All words marked 2 are in the nominative, and generally 
parsed like cloud. For reference to the other figures, see Table of re- 
lations and definitions, page 28. 



ENGLISH SYNTAX. 



33 




The figure 2 dways denotes the subject; 9, 10 and 11 mark the predicate; all 
other numbers denote the coMPLE^iEiiTS, 



34 PARSING FROM THE PLATE. 

Belation, smiles o'er repose. 

14 O'er — is a preposition, governing , and 

giving its phrase and adverbial relation to 

Rule 14. — Prepositions give their phrase an adverbial 
relation to the preceding verb or participle ] as, 



delation, IN'ature's repose. 

5 ^Nature's — is a noun, or name ; 

common, a general name ; 

neuter gender, denotes neither sex ; 

third person, spoken of; 

singular number, denotes but one object; 

possessive, possessing the noun . 

Eule 5. — The possessive case possesses a noun; as, 

's 



jRelaiiojij o'er repose. 

7 Eepose — is a noun, or name ; 
common, a general name; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex ; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, it denotes but one object ; 
objective case, governed by the prep. 



Bule 7. — Prepositions govern the objective case ; as, 



EelatioUy cloud obscures. 
2 Cloud — is a noun, or name ; 

common, not applied to individuals ; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, it denotes but one ; 

nominative case to the verb 

(Bule 2.) 

Belatiorij cloud obscures sky. 

10 Obscures — is a verb, denoting action ; 
regular, it forms its past tense in ed; 
transitive, governing the object ; 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 85 

indicative mood, simply indicates or declares ; 
present tense, represents present time ; 

third j)crson singular, to agree with 

{Rule 9.) 
Relation^ obscures sky. 

6 Sky — is a noun, or name ; 

common, a general name ; 
neuter gender, it denotes neither sex; 
third person, spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one object ; 
- accusative* (ohj.) case, governed by the trans, 
verb 

Eule 6. — Transitive verbs govern the accusative (ob- 
jective) ; as, 

Relation^ cloud obscures sky nor tempest blows. 

16 Nor — is a conjunction, connecting the sentences 
.^ NOR 



Rule 16. — Conjunctions connect words or sentences ; 
as, (conj.) 



ANALYSIS OF THE REMAINING VERBS. 

Relation ; tempest blows, passion sinks, heart lies. 

9 Blows, sinks and lies are each parsed like smiles, 
with the exception of the second line, which must be 
read: 

IRREGULAR, it does NOT form its past tense in ed. 

Relation ; schemes distract will 

10 Distract is parsed like obscures, except in the last 
line, which should be read : 

Third person plural, to agree with schemes. 

{Rule 9.) 

* We have called this case accusative, after the manner of gram- 
mars in all other languages, to distinguish it from the object of the 
preposition ; but the teacher may retain the old name, if preferable. 



36. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Belation ; (do thou) come. 

9 Come — is a verb, denoting existence; 

irregular, it does not form its past tense in ed; 
intransitive, having no object, 
imperative mood, used for commanding, en- 
treating, etc. 
second person singular, to agree with thou. 

{Rale 9.) 
Relation ; (do thou) enjoy hour. 

10 Enjoy — is a verb, denoting action ; 

reguhir, it forms its past tense in ed. 

transitive, governing the object ; 

imperative mood, used for commanding, en- 
treating, etc. 
present tense, represents present time; 

second person singular, to agree with 

(Rule 9.) 

Relation; (thou) let us. 

10 Let is parsed like -enjoy, except; 

IRREGULAR, it will NOT fomi its past tense in ed. 

Relation ; happiness shall be found. 

11 Shall be found — is a verb, expressing action re- 

ceived ; 

« 

irregular, it will not form its past tense in ed; 
passive, having a passive nominative ; 
indicative mood, it simply indicates or declares; 
future tense, rej)resents future time ; 

third person singular, to agree with 

(Rule 9.) 

Relation ; us to search round. 

10 To SEARCH-^is a verb, denoting action ; 

regular, forms its past tense in ed; 

transitive, governing the object 

infinitive mood, expresses unlimited action ; 
present tense, represents present time ; 
governed by 

Rule 10. The infinitive mood is governed by the pre- 
ceding word, in construction ; as, to 



PARSING FROM THE PLATE. 37 

Relation ; schemes or life. 

13 Of — is a preposition, governing , and giv- 
ing its phrase an adjective relation to the noun 

Eule 13. Prepositions give their phrase an adjective 
relation to a noun ; as, , , 

Relation ; O Amelia. 

3 Amelia — is a noun, name of a person ; 
proper, an appropriated name; 
feminine gender, denotes a female ; 
second person, spoken to ; 
singular number, denotes but one ; 
Case independent. 

Eule 3. — All nouns of the second person are in the 
case independent. 

THE blackboard EXERCISES. 

Ko grammarian ever transposed a word or filled an 
ellipsis, except to give to the word which he is about to 
parse one of the 21 relations contained in the Table on 
the 28th page of this book, as this is the only possible 
way to make any word a part of speech. Filling the 
blanks in the following exercises is nothing more than 
transposing and filling the ellipsis. If this is correctly 
done, the scholar will find no difiiculty in parsing his 
words, by referring them to the table of relations, and 
seeing that they have relations corresponding to those 
contained in the table. 

jg^^-Ijet the teacher put the following questions on 
EACH WORD in the exercises : — 

1 1. What is the word about to be parsed? 

2. What other word or words must be joined to it to make 
it a part of speech? 

3. Which of the 21 relations does it take ? 

4. What part of speech is it in consequence of that rela- 
tion ? 



88 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 
" One word belongs to another.'^ 



Sentence. 



The war, that for a space did fail, 
Now, trebly thund'ring, swelled the gale, 
And "Stanley" was the cry, 
A light on Marmion's visage spread, 
And fired his glazing eye. 



Syn-[Analtsis.] tax. 

The I 

war,* 

8that2 

for »* 

a» 



space 7 

did 18 

fail,9 
now, '2 
trebly '2 
thund'ring,» . 
[thund'ring,]9 
swelled '^ 

the» 

gale,6 



And 16 



Stanley 2 
was 9 
the» _ 
cry.2 _ 
Ai 



lights 

on J4 

Marmion's & 

visage? 

spread.9 



Parsing. 

adj., belongs to 

noun, nom. to 

pron., standing for 
prep., and governs 
adj., belongs to 



noun, obj. governed by 
aux. verb, joined to 
intr. verb, agrees with 

adv., qualifies 

adv., qualifies 



1 int. verb, agrees with 

- tr, verb, agrees with 

- adj., bslongs to 

noun, object of 



conj., connecting 

noun, nom. to 

intr. verb, agrees with 

adj., belongs to 

noun, nom. after 

adj., and belongs to 

noun, nom. to 

prep., governs 



noun, poss., before 
noun, obj., governed by 
intr. verb, agrees with 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 
" One word belongs to anoiherr 



39 



Sentence. 



With dying hand above his head, 

He shook the fragment of his blado 

And shouted victory ! 

' Charge, Chester, charge ! On, Stanley, on ! 

Were the last words of Marmion." 



Syn-[Analtsis,] tax. 



And 16 



With 14 

dying 1 

hand 7, 
above 14 

8 his 5 

head,7 

8 He 2 

shook 10 

thei 

fragment 6 

ofi3 

8 his 5 

blade 7 



shouted 10 
" Victory ! " 6 
" Charge,9 
Chester,3 
charge ! 9 
On I * 12 
Stanley,^ 
on ! " * 12 
Were 9 

thei 

lasti 

words 2 

of 13 

Marmion .7 



Parsing. 
Prep.^ governs hand. < 

adj., and belongs to hand, 
noun, objective governed by with. 

■ prep., governs head. 

p. p. poss. case before head, 
noun, object of above. 
p. p., nom. to shook. 
tr. v., agrees with he. 
adj., belongs to fragment, 
noun, objectG of shook, 
prep., governs blade. 

■ P- P'i poss. case before blade, 
noun, objective governed by of. 

. conj., connects shook and shouted. 
tr. v., agrees with he. 
noun, object of shouted, 
int. V. im., agrees with thou, implied. 
noun, independent case. 
in. v.. im., agrees with thou, implied* 
adv., agrees with press, implied. 
noun, independent case. 
a!dv., agrees with press, implied. 
in.vb., agrees with preced'g clause.t 
adj., belongs to words, 
adj., belongs to words. 
noun, nom. after were, 
prep., governs Marmion. 
noun, obj. governed by of. 



* Theso words may also be considered as interjections or verbs in the imperative 
mood. By the above synthetical connection thoy are regarded as adverbs, qiialifjing 
nrge or prcs?, imdcrstood. 

t Or with " words " following. 




40 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 
" One word belongs to another.^' 



Sentence: — "They food, thoy quaff; and now, their hunger fled, 
Sigh for their friends devoured, and mourn the dead." 



8 They 2 
feed, 9 
8 they 2 . 
quaff; 9 



now, 12 
8 their 5 . 
hunger 4: 
fled, 1 



and IC) 



I 



[fled.O] 
sigh 9 
for 14 _ 



j 



8 their 5 

friends 7 

devoured, 1 _ 
[devoured] '>> 



mourn 9 
thel _ 



and IG 



dead, 7 



pron., nora. io feed. 

inir. v.^ agrees with they. 

pron., nom. to quaff. 

intr. V.J agrees with they. 

(conj.j connects they quaff and 
(^ [they) sigh, 
adv., qualifies ^ec?. 

pron, poss. before hunger. 

noun, abs. case before fled. 

part.^^^'^'' ^®^0°g3 *<* hunger. 

\intr. V.J agrees with which. 

inir. verb, agrees with they. 

prep., governs friends. 

pron., poss. before /nencfe. 

noun, obj. governed hy for. 

1 j3^^^ Mi-, belongs to //-iencfe. 
j \in. v., agrees with who. 

conj., connects (they) sigh and 
(they) mourn. » 

inir. v., agrees with they. 

adj., belongs to dead. 

noun, obj.,' governed by /or.* 



} { 



Sentence: — John went almost to Boston." 



John 2 _ 
wento 
almost 21 
to 14 



Boston. 7 



noun, nom. to went, 
inir. v., agrees with John, 
aux. prep., joined to to. 
prep., governs Boston, 
noun, obj. governed by to. 



■■■ Governed by for, understood — Mourn for the dead, as mourn is intransitive, and 
can not govern an object. 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 
" One word belongs to another^ 



41 



Sentence: — '^Cold duty's path is not so blithely trod." 



Coldi - 
duty's 5 
path 2 _ 

is 18 



not 12 

so 20 _ 



blithely 12 
trod. 11 



adj., belongs to duty's. 
noun, poss. before ^aiA. 
noun, nom. to is trod, 
aux. verb, joined to trod, 
adv., qualifies is trod, 
aux. adv., joined to blithely, 
adv., qualifies trod, 
pass, verb., agrees with path. 



Sentence: — "0, how bitter a thing it is to look 

Into happiness through another man's eyes!" 



0,17 
how 19 
bitter 1 
ai . 



thing 2 _ 

8 it* 2 _ 

is 9 

to look 9 

Intol* - 



happiness 7 
through 1* _ 
another 1 — 

man's 5 

eyes 1 7 



Interjection, no relation. 
aux. adj., joined to bitter, 
adj., belongs to thiny. 
adj., belongs to thiny. 
noun, nom. to is. 
pron., nom. to is. 
intr. v., agrees with thiny. 
in. v., inf., governed by is. 
prep., governs happiness, 
noun, objective governed by into. 
prep., governs eyes, 
adj., belongs to man^s. 
noun, poss. before eyes, 
noun, object of through. 



It stands for thbig, and is used in apposition with it. 




42 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



TJl 




^ 




xn 


^ 


1— 1 


t^ 


u 




P5 


o 


w 


i 


M 


o 


W 


60 

5» 




s 


« 


o 
u 


P5 


rO 


<ti 




o 




M 


<u 


1 


S 


fc4 


O 


o 


- 


< 




^ 




FQ 





•a 



d 

u 
o 

O 



o 
o 



^ 
'^ 



o 

C3 CO 



•54 






c3 



o 
el 
o 



O 

s 

o 



a 

o 



c3 



to 



CO 



t> 
o 

CI 
e3 



fcJD 



e3 



a> 

o 
to 



d) 



o 



03 



O .pH .rt -i-l 

e3 



e 

g 



=3 

cc 



be 

S 
o 



fl 


o^ 


c3 


s 




o 


02 


V 








r< 


<» 

-< 


•S^ 




K 



r ^ 



to 



S C 



a> 

a 

t-l 



tD 

c; 



CO 

a 



o 
to 

(3 
e3 



fl ^ 



TS 

E3 



o 



p- 


r^ 


o 


• f^ 


fcC 


^ 


aT 


m 


m 


o 


e3 


a> 


u 


fcJO 


t- 


e3 



bO 

a 
o 



e3 



•73 
c3 



faC 

c 



CO 



.2 =3 



^ .2 



g 


M 


•S^ 


'^ 


<u 


-< 




•S> 




bb 



■73 

CO 

a 



^ 



o 
J?? 



c3 



bC 



-d -C 



o 



S=^ *- «s 

bC tl *^ 

o •>-< s 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



43 






o 



too 


O 

PI 

c3 



a 
o 

'a 
e3 









73 

CO 



c3 






bO 

OS 

CO 

B 



73 



a 

o 



1=1 

C3 



bO 

O) 



03 

• i-H 
r— < 

e« 
13 
O^ 

73 

c3 






o3 


CO 


a 




•fH 


03 


OT 




_«J 


<JJ 


<li 




-« 


<i> 





5* 

"Si 

O 



=0 

o 



O 



03 



73 
CO 



O 



o 
bO 



^ <^ 



be 



bo 



T3 
CO 



a 

o 
bC 



be a 






i: M CQ 

a "^ ^, 



bC 

d 
o 



be 



a> 


rC2 


»M 


73 


. 


d 


> 


o3 


73 

03 


iH 



d 
»— < 
ft 

73 
CO 



^ 



be 

c3 
bb 

d 



73 

CO 
ft 

a 



73 

d 

rd '^ 

^ d 

CO "^ 
4) . 

oj be 

^ <x> 
be t 



d 

-^ 

d 

o3 



M « 



o3 c3 



8 



•^ 
o 
K 



.2 '-2 



d 


63 


03 






_oe 


CO 










CO 


o 


2^ 


^ 


-§ 



5^ 
5» 



d 

73 

d 

3 

73 
<U 



03 
73 



1 ^ 



(M 



(35 



S 



d 0) 

rd 73 

o o o 



c3 
73 



4> 

bO 

o 



44 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

" One word belongs to another." 



Sentence: — " How do you do, John?" 

How 12 adv., and qualifies do. 

do 18 aux. verb, joined to do. 

8 you 2 pron., nom. to do. 

do/«> intr. v., and agrees with you. 

John ? 3 noun, case independent. 



Sentence : — " Few and short were the prayers we said." 
Few 1 adj., belongs to prayers. 

and 15 conj., connecting few and short. 

short 1 adj., belongs to prayers. 

were 9 inir. v., agrees with prayers. 

the 1 adj., belongs to prayers. 

prayers 2 noun, nom. to were. 

8 we 2 pron., nom. to said. 

said. 10 ir. verb, agrees with we. 



Sentence : — " It is but as if he should say, I know you not." 

It 2* pers. pron., nom. to is. 

is 9 intr. v., agrees with it. 

but 12 adv., qualifies is. 



as 16 1 — conj., connects it is and it is. 

if ic t conj., connects — (see note.) 

8 he 2 pron., nom. to should say. 

should 18 aux. verb, joined to say. 

say, 10 J tr. v., agrees with he. ■ 

812 _ . — p, p,^ nom. to know. 

know 10 tr. v., agrees with /. 

. 8 you 6 pron., object of know. 

not. 12 adv., qualifies know. 

* It is, impers. verb. It stands for the subsequent clause. " as if he should say," etc. 
t " It is AS it is," or as it would be if, etc. If connects (as) it would be if he should 
$aij, etc. 
X Say governs the clause ^'IJcnow you not.'^ 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 



45 



METHOD OF CORRECTING FALSE SYNTAX. 



Sentence: — "A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. 



Ai 



variety 2 
of 13 



pleasing i 
objects 7 
charm lo 

thel 

eye. 6 * 



adj., belongs to variety, 
noun, nom. to charms, 
prep., governs objects, 
adj., belongs to objects, 
noun, obj. governed by of 
verb, agrees with variety, 
adj., belongs to eye. 
noun, object of charms. 



Sentence: — " There remains two points to be considered." 



There 12 
remains 9 
twol 



points 2 



to be considered. H 



adv., qualifies remain. 

verb, agrees with points. 

adj., belongs to points. 

noun, nom. to remain. 

pass, verb, infin,, gov'd by remain. 



Sentence: — "In piety and virtue consist the happiness of man." 

— In 11 prep., governs piety. 

piety 7 noun, obj. governed by m. 

and 15 conj., connects piety and virtue. 



virtue 7 
consist 9 
thel 



happiness 2 
ofi3 



man. 7 



noun, obj. governed by in. 
verb, agrees with happiness, 
adj., belongs to happiness, 
noun, nom. to consists. 
prep., governs man. 
noun, obj. governed by of. 



* False Syntax — "Objects charm." True Syntax — " 0/ objects''^ and ^^ variety 
CHAUMS." By giving each word its true eyntax, the error will appear, and the student 
can correct with a pencil. 




46 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 
FALSE SYNTAX. 



Sentence: — "Great pains has been taken to make this work 

useful." 



Great 1 

pains 2 

has been taken H 

to make "^•' lo 

thisi 



_ work 6 
usefuhl 



adj., belongs io pains. 

noun, nom. to have been taken. 

pass, verb, agrees with pains. 

tr. verb, infin. governed by taken. 

adj., belongs to work. 

noun, object of to make. 

adj., belongs to work. 



Sentence: — "The man, who he raised from obscurity, is dead." 



Thei _ 
man,2 — 
s who 
8 he 1 2 _ 
raised 10 
from 1* - 



. obscurity,? 
is 9 
dead.l 



adj., belongs to man. 
noun, nom. to is. 
pron., object of raised, 
pronoun, nom. to raised, 
tr. verb, agrees with he. 
prep., and governs obscurity, 
noun, objective governed by from, 
inir. v. agrees with man. 
adj., belongs to man. 



Sentence: — "Patience and diligence, like faith, removes moun- 
tains. 



Patience and ) 
diligence 2 J 

likell 



faith 7 
removes 10 



mountains.6 



nouns, nom. to remove. 

prep., governs faith. 

noun, objective governed by like. 

f tr. verb, agrees with patience and 
\ diligence. 

noun, objective of remove. 



*•■ That 18, to render. 

f He stands Im ■person, understood. Who (corrected, tjoTiom) stands for man. 



BLACK-BOARD EXERCISES. 47 

FALSE SYNTAX. 



Sentence: — " Wlio will you give that pen to?" 

_ 8 Who* 7 pro7i., obj. governed by to. 

Trill 18 auz. verb, joined to ffive. 

- 8 you * 2 pron., nom. to will give. 

_ give 10 tr. verb, agrees with you. 

thatl adj., belongs to pen, 

- pen 6 7ioun, object of give. 

- to ? 1* pre'p., governs whom. 



Sentence: — "He and they we know." 

■ 8 He* 6 pron., object of know. 

and 15 conj., connects him and them. 

. 8 they * <> pron., object of know. 

8 ^e '■• 2 pron., nom. to know. 

know.lO ir. verb, agrees with we. 

Sentence: — ''Neither precept nor discipline are so forcible as 

example." 

Neither 1 1 cor. conj. or adj. belonging to precept. 

precept 2 noun, nom. to is. 

— — — nor 15 conj., connect'g precept & discipline. 

discipline 2 noun, nom. to is. 

are J 9 intr. v., agrees yfxih. precept. 

so 19 aux. adj., belonging to forcible. 

forcible § 1 adj., belongs to discipline. 

'. — as II 16 conj., connects 



example.2 noun, nom. to is. 



* stands for person or persons, understood. 

t As an adjective this word qualifies ^recep< or discipline. As a conj., it connects the 
two words. See page 139 and 141. 

t Either precept or discipline, singly, is the nominative. 

g " Forcible disciplined^ or ^'' forcible precept. ^^ 

\ As connects j>rec<2;« (or discipline) is {forcible) AS example {is forcible.) Supply the 
ellipses. 




48 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 



The following exercises arc arranged in such a man- 
ner as to cover the whole ground of English philology ; 
and, if they are carefully gone over by the student, they 
can not fail to lead him to a perfect knowledge of all the 
'principles of the language. But, in order to do this 
effectually, all the exercises should be disposed, of in 
accordance with the principles of relation on page 28. 
That is, every sentence must be written out on the 
black-board, after the manner of the example on page 
29; and every word should be numbered and equated 
with the table on page 28, by reduplicating the words. 

Each exercise should be transcribed into a blank-book, 
which, being a review of the whole subject, will serve to 
fix the lessons more permanently on the memorj- of the 
student. The book, thus prepared, may be used for fu- 
ture reference. 

In analj'zing these exercises, the teacher should ask 
the following general questions : — "What is the sentence ? 
Is it principal or dependent? Simple or compound? If 
dependent, how connected ; by a word of the 8th or 16th 
relation ? What is the subject? What is the predicate ? 
What is the complement of the subject? What is the 
complement of the predicate? What is the word about 
to be parsed ? What other word or words must be 
joined to it to make it a definite part of speech? Which 
of the 21 relations does it take ? What part of speech 
is it in consequence of that relation? On what page is 
the corresponding number and example for parsing this 
word ? (Page 32-4-5-6.) 

If the exercises are gone over thoroughly, in exact 
accordance with the above plan, they can not fail to per- 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 49 

feet the "scholar in a knowledge of grammar, and to 
enable him to understand all the rules, definitions, etc., 
contained in the second part of this work, even before 
he shall have read them ; although it is proper that 
the student should study the second part, while going 
through these exercises in the first part, so that theory 
and PRACTICE may be combined. 




ON THE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. 

Lesson I. ^ 

1 A^ high^ walP stands^* by ^* the^ road-side J 

2 A^ young ^ man^f wrote ^" J a^ large ^ book.^ 

3 The^ broad ^ green ^ leaves ^§ of^^ the^ trees' make^° 

a' fine^ shade.® ^ 

4 The^ large,^ black,^ iron ^ stove ^ stands^ on^'' the^ 

floor.' 

5 The^ river ^ runs^^ slowly ^^ by^^ the^ high^ moun- 

tains.7 

6 Manyi people ^g think i°T[ the^ earth ^ is^ not^^ 

round.^** 

7 The^ sky^ is^ blue.^ The^ road^ is^ wide.' 

8 The^ roan^ horse^ is^in" the^ pasture.'^ 

9 Good^ boys^g love^°T to study ^° Hheir^ lessons.® 

Lesson II. 

1 Where ^2 ig9 John's ^ book?^ « j^ 2 [^9 ^^u ii^^i 

table."' 

2 James !^ have^^ ^you^ learned^" ^your^ lesson?^ 

* Parse like blows, f Parse like Amelia, except common, mascU' 
line gender^ Sd person, and nominative case. 

X Like obscures, except irreg. and imperfect tense. § Plural. 
^ Governs the following phrase as an object. 
** Adj., belongs to earth. 
5 



50 ENGLISH ailAMMAR. 

3 Ycs,« Rir,3 ft « 1 2 have '^ learned '» « it.« 

4 ^Your^ lesson" being learned, ^you^ may'^ S^^Xt 

and play.^ 

5 A^ good* conscience^ fears'" nothing.*' 

6 Devotion 2 promotes'" and'^ strengthens'" virtue.^ 

7 Knowledge 2 gives'" happiness® to'" solitude.^ 

8 Bad' habits 2 require'" immediate' reformation." 
' 9 Economy'-^ is^ no' disgrace.^ 

Lesson IIL 
l.Good' and'^ wise' men^ only,'^ can'® be^JJ real' 
friends.^ 
02 James ^ performs'" ®his^ part® well.'^ 

3 Evil' communications 2 corruj^t'" good' manners.® 

4 Deep' rivers^ move^ with'" silent' majesty;" but' 
small ' brooks ^ are ^ noisy.' 

5 Many' people ^ form'" conclusions® before'® ^they^ 
have'^ fully '2 considered'" -the' subject.® 

6 Some' persons^ affect'" haughty' manners.® 

7 Pride,^ perceiving'-'" humility® honorable,' often '^ 
borrows'" ^her^ cloak.® 

Note. — The large figures, numbering the sentences, are for the con- 
venience of reference; and the small figures attached to the words 
refer to the Table of Relations, page 28. 



MODEL FOR THE FORMATION OF VERBS. 

Transitive^ intransitive^ and passive. 
Lesson IV. 

1 God created the world. 

2 Columbus discovered America. 

3 "We heard a drum. 4 The table supports a book. 
5 Milton wrote a poem. 

tt ^<?5, an adv., and qualifies have learned. Si?', common noun, 2d 
person, case ind. 
Xt Potential mood. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 61 

6 "Washington liberated his country. 

7 A good conscience will make a man happy. 

8 Yice degrades learning, obscures the luster of every 
accomplishment, and sinks us into universal contempt. 

INTRANSITIVE. TRANSITIVE. PASSIVE. 

World WAS. God created world. World was created. 

America was. Columbus discovered America. America was discovered. 
Drum WAS. We heard drum. Drum was heard. 

Book is. Table supports book. Book is supported. 

Poem WAS, Milton wrote poem. Poem was wrAten. 

Country was, Washington liberated country.Country was liberated. 
Man WILL be. Conscience will make man. Man will be made. 
Learning is. Vice degrades learning. Learning is degraded. 

Luster is. Vice obscures luster. Luster is obscured. 

We are. Vice sinks us. We are sunk. 



MODEL FOR PARSING THE PRECEDING VERBS. 
Melation, world was. 

Was is a verb, irregular; intransitive, having no ob- 
ject ; indicative mood ; imperfect tense ; third person 
singular to agree with world. (Rule 9.) 

Belation, God created world. 

Created is a verb, regular; transitive, governing 
world; indicative, imperfect, third person singular, to 
agree with God. (Rule 9.) 

Relation, world was created. 

Was created is a verb, regular ; passive, having a 
passive nominative ; indicative mood, imj^erfect tense, 
third person singular to agree with world. (Rule 9.) 

Note. — The above model of parsing the transitive verb, and chang- 
ing it into its intransitive and passive form, is of the utmost impor- 
tance, and should be practiced by the scholar during all his exercises 
through the grammar, in order to acquire a thorough knowledge of the 
formation of verbs; for unless the scholar forms these passive verbs 
for himself, he will not meet with a sufficient number of them in the 
pieces of poetry, etc., usually selected for parsing, to lead to a thorough 
understanding of their nature. 




52 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



Transitive Verb, 
Lesson V. 

1 A good conscience will make^° a man happy. 

2 Application in the early period of life, will give ^'' 
happiness and ease to succeeding years. 

3 Dissimulation degrades ^° learning, obscures ^° the 
luster of every accomj)lishment, and sinks ^° us into uni- 
versal contempt. 

4 If w;e lay ^® no restraint upon our lusts, no control 
upon our appetites and passions, they will hurry '° us 
into guilt and misery. 

5 Indolence undermines'" the foundation of every 
virtue, and unfits ^° a man for the social duties of life. 

Intransitive Verb. 
Lesson VL 

1 A virtuous education is^ a better inheritance than a 
great estate. 

2 He that swells^ in prosperity, will shrink ** in ad- 
versity. 

3 You must not always rely^ on promises. 

4 Friendship can scarcely exist^ where virtue is® not 
the foundation. 

5 From idleness arises® neither pleasure nor advan- 
tage : we must, therefore, flee ® from idleness, the certain 
parent of guilt and ruin. 

6 The evidence of a man's education exists® in his 
conversation and writings. 



RELATION OF THE VERBS IN 
Transitive. 
Conscience will make man. ' 
Application will give happiness. 
Dissimulation degrades learning. 
Dissimulation obscures luster. 
Dissimulation sinks us. 
We lay restraint. 
They will hurry us. 
Indolence undermines foundation. 
Indolence unfits man. 



LESSON V AND VL . 
Intransitive. 
Education is. 
That SWELLS. 

He will SHRINK. 
You MUST RELY. 

Friendship can exist. 
Virtue is. 
Idleness arises. 

We MUST FLEE, 

Evidence exists. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 63 

Passive Verbs. 
Lesson VII. 

1 Yirtue must be formed ^^ and supported ^^ by daily 
and rej)eated exertions. 

2 You may be deprived" of honor against your will. 

3 Yirtue is connected" with eminence in every lib- 
eral art. ^ 

4 Many are brought" to ruin by extravagance and 
dissipation. 

5 The best designs are often ruined " by unnecessary 
delay. 

6 All our recreations should be accompanied" by vir- 
tue and innocence. 

7 All difficulties may be overcome " with diligence. 

8 Some talents are buried" in the earth. 

9 True pleasure is only to be found " in the path of 
virtue. 

10 Our most sanguine prospects have often been 
blasted " by sudden and unexpected reverses. 

11 The table of Dyonysius, the tyrant, was loaded " 
with delicacies of every kind. 

12 All our actions should be regulated" by religion 
and reason. 

NOTES ON THE ABOVE VERBS. 

(Must — is an aux. verb, forming the pot. pres, of form. 
BE — is an auxiliary, making the verb passive. 
FORMED — verb, passive, potential^ present. 

Must be supported, analyzed like the above. 
May be deprived, analyzed like the above, 
f Is — -an aux. verb, forming the indie, pres. passive voice. 
1 connected — verb ; passive, indicative, present. 



[ 



Are brought — verb; vass^yve, indicative, present, {plural.^ 
Are ruined — verb ; passive, indicative, present, [plural.) 
Should — aux, verb, forming the pot. imperfect tense. 

BE — aux. forming the pot. imperfect passive voice. 

ACCOMPANIED — vcrb, FAS. potential, imp. 

May BE OVERCOME ; (like must be formed.) 
Are buried ; [like are ruined.) 




54 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



To — aux., forming the infinitive present, 

BE— aux., forming the passive voice. 

FOUND — verb; passive, infinitive present. 

Have — aux. verb, forming the indicative perfect. 

BEEN — aux. verb, forming the passive voice. 

BLASTED — verb ; passive, indie, perfect. 

Was — aux, verb, forming the indie, imp. passive voice. 

LOADED — verb; passive, indicative, imperfect. 

Should be regulated ; {like should be formed.) 



EXERCISES ON THE MOODS AND TENSES. 
Auxiliary Verbs. 

Lesson VIII. 

Note. — The Auxiliary Verbs are used to form the moods and tenses 
of other verbs. They are, have, do, he, shall, mil, may, and can, with 
their variations; and must, which has no variation. These auxiliary 
verbs are confined to a certain mood or tense, as shown on the table 
of conjugation, page 121. 

1 John walks to church. 

2 The boys do study grammar; and they have stu- 
died for a long time. 

3 David destroye^Z the note, after he hadi sold the 
land. 

4 I sliall go to New York next week. 

5 They will return in a short time. 

6 They will have completed their lessons by two 
o'clock. 

7 Present arms ! 8 Forgive us our trespasses. 

9 He may have spoke?i to my friend. 

10 You should pay respects to your father. 

11 She might have loved him. 

12 If it rain to-morrow I will come. 

13 Tjf I see him, I will speak to him. 

14 If he has left the city, I shall not see hirii. 

15 7/" he were loved, he would consider himself happy. 

16 Were he loved, he would be happy. 

17 Had he paid attention to my counsel, he would 
have been safe. 

18 He is willing to study his lesson. 

19 He was known to have left the city."' 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 55 



NOTES TO THE AUXILIARIES, ETC. 

PRESENT. PAST. FUTURE. 

s, do. have. ed, had. shall, will, shall have. 

1 John walks — 5 makes the verb walks j indicative 
mood, PRESENT tensCj third person singular, 

2 Boys do study — do forms the indicative mood, pre- 
sent tense, of study. 

2 They have studied — have is an auxiliary, making 
the verb studied, indicative perfect. 

3 David destroy-e<i — ed (contraction of did; as destroy- 
did, or did destroy, and denotes that the act of destroying 
is done or passed,') making the verb to which it is at- 
tached, indic. imperfect. 

3 He had sold — had (past tense of have) is an aux- 
iliary, forming the indicative, pluperfect, of sold. 

4 I shall go — shall, auxiliary verb, forming the indi- 
cative mood, FUTURE tense of go. 

5 They will return — will, auxiliary, forming the in- 
dicative mood, FUTURE tense of return. 

6 They will have completed — will, an auxiliary, ex- 
pressing future time ; and have denotes the perfect. 
Hence, will have denotes a future action that will he per- 
fected at a certain time; and forms the indicative, fu- 
ture PERFECT, third person plural of completed, 

7 ( Ye ) present arms — imperative mood. 

8 You can write — can, as an auxiliary, makes the word 
icrite in the potential, present, expressing possibility. 

9 He may have spoken — may, denotes possibility ; and 
have denotes a present completed action. May have forms 
the POTENTIAL perfect of spoken. En, at the termination 
of the verb spoken, shows it to be irregular. 

10 You should pay — should (past tense of shall) forms 
the POTENTIAL IMPERFECT oi pay. 

11 She might have loved — might (past tense of may) 




56 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

denotes possibility ; have, denotes past time : might have, 
forms the potential mood, pluperfect tense, of the verb 
love, 

12 If it rain — If is the subjunctive conjunction, mak- 
ing the verb rain in the subjunctive mood, pre.sp:nt tense, 

14 If ho Aas- left — If in the subjunctive conjunction, 
making the verb left in the subjunctive mood; and has 
is an auxiliary verb, forming the perfect tense. 

15 If he icere loved — If denotes subjunctive mood; 
and icere forms the imperfect tense, passive voice. 

17 (7/) he had paid — had, by its position, shows the 
omission of •?/, and makes the verb in the subjunctive 
pluperfect. 

18 Willing to study — to is an auxiliary, forming the 
infinitive mood, present tense. 

19 Known to have left — to forms the infinitive mood ; 
and have makes it in the perfect or past tense. 



ANALYSIS OF THE VERBS. 

The following method of analj'sis is in accordance 
with the author's plan of analyzing Latin and Greek 
verbs ; and determines the mood and tense of a verb at 
once, not by a tedious and prolix conjugation, but by the 
form of the verb itself. 

It will be seen that the person and number of a verb 
are always determined by the nominative case, since the 
verb in English, unlike other languages, has no changes 
of termination to denote person and number, except in 
the second person singular, which takes t or st ; and the 
third person singular of the indicative present only, 
which takes s. 

The auxiliaries always denote the same thing in the 
same combination : thus, have^ as an auxiliary, always in- 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 57 

dicates the perfect; — shall or will denotes future time; — 
did or ed denotes the imperfect ; -ing, as a termination, 
indicates the present participle, when joined to the prin- 
cipal verb, and when used with the auxiliary, merely 
shows it to be part -of the participle, the tense of which 
is pointed out by some other termination of the princi- 
pal verb. 

• Any part of the verb to he^ when used as an auxiliary, 
always indicates the passive voice, and, in some of its 
variations, serves also to point out the mood and tense. 
Let the student go over these exercises thoroughly, 
before committing the tables of conjugation, and he will 
find, when he does come to learn them, that he is already 
familiar with all their changes, so that their acquisition 
will only require a slight effort of the memory in order 
to recollect their general arrangement. 



METHOD OP ANALYZING VERBS IN THE FOLLOWING 
* EXERCISES. 

3d plu. pot. past. perf. pas. verb. reg. 

They might have been discover - ed. 

Discover — the verb. 

- ed — makes the verb regular. . 

been — denotes the passive voice. 

have — expresses the perfect tense. 

might — the potential past. 

(might have, potential past perfect, or pluperfect.) 

they — third person plural. 

Note. — Commencing at the right hand^ or end of the verh^ it will be 
seen that the verb is in the word discover ; it is made regular by the 
termination ed; the passive voice is in the word been; the perfect 
tense is in have; the pot. past is in might; and the person and num- 
ber in the pronoun they. 




58 ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

Analysis of Verbs. 
Lesson IX. 

1st sing, verb ind. pres. 

1 I hold a pen. 

2(1 sing, verb ind. pres. 2d sing. 

2 Tlioii BEHOLD - ST the sun. 

3d sing. V. ind. pr. 3d sing. 

3 Ho HEAR - s a noise. 

1st plu. V. ind. pr. 

1 We EMPLOY servants. 

2d. plu. V. ind. pr. 

2 You recommend the measure. 

3d plu. V. ind. pr. 

3 They steal horses. 

1st s. ind. pr. verb. 3d s. ind. pr. verb. 

I do love my book. He does not regard his word. 

1st plu. ind. pres. verb. 

We do not despise our servants. 

Ind. pr. 1st s. verb. Ind. pr. 2d sing. verb. 

Do I see my friend? Dost thou repent? 

1st s. ind. imp. verb. 

I did not write a letter. 

3d plu. ind. imp. verb. 3d s. verb. ind. imp. reg. 

The citizens did receive him. He lov - ed his country. 

3d plu. ind. perf. verb. reg. 3d sing. ind. perf. verb. 

They have just return-ed. He has gone to school. 

Ind. perf. 2d. sing. verb. 1st sing. ind. plup. verb. ir. 

Hast thou seen the man. I had tak-en advice. 

2d sing. ind. plup. verb. ir. 3d plu. ind. fat. verb. ir. 

Thou hadst know-nme. They shall soon retur-n. 

Ind. fut. 2d sing. verb. 1st sing. ind. fut. verb. 

Shalt thou quaff the wine? 1 will know the worst. 

Ind. fut. 2d sing. verb. 8d sing. ind. fut. perf verb. 

Wilt thou hear my voice ? He will have seen you. 

2d sing. ind. fut. perf. verb. reg. Pot. pres. 1 st sing. verb. 
Thou shalt have listen-ed. May I recite my lesson? 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 59 

3d sing. pot. pr. verb. 2(i s. pot. past perf.* verb. 

He can tell the story. Thou might have done better. 

1st s. pot. perf. verb. 3d sing, pot. imp. verb. 

I may have been there. He should speak truth. 

Subj. 3d sing, verb pr. Subj. 2d plu. perf. verb. 

If he demand justice. If you have seen him. 

Verb, imperative. Inf. pres. verb. 

Stand firm! To receive his friends. 

3d sing, verb, ind. pr. inf. perf. verb. reg. 
He seems to have acquir -ed a good education. 

Passive Yoke. 

Lesson X. 

1st s. ind. pres. pas. verb, reg. 2d sing. ind. pres. pas. verb, reg. 
I am inform-ecZ. Thou art deceiv-e(i. 

3d sing. ind. pr. pas. verb, ir. 3d plu. ind. pr. pas. verb, reg. 
He is know-7i They are determin-e<?. 

1st plu. perf. ind pas. verb, reg. 2d plu. ind. imp. pas. verb, reg. 
We have been receiv-e^. You were resolv-e<i. 

1st sing. ind. plup. pas. verb, ir. 2d sing. pot. pres. pas. verb, reg. 
I had been sough-t Thou must be releas-ecZ. 

1st sing. pot. perf. pas. verb, reg. 
He may have been misinform -^d^. 

3d s. pot. imp. pas. verb. reg. 2d sing. pot. imp. pas. verb. ir. 
He would be delight - ed. Thou wouldst be see -n. 

3d plu. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. reg. 
They might have been discover -ed. 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. reg. 

The man should have been pardon -ed, 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
The lamb might have been shor -n. 

3d sing. pot. past, perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
The picture could have been draw -n, 

Subj. 3d sing. pas. pr. verb. reg. 

Unless a man be persuad -ed. 

Subj. 2d plu. pas. pr. verb. ir. 
Except ye be bor - n again. 



* Past perfect tense, i. e. : Pluperfect. 




GO ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Sul)j. 3d plu. past t perf.* pas. verb. ir. 
"VVhctlicr they could liavo been slai-n. 

Imperative pr. pas. verb. reg. imperative, pas. pr. verb. reg. 
Bo assur-e<i. Do not be alarm -e^Z. 

2d plu. V. iiid. pr. inf. pr. pas. verb. reg.. 

You arc certain to be well receiv - edt. 

3d sing. ind. pr. pas. verb. inf. perf. pas. verb. reg. 
He is said to have been caution - ed. 

Verb. pres. participle. Verb. past. part. reg. 

Jjov - ing. Lov - ed. 

Perf. part. verb. past. reg. pas. pr. part. verb. reg.. 
Hav - ing lov - ed Be - ing lov - ed. 

Perf part. pas. verb. reg. Perf. part. pas. verb. reg. 

Been lov - ed. Hav - ing been lov - ed. 

3d sing. ind. pr. pas. progressive participle. J verb. ir. 
The house is (being) buil-t. 

3d sing. ind. pr. verb, progressive form. 
He is writ - ing a letter. 

Ind. fut. interrog. 1st sing. ' verb, progressive form. 

Shall I be § still speak - ing ? 



ON THE PRONOUN. 

The difference between a noun and pronoun is this ; 
the noun always has a single relation^ while the pronoun 
has at least a double^ and frequently a treble relation^ the 
latter being always the case when the pronoun is a 

* Past perfect tense ; i. e., pluperfect. 

t This verb has the form of the potential, and would be of thafc 
mood, if it had not been preceded by the subjunctive conjunction, 
which always determines the mood. 

J The word being is used to express the progressive form of the verb; 
as is built alone would denote a finished action. To say the house is 
building, is incorrect, since is building is a transitive verb, in the progres- 
sive form ; while the passive verb, in that form, is obviously required. 

§ The word be, with the participial termination of speak-ing, ex- 
presses the progressive form ; and when united form the word be-ing, 
as in the above example, the house is being built. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 61 

compound relative; and it is this complex relation that 
renders the pronoun more difficult to be disposed of 
than the noun. The relation of the noun is always 
direct, while that of the pronoun is frequently indirect 
and not understood, or readily jDerceived by the student. 
For instance, in the sentence, " eat what is set before 
you," i. e., eat the food which is set before you,) in which 
the word tchat, when resolved into its equivalent parts^ has 
THREE DISTINCT RELATIONS, the 6th, 8th, and 2d (food, 
6th relation; which, 8th, as a pronoun, and 2d, for the 
case) ; the relations are natural and direct : but when 
we say, " He is the person whom I saw," the relation of 
whom, is saio whom, a position of words which sounds 
harsh and unnatural to the young scholar ; and it is for 
this very reason that so many errors are committed in 
using the pronoun. If the relation could always be 
seen or understood, no person would use such incorrect 
expressions as, *' It is me;" "this is the man who I lent 
the pen to ; " " these persons whom, more than all others, 
are censurable, etc., etc. 

The following exercises have been prepared especially 
to meet these difficulties, and it is hoped that if the stu- 
dent will give each pronoun its correct relation, as indi- 
cated by the figures placed before and after it, he will 
be enabled to comprehend its nature ; and if he will 
persevere until he transfers these principles to his mind, 
he will have mastered in a great degree the principal 
difficulties in parsing and correcting. 

Lesson XL 

1 ^He"^ ^ who^ performs every part of his business in 
its due place and season, suffers no part of time to escape 
without profit. 

2 ^He^ ^ that^ overcomes his passions, conquers his 
greatest enemies. 




62 ENdLISTI GRAMMAR. 

3 An error ^that^ proceeds from any good principle, 
leaves no room for resentment. 

4 Answer a fool according to ^ his^ ^oWy. 

5 John told James, on meeting ®him,^ that ^he^ had 
forfeited ^his^ claims to friendship. 

6 ^ ITe,^ to ^ivhom'' ®/^ owe ^my^ l>eing, ^whose^ ^/' 
am, and ^luhom^ ^P serve, is eternal. 

7 This is the friend ^whom^ ^P love. 

j 8 ^ Thou^ ^icho^ hast been a witness to the fact, canst 
give ^me'' a true account of ^it.'^ 

Belation of the above Pronouns, 

1st sentence. (If an) ^he^ suffers. He ^who* performs. 

2d sentence. {Man) ^he^ conquers. He ^that^ over- 
comes. 

3d sentence. Error ^that^ proceeds. 

4th sentence. Fool ^ his ^ folly. 

5th sentence. James ®him; meeting him.^ James ^he^ 
had forfeited. James ^his^ friendship. 

6th sentence. (God) ^he^ is. (God) whom;^ to whom J 
— (person) ^ I ^ owe — (person)^ my ^ being. ( God) ^ whose^ 
(person) — (person) ^ I ^ am. (God) whom ; ^ serve whom.® 
(person) ^ I ^ serve. 

7 Friend whom;^ love whom^ — (person) ^I^ love. 

8 (person) ^thou^ canst give. Thou, ^who^ hast been. 
— (person) mej^ (to) me^ — Fact, itj^ of it.' 



' METHOD" OP PARSING. 

1 Helation — He ^ who ^ performs. 

Who is a pronoun, 3d person, singular number, mas- 
culine gender, to agree with its antecedent he; and in the 
nominative case to performs. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 63 

Lesson XII. 

[The phrase, containing a relative pronoun, is invari- 
ably the complement of its antecedent.] 

1 ^ What ^ • ^ can not be prevented, must be endured. 

2 Be attentive to ^ what"*" you are about. 

3 ®What^'^ you do not hear to-day, you will not tell 
to-morrow. 

4: Mark Antony, when under adverse circumstances, 
made this interesting remark : '' I have lost all, except 
^what"^'^ I gave away. 

5 ^Whatever ^'2 gives pain to others, deserves not the 
name of pleasure. 

6 ^Whatsoever 2-^ is set before you, eat. 

7 ^Whatever 2'^ is, is right. 

8 ^ Whoever^* ^ is not contented in poverty, would not 
be so in plenty. 

9 He who does not perform ^what^'^ he has promised, 
is a traitor to his friend. 

10 He speaks ^as^-^ he thinks. 

11 Our father ^ who^ art in heaven. 

12 ^ What^' ^ thou bidst, unargued I obey. 

Note. — The compound relative pronoun is always resolvable into 
the words that ivhich, or the thing which; thus — I speak what I know; 
i. e., I speak that which I know ; in which case the antecedent part of 
the word what, thing^ is always the subject of the principal proposi- 
tion ; and the word which, with its accompanying words, if in the 
nominative, is a complement of the principal subject. 



ANALYSIS OF THE PRECEDING SENTENCES INTO — 

Subject^ Predicate^ Complefnents. 

1 ^What^-^ (the eviP ^which^) can not be prevented, 
must be endured. 

Evil ^ which can not be prevented, 

MUST BE ENDURED. 

2 Be attentive to ^what'^*'' (the thing'' ^ which'') you are 
about. 




64 ENGLISH GBAMMAR. 

Subject. Predicate. Complements. 

Tiiou^ 

Be attentive To the thing which you are about. 
3 ®Whiit^*^ {fJie thlng^ ^ ichlch^) you do not bear to-day, 
you can not tell to-morrow. 
You 2 

CAN NOT TELL the thing ^ to-morrow, ^which^ 

you do not hear to-day. 

6 ^AV"hatever^*^ (the thing ^ichich^) is, is right. 
TiiiNG^ the, ^ which ^ is, 

IS RIGHT. 

In like manner analyze the remaining sentences. 



METHOD OF PARSING. 

1 " What can not be prevented must be endured." 
What — is a compound relative pronoun, ec^ual to 
the evil which. 

Syntax of evil ; evil must be endured. 

[Parse evil like cloud, page 34.] 

Syntax of which ; evil, which can be prevented. 

[Parse which like who, page 62.] 

ON THE CONJUNCTION. 

Lesson XIII. 

Conjunctions of the l^th JRelation, 

1 John and ^^ James are studious boys. 

2 The good and^^ wise are truly happy. 

3 The indolent and^^ indifferent accomplish little. 

4 The falls of Niagara are situated between the Amer- 
ican and^^ Canadian shores. 

5 Honesty and^^ virtue elevate mankind. 

6 Water and^^ oil will not combine. 

7 You and'^ I are friends. 

8 Every person is either^ good or^^ bad. 

9 The assertion was neither* wholly true nor^^ false. 
10 Ellen or^^ Jane can demonstrate the problem. 

* Corresponding conjunction. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 65 



Conjunctions of the IQth Relation. 

1 Though 2^ he was rich, yet^^ for our sakes, he be- 
came poor. 

2 Blessed are the meek, for^^ they shall inherit the 
earth. 

3 You are happy, because^® you are good. 

4 There was a certain householder, who planted a 
vineyard, and ^^ hedged it round about, and^^ digged a 
wine-press in it, and^^ built a tower, and^^ let it out to 
husbandmen, and^^ went into a far country. 

5 It came to pass in those days, that^^ he went out 
into a mountain to pray. 

6 Consider the ravens; they neither sow nor^® reap. 

7 I am well pleased with your efforts, but ^® I can not 
remunerate you. 

8 He was determined to go, notwithstanding^^ the 
weather was inclement. 

9 I should be pleased if '^ I could meet you there. 

10 We wandered through the groves, as ^^ we sung our 
songs. 

Adverbial Conjunctions.^ 

1 I will pay you when^^ I have received my money. 

2 We looked where ^^ the tumbling waters leaped from 
the rocky precipice. 

3 We paused when ^^ we reached the boundary line. 

4 I have seen little boys express themselves in good 
language, while ^® older persons have hesitated or used 
very awkward speeches. 

* Every proposition commencing with an adverbial conjunction is a 
complement of the predicate in the principal proposition. That these 
"words are conjunctions is obvious from the nature of their relation. 
Many words, usually considered as conjunctions, have sometimes the 
relation of adverbs. 
6 




66 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

PREPOSITIONAL CONJUNCTIONS/'^ 

1 I shall not be Jiblo to bco you until ^^ I return. 

2 lie was not aware of the fact before ^^ he received 
my letter. 

3 I did not recognize him till ^^ he had ceased speak- 
ing. 

4 I can not tell you without ^^ I see the article. 

Relation of the preceding conjunctions^ of the IGth relation. 

1 f He became poor though 16 he was sick. 
1 He was rich yf,t 16 he became poor. 

2 ]Meek are blessed for 16 they shall inherit earth. 

3 You are happy because 16 you are good. 

4 Who planted vineyard, and 16 (^who) hedged it. 

[who) hedged it, and 16 [who) digged wine-press. 
(tvho) digged wine-press, and 16 -[loko) built tower. 

(who) built tower, and 16 [who) let it out. 

[who) let it out, and 16 [who) went. 

5 It came [to pass) that 16 he went. 

6 They sow • N0iil6 [the?/) reap. 

7 I am [pleased,) but 16 I can [not) remunerate you. 

8 He was [determined,) notwithstanding 16 weather was. 

9 I should be pleased, if 16 I could meet you. 
10 AVe wandered as 16 we sung. 

Relation of Adverbial Conjunctions, 

1 I will pay you when 16 I receive monej'. 

2 We looked where 16 waters leapt. 

3 We paused when 16 we reached the boundary line. 

4 I have seen boys [to) express themselves while 16 (older) persons 

have hesitated. 

Relation of Prepositional Conjttnctions. 

1 I shall [not) be able to see you until 16 I return. 

2 He was not aware before 16 he received letter. 

3 I did [not) recognize him till 16 he had ceased speaking. 

4 I can [not) tell you without 16 I see [the) article. 

* Prepositions are often used to connect verbs of like moods and 
tenses, etc., when they certainly appear to have the force of conjunc- 
tions ; but if we supply the ellipses, we can give these words the rela- 
tion of prepositions; thus — "I shall not be able to see you until the 
time when I return;" until would then be a preposition and govern 
time. 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 67 

ON THE PREPOSITION. 

Note. — The relation of the preposition is rarely understood, even 
by professed grammarians. Smitli gives this sentence — "James found 
his hat in the road;" and proceeds to say that in is a preposition, 
showing a relation between hat and road. A moment's reflection will 
suffice to convince any one of the error of this relation. If the pre- 
positional phrase in the road has a relation to the noun hat^ it must be 
an adjective relation; for every preposition that holds a relation to an 
antecedent noun, converts its phrase into a virtual adjective; thus — 
"the jessamine in flower;" i. e., the flowery jessamine; "the book of 
fate;" {. e.^ fatal book. Now, what attribute of hat is the phrase in the 
road ? None at all. On the other hand, if it has a relation to found, 
that relation must be adverbial; and this we find to be true. Where 
did he find the hat ? Ans. In the road. Hence, in the road is an ad- 
verbial phrase, qualifying /ownf/, and is, virtually, an adverb of place. 
Every grammarian would see at once that in the road is a complement 
or MODIFIER of found, and not of hat. In addition to the two relations 
of the preposition given in the Table on page 28, there are two other 
relations, auxiliary adjective and auxiliary adverbial, as will be seen by 
reference to the article on Prepositions, page 135, in the second part 
of this work. As these relations, however, seldom occur, and are, 
virtually, either auxiliary adjectives or adverbs, it has been thought 
unnecessary to include them in the Table. 

Lesson XIV. 

1 His character is above ^'^ reproach. 

2 They found the boat by^'^ the shore. 

3 These people followed directly in the footsteps of 
their ancestors. 

4 India-rubber is made from the gum of ^^ a tree. 

5 The tree is at quite a distance from" the wall. 

6 He has been removed from ^^ office. 

7 The poor man is beside^'' himself. 

8 By^'' this time the ship should have arrived. 

9 He is the person to ^'' whom I gave the book. 

10 He had an extreme aversion to^^ gaming. 

11 An addition to ^^ the house was contemplated. 

12 Idle people sometimes live without''' labor. 

13 Small creeks flow into^"* larger streams. 




68 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

14 The governor resides in ^^ thiS house. 

15 Ye shall not go after ''• other gods. 
IG The world was all before ^"^ them. 

17 They wept for '* joy. He died in ^^ debt. 

18 To him of^''* j^^^^^^^^^^ notoriety I gave the pen. 

19 "We win no friends by living in ''' f solitude. 

20 She was angry with^^l her brother. 

21 He was zealous in*^| the pursuit of knowledge. 

22 They were anxious about ^^j the matter. 

23 Go quickly, by ^§ all means. 

24 He speaks welP°§ on some occasions. 

All prepositions marked 14 have a relation to the verb 
or particij^le ; all marked 13 have a relation to the noun 
or j)ronoun. 



ON THE AUXILIARY ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, ETC. 

Note. — As the auxiliary verbs* are used for no other purpose than to 
form the moods and tenses of other verbs, and are never denominated 
adverbs, although they are invariably added to a verb,' so these aux- 
iliary adjectives and adverbs, which are used in forming the degrees 
of comparison in the adjective or advei-b, never can become adverbs, 
as not one of them can be added to a verb. "We shall proceed to show 
that the adverb and the auxiliary adverbs and adjectives are distinct 
parts of speech, the adverb invariably holding the 12th relation, or 
being added to a verb, while the auxiliaries always hold either the 
19th, 20th, or 21st relation. Now, as 12 can never equal either 19, 
20, or 21, separately or combined, so the adverb can never equal a 
relation which is as much distinct and separate from it as these figures 
are from one another. 

Lesson XV. 

1 The weather is extremely ^^ warm.* 

2 The wall is very ^^ high.^ 

3 The wall is sixty-feef^^ high.^ 

* Adjective relation to the pronoun, 
t Adverbial relation to the participle. 
X Auxiliary adjective (19th relation). 
§ Auxiliary adverbial (20th relation). 



EXERCISES IN PARSING. 69 

4 The sun is a thousand-times^^ larger^ than the earth. 

5 Down, dcep^ in the msiin, full-many -a-score-fathomy^^ 
thy frame shall decay. 

[Thy frame shall decay down, in the full-many -a-score- 
fathom^^ deep^ main.] 

6 He paid the note more-than-a-year ^° ago.^^ 

7 The mercury is ten-degrees ^^ below ^"^ zero. 

8 It. is more -than -three -thousand- miles ^^ across the* 
ocean.^'* ^ 

9 TAe^o more ^2 j examine it, the^ better ^^ j iw^q jt. 

10 His raiment became exceedingly ^^ white.^ 

11 John is iviser^ than his brother. 

12 John is more^^ wise^ than his brother. 

13 John is the most ^^ learned ^ boy in the school. 

14 James runs more^^ rapidly ^^ than AVilliam. 
15. But Henry runs most ^° rapidly .^^ 

16 The coat is too'^^ large.^ 

17 This coat is very ^^ large.^ 

18 This coat is a-ivorld-too ^^ large.^ 

19 She is as^^ talP as her sister. 

20 He is less^^ wise^ than his brother. 

21 And the least ^^ esteemed^ of his associates. 

22 He came near ^^ to ^'^ the edge of the precipice. 

Note. — If any of these auxiliaries be used in a sentence, they will, 
by the very law of their nature and inherent relations, immediately 
attach themselves to their principals, and become auxiliaries. Again, 
a word which is a legitimate adverb, holding the 12th relation, quali- 
fying a verb or participle, can not be used as an auxiliary. 

The moon smiles serenely}^ 
He acted cautiously}^ 

f^^ "The word verj/, exceedingly/^ or any other word of similar im- 
port, when joined to an adjective, forms, what grammarians term the 
svpcrlalivc of eminence^ to distinguish it from the svperlative of compari-^ 
son. — Lindlay Murray. 




70 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



List op Abbreviations used in the following exercises^ 
and other parts of this work. 



n., noun. 

c, com., common. 
p., prop., proper. 
m., mas., masculine. 
f., fem., feminine. 
n., neut., neuter. 
2, second person. 
3j third person. 
s., sing., singular. 
pi., plu., plural. 
nora., nominative. 
pos., possessive. 
obj., objective. 
ace, accusxtive. 
abs., absolute. 
ind., independent. 
v., zjer6. 



reg., regular. 
ir., irregular. 
tr., transitive. 
in., int., intransitive. 
pas., passive. 
ind., indicative. 
pot., potential. 
sub., subjunctive. 
inf., infinitive. 
im., imperative. 
pr., pres., present. 
perf., perfect. 
imp., imperfect. 
pi up., pluperfect. 
fut., 1st future. 
2 fut., 2d future. 
No., number. 



pers., person. 
gen., gender. 
adj., adjective. 
pron., pronoun. 
adv., adverb. 
prep., jjrepositioi , 
conj., conjunction. 
int., interjection. 
part., participle. 
p. p., personal pronoun. 
r. p., relative pronoun. 
aux., auxiliarg. 
subj., subject. 
pred., predicate. 
comp., complement. 
att., attribute. 
cop., copula. 



Additional Exercises in Parsing. 

adv. V. ir. in. ind. imp. 3 s. adj. n. c. f. 3 s. nom. adv. 



1 ]S'0W^^ 



came 



still 



evening^ on," 

conj. n. c. f. 3 s. nom. adj. aux. v. prep. p. p. pos. adj. 

2 And^® twilight'-^ gray ^ had ^^ in" ®her^ sober ^ 
n. c. n. 3 s. obj. adj. n. c. n. 3 pi. ace. v. ir. tr. ind. plup. 3 s. 

livery' all^ things® clad.^'' 

n. c. f. 3 s. nom. v. reg. tr. ind. imp. 3 s. p. p. ace. 

3 Silence ^ accompanied ^^ ( ^ ) 

conj. n. c. n. 3 s. nom. conj. n. e. n 3 s. nom. v. ir. in. ind. imp. 3 p. 

4 For ^® beast^ and^^ bird were ^^ sunk.^ 

p. p. nom. prep. p. p. pos. adj. n. c. n. 3 s. obj. 

^They"^ to" Hheir^ grassy^ couch,' " " 



adj. 



prep. p. p. pos. n. c. n. 3 pi. obj. adj. 



1 a 



Thesei(_')to" Hheir^ nests'— all 

In like manner let the student mark on the blackboard all the vrords 
in the following sentences : 

5 But^® the^ wakeful 1 nightingale,^ 

/ 18 12 9 \ 

6 ^She^ all-night-long^^ ^her ^ amorous^ descant* sung.^^ 

7 Silence 2 was pleased." 

8 Now^^ glowed^ the* firmament* with** liviDg^ 
sapphires/ 




PARSING ON THE BLACKBOARD. 71 

9 Hesperus^ [Hliat^ Icd^Hhei starry^ host ^] rode^ 
brightest/ 

10 Till^® the^ moon,2 rising^^ in" clouded^ majesty ,t 
at length ^^ unvailed^^ 4ier^ peerless^ light ;^ 

11 And>6 1 2 o'er" the^ dark^shers sil- 
ver 1 mantle^ tlirew.^*' 

12 When^^ Adam^ ( lo ) thus^^ to" Eve/ 

13 Fair^ consort^ the^ hour^ of^^ night ^ and^^ all^ 
things^ now^^ retired ^-^ to" rest/ mind^° ^us^ of" like^ 
rei^ose.' 

14 Since 1® God^ hath set^*' labor ^ and^^ resf^ 

15 As^^ ( 2 '^ ^^ ) day«and^5 night « 

to" men 7 successive.^ 

16 And^® the^ timely i dew^ of^' sleep' now^^ falling ^-^ 
with''* softi slumbrous Mveight 7 inclines^" ^our^ eyelids.® 

17 Other ^ creatures ^ all-day-long^^ rove* idle ^ — un- 
employed/ 

18 And^<5 ( 1 ') less^ need^" 

rest.® 

19 Man^ hath^^shis^ daily^ work^ of^^body^ or^^ 
of^^ mind' appointed/-* 

20 ^Which^ declares^" ®his^ dignity,® 

21 And 1® ( 2 i« ) the^ regard ® oP' 

heaven' ^on^ alP Miis^ ways ;' 

22 While^^ other ^ animals ^ unactive^ range/ 

23 And^® of^^ their ^-^ doings' God'^ takes ^° no^ ac- 
count.® 

24 To-morrow/^ [ere^® fresh ^ morning 2 ______ ^^ 

streak »°the^ east, ®with" first ^ approach' of" light'] 

25 ^We^ must^^ be* risen,^ 

26 And ( ' ^^ *) at" 

8our5 pleasant^ labor' to reform,^'' yon^ flowery^ arbors,® 
yonder^ alleys® green,i ^our® walk' at^^ noon 'with" 
branches' overgrown.^-* 

27 *That2 mock^*^ ^our^ scant^ manuring,® 

28 And ^® require ^'^ more ^ hands ® 



72 ENGLISH CRAMMAR. 

29 Than ^^ ^o^u-f^s ^j ^^ ^/^^^^ ^^^ hands are,) to lop'" 
8 their ^ wanton ' growth.^ 

30 Those 1 blossoms,^ also,'^ and^^ those^ dropping ^ 
gums'* [Hhat'^ lie' bcstrown,^ unsightly ^ and '^ un- 
smooth/] ask'" riddance,^ 

31 If'^ ®wc^ mean'" to tread^ with'* eascJ 

32 Meanwhile '2 [«as''* nature ^ wills'"] night ^ bids'" 
fus^ (to) rest.3 

33 To'* swhom^ thus''-^ Eve^ (said^^ ) with'* perfect ^ 
beauty' adorned,'-" 

34 ^My^ author^ and'^ disposer,' 

35 sWhate Hhou'-^ bidst,'" unargued' ^I^ obey.'" 

[35 ^I^ obey,'" the' unargued' things Hvhich^ Hhou^ 
bidst.'"] 

36 «So« God^ ordains.'" 

37 With'* Hhee' conversing,!-' ^I^ forget'" all' time,* 
all' seasons^ and '^ Hheir^ change.^ 

38 All' ( ') please'" ( ^) alike.'^ 

39 Sweet 1 is' the' breath ^ of'^ morn,^ 

*40 ^Her^ rising^ ( ') sweet ^ with'* charm' of* 

earliest' birds.' 

41 Pleasant' ( ') the^ sun ^ 

42 When'« first" on'* this' delightful' land^ she 2 
spreads '" ®his 5 orient' beams,^ on'* herb,' tree,' fruit ^ 
and'^ flower,' glistening'-' with'* dew.' 

43 Fragrant' (_') the' fertile' earth' after'* softi 
showers,' 

44 And'^ sweeti ( ') the^ coming-on^ of'^ grateful^ 

evening' mild ;' 

, 45 Then '^ silent 1 night ^ (_') with'* this 1 ^heps sol- 
emn' bird,7 and'^ ( '^ ) this^ fair' morn,' and'^ 

these,! the' gems' of'^ heaven,' ^her^ starry' train.' 



'■^ As, relative pronoun, equivalent to the -word -which; i. e., ^^ which 
nature -wills." It may be observed that the -word wills is a transitive verb, 
and, as such, requires an object. If -we consider as a conjunction, tcills 
can have no object. The same construction occurs in the 36th sen- 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 73 



SUGGESTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS. 

It will be seen that the first part of this work is al- 
most exclusively practical ; and it is suggested that the 
teacher make use of it in the following manner. After 
having gone over the promiscuous examples on the 
plate, and in the black-board exercises, let the classes 
commence at page 49, and, for two or three lessons, 
parse nothing but adjectives, or words of the first rela- 
tion, at the same time directing their attention particu- 
larly to the description of the adjective contained in 
the second part. After the adjective is well understood 
let them review the same three lessons, commencing 
at page 49, parsing nothing but nouns, their attention 
being called, in the mean time, especially to the noun 
and its accidents in the second part. Then let the verb, 
with all its moods, tenses, variations, etc., be' the object 
of the pupils' consideration, for several lessons, until 
they shall thoroughly understand all that is contained 
in the lessons, commencing on page 50, and continuing 
to page 62, the conjugation, and general description of 
the verb in the second part being well studied at the 
same time. Let each student be required, particularly, 
to change each transitive verb in these exercises, into its 
passive form, and parse it as such. In like manner go 
over the pronouns, conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, 
etc., and it will be found that the scholar will acquire a 
more perfect and correct idea of the parts of speech 
and their accidents when the mind is directed to one 
'only, at a time, thus concentrating and fixing the at- 
tention upon a single point, than by continuing a pro- 
miscuous course of exercises. In a similar manner the 
scholars should parse and correct false syntax. 

tence; "So God ordains." As stands for the phrase, "nijrht bids us 
rest;" and so stands for the preceding clause, ''what thou bidst" etc. 

7 




74 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



f AXIOMS, 

Founded on the Table of Relations, page 28. 

H 1 Every word having the first relation is an adjective. 

2 Words, having the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, Gth, or 7th re- 
lation^ are nouns or pronouns. 

3 Every word having the 8/7i relation, is a pronoun. 
I 4 All words of the 9th, 10th, or 11th relation, arc 
verbs. 

5. All words holding the 12th relation, are adverbs. 

6 A word having the 13th or 14th relation, is a pre- 
position. 

7 All words of the 15th or 16th relation, are conjunc- 
tions. 

8 A word, having no relation, (17) is an interjection. 

9 All words of the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st relation, 
are auxiliaries. 

10 Any word, having none of the above relations, is 
no part of speech, whatever. 

Note. — Analysis is a separation of any "whole into its parts. No'W 
let all the words in the English language constitute the whole to be 
analyzed : then let the Table of Relations on page 28 be the measure 
or guide for referring all these words to their respective classes; (i. e. 
adjective, noun, verb, etc.,) and the proposition that every word, which 
holds the first relation on that table, is an adjective, (not an article or 
pronoun^) will be self-evident^ for this reason, that all etymological dis- 
tinctions, not founded on these relations, will instantly vanish like the 
baseless fabric of a vision. 



PART II. 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



English Grammar treats of the nature and 
structure of the English language.* 

Grammar, derived from rpa^^a-^fv;*, {Grammateus^ a 
writer^ in a comprehensive sense, signifies the capacity or 
ability to write or speak a language in such a manner 
as will give to each word and phrase in the sentence that 
constructive relation to the other words in the same sen- 
tence Avhich the universal consent of all men using the 
same language has assigned to them ; but, in a more 
confined and technical sense, 

Grammar is that science which presents the constnic- 
tive principles of the language or languages of which it 
treats : (from the Latin con^ together ; struere, to build ;) 
therefore, a work which purports to be a " Treatise on 
Grammar," ought rather to poi7it out clearly this con- 
structive RELATION, which cxists among the words in a 
sentence, and by virtue of which they become parts of 



"What is the definition of English grammar given on this page? 
From what is grammar derived? What does grammar present? From 
■what is constructive derived ? 




* This is believed to be more in accordance with the true intent and 
import of language than the commonly received definition that " Gram- 
mar is the art of speaking and writing a language correctly." Spoken 
language is not artificial; it is the natural attribute of human beings. 
Written language, with its arbitrary signs, letters, points, etc., may 
very properly be considered artificial; but grammar treats of both 
spoken and written language — both the natural and the artificial pe- 
culiarities of speech; hence the necessity of a definition sufficiently 
broad to comprehend the two under one distinct head. 

(V5) 



7G ENGI/ISn GRAMMAR. 

speech, than to bo a mere transcript of definitions and rules 
from the grammars of antiquity! which are of but little 
use in guiding the student in the structure of his sen- 
tences, or in "writing and speaking the language with 
propriety." And here let the student be admonished, 
that ?io person has ever yet been able either to sjjeak or 
nrite correctly, who was ignorant of the actual relation 
or natural dependence which is found to exist between 
the words and members of a sentence, and which it is 
the peculiar province of the grammarian to make clear 
and plain. 

Language (derived from the Latin word Lingua^ the 
tongue^) is the faculty of communicating our thoughts to 
others, by pronouncing or writing certain words ^ which 
the universal consent of mankind has agreed should 
stand for a fixed and definite idea. 

Grammar is naturally divided into four parts : 

ORTHOGRAPHY, SYNTAX, ETYMOLOGY, PROSODY, 

I^ETTERS, SENTENCES, WORDS, ACCENT. 

Orthography teaches the method of expressing 
words by their appropriate letters. 

Orthography, derived from the Greek words op^os* 
(orthos) correct^ and y^u<po (grapho) to uiite, signifies writ- 
ing, or spelling correctly ; and as spelling is always 
taught in our schools by books or dictionaries, prepared 
expressly for this purpose, it would be useless to add 
any thing further concerning it in this place. 

Syntax is the union of words in a sentence. 

Syntax, from the Greek ovv (syn), together, and tiOrifii 
(titliemi), to put ov place, signifies the putting. together of 

What is language? From what is language derived? Into how 
many parts is grammar divided? What are thqse parts? What is 
orthography ? How is it learned ? From what iS it derived ? What 
is syntax? From what is it derived? 



SYNTAX. 77 

words in a sentence. It is obvious, that if ideas in lan- 
guage were expressed by single, detached words, instead 
of sentences, there could be no such thing as Syntax : 
hence it is, that the etymology of a word depends upon 
the syntax or relation of that word to some other word 
or words in the sentence, rather than on obsolete and 
arbitrary rules and definitions, which serve only to ren- 
der the study of grammar more dark and mysterious; 
and for this reason syntax should have precedence be- 
fore etymology, as it is only by the relation (or syntax) 
of a word that we can determine its etymological classi- 
fication. Let syntax be well understood, and etymology 
will follow, as a matter of course. Syntax is one of the 
first things in grammar, the nature of which should be 
thoroughly explained to the learner. Let us instance 
the following sentence : 

" The midnight moon serenely smiles." 

The syntax of the is the moon: in other words, tJie be- 
longs to moon. Kow, whatever we may call the as a 
part of speech, whether an adjective, an article, or an 
add-noun, it matters nothing ; its syntax, relation, or 
connection will remain always the same, founded, as it is, 
upon the principles of the language itself, and offering 
nothing about which grammarians can in the least disa- 
gree ; as every one must see that it has an unquestion- 
able relation to moon. Midnight has also a relation to 
moon, and is constituted an adjective by virtue of such 
relation. Moon has a syntax with smiles, a relation 
clearly indicating that it is a noun in the nominative. 
Serenely must be joined to smiles: we can not say serenely 
moon, and preserve the sense of the sentence ; hence we 
learn that s^^ntax is but the common-sense rendering of 

Does the etymology of a word depend on its syntax ? Is syntax an 
important part of grammar? Can you give the syntax {or relation) 
of the words in the sentence "The midnight moon serenely smiles?" 
(See plate, page 33.) 




78 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

words, having nothing to do with arbitrary rules and 
definitions. As by this relation, we add serenely to a 
verb^ wo call it an adverb. Smiles is connected with 
moon, and in giving the syntax the pupil will say moon 
smiles; and whatever etymological attributes we may 
ascribe to the word smiles, is of little consequence, the 
syntactic relation will always remain an indisputable 
fact, imprinting upon the mind of the young learner 
ideas which time shall never obliterate, although rules! 
and etymological definitions be buried long ago in the 
rubbish of oblivion. 

Etymology treats of the various parts of speech, 
their declensions and modifications. 

Etymology, from the Greek itvi^ov (etymon), a true root, 
and Yoyos' (logos), a word, signifies the true root or deriva- 
tion of words. Its grammatical signification, however, 
does not only include this idea, but extends the meaning 
to the classification of words as well as their derivation 
and signification. 

Etymology, therefore, may be considered, 

1, as the arrangement of words into various classes, 

called parts of speech, and the consequent orders 
or methods of parsing ; 

2, the formation and derivation of adjectives, adverbs, 

etc. ; and the declension and conjugation of nouns, 
verbs, etc. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 

There are eight parts of speech — noun, ad- 
jective, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, con- 
junction and interjection. 

Whal is etymology? From -what is it derived? To what is its 
grammatical signitication extended? Into wliat two parts may ety- 
mology be divided? How many parts of speech are there? What are 
they? 



NOUN. 79 

Some authors also include the article as a distinct part 
of speech; but as it is only a word of the adjective 
variety, it is deemed unnecessary to give it a distinct 
classification. See page 86. 



THE NOUN. 

A noun is the name of a person^ place or thing, 
as Jo]i7iy Boston^ hook. 

Noun, from the Latin nomen, a name, signifies the 
naming word, or subject of the sentence. This is particu- 
larly so when the noun is in the nominative (also from 
nomen) or naming case. 

Belations and Cases of the Noun. 
Nouns have six relations, and six* corresponding 
cases, as follows : 

CASE. RELATION. 

Singular. Plural. 

1st. Nominative. man walks. men walk. 

2d. Possessive. man's horse. men's horse. 

3d. Objective. to man. to men. 

4th. Accusative.t saw man. saw men. 

5th. Independent. or ah man. or ah men. 

6th. Absolute. man being killed, men being killed. 

By the foregoing table we learn — the nominative case 
precedes a verb ; the possessive precedes a noun, and 
always employs the apostrophe ( ' ) and s in the singu- 
lar, and the apostrophe placed after the s in the plural ; 

What is a noun? From what is it derived? How many relations 
and corresponding cases have nouns? Repeat them. What do we 
learn by this declension of the noun ? * 



■••• The three additional cases can not be considered an innovation 
upon established grammatical precedent, inasmuch as they have 
always been recognized under the names of nominative and objective. 

t Or objective, if the teacher prefer, and governed by the verb saw. 




80 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

the objective follows a preposition ; the accusative fol- 
lows a transitive verb ; tlic independent follows an 
interjection ; and the absolute precedes a participle. 
Hence, the noun can have no syntactic relation with a 
pronoun, an adverb, an adjective or conjunction, as a dc- 
j)endcnt on any one of them for a case. 

Observation, 
It is of the utmost importance that the scholar should 
learn, at an early period, to distinguish the cases of 
nouns and pronouns ; nor should he ever be permitted 
to omit the case, as some grammarians have recom- 
mended, although he Tciixy not be advanced as far as a 
knowledge of the verb. As the case of a noun can 
never be determined by the declension, and in no other 
way than by the relation, it follows that no word can 
have a case until it becomes incorporated in a sentence; 
hence the absurdity of requiring the scholar to give the 
cases of detached nouns ; as book, books, book's, etc. 

The Possessive Case.' 

The possessive case presents many peculiarities. We 
see that it has the same relation to the noun that an 
adjective has ; for this reason, some authors call it an 
adjective. The s is thought to be a contraction of his, 
as indicated by the apostrophe, which is always used to 
denote the omission of letters ; John's book being but a 
contraction of John his book. Another peculiarity of 
the possessive case is- its resemblance to the genitive in 
Latin, which is often translated into English by the 
preposition of; as pater ^atrice, father of his country ; 
liber pueri, the book of the boy (i. e., the boy's book) : hence 
nearly all phrases, following the preposition of are simi- 

How is the case of a noun determined ? What other word has a re- 
lation like the possessive case? What is said about tlie apostrophe 
and s ? What other peculiarity is there about the possessive case Z 



NOUN. 81 

liir in their nature to nouns in the possessive case, and 
always hold an adjective relation (like the j)ossessive) to 
some noun or pronoun. 

The rule for using the apostrophe is here subjoined. 

If the noun is in the possessive case, singular number, 
add an apostrophe and 5, as John^ — John^s. If the noun 
is possessive plural, and already ends in 5, add an apos- 
trophe only, as boys^ — boys'; if possessive plural, not 
ending in 5, add the apostrophe and s, as meUj — men's, | 

DISTINCTION. 

NouNTS are either proper or common. 

A common noun is one including within its extension 
a whole race, genus or species ; as man, country, tree, 
animal. 

A proper noun is one whose extension is limited to a 

single individual ; as George, AYilliam, Albany, Boston, 

Hudson, Ilaicla, etc. 

It may be well to observe that proper nouns always commence with 
a capital letter ; but this does not at all times distinguish them from 
the common noun, which, also, often commences with a capital, par- 
ticularly at the beginning of sentences. 



GENDERS. 



There are three genders — the masculine^ femi- 
nine and neuter : the mascuhne denotes males ; 
the feminine, females; and all other nouns are 
neuter. 

In some other languages inanimate objects are con- 
sidered either masculine or feminine, particularly in 
French and Spanish, in which all nouns are either mas- 
culine or feminine, there being no neuter gender. 



What is the rule for the use of the apostrophe? What distinction 
have nouns? What is a common noun? A proper noun? Do proper 
nouns always commence with a capital? How many genders are 
there ? What are they ? What is said of gender in other languages ? 




82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Inanimate objects are sometimes considered masculine 
or feminine by personification (a figure of speech, by 
vvhicli life and action are attributed to them), or by tho 
relation of some adjective, verb, or pronoun, indicating 
the gender or class. 

Gray twilight had clad all things in her sober livery. 
Sweet is the breath of morn^ her rising sweet. 
Pleasant is the sun^ when he spreads his orient beams. 

Twilight is personified by had clad, and gender desig- 
nated by her. 

Sun, 7nasculine, personified by spreads, gender desig- 
nated by he and his. 

Twilight, her, feminine, by personification. 
Morn, her, do. do. 

Sun, he, masculine, do. 

There are, also, a few words, as parent, friend, cousin, 
relation, stranger, child, etc., of the conwion, gender. 

It would be unnecessary tO add here the methods by 
which the scholar may distinguish the genders of nouns, 
as any person who understands the English language 
needs no such assistance to distinguish males and 
females by their appropriate names. 



PERSONS. 



Theee are three persons, denominated first, 
second and third ; the Jirst denotes the speaker ; 
the second, the person spoken to ; and the third, 
the person spoken of. 

The first person is only applied to the personal pro- 
nouns, I, mine, me; we, ours, us ; and the relatives stand- 
ing for them. The second j^erson is always in the inde- 

Is gender sometimes ascribed to inanimate objects in English ? In 
what manner? How many persons are there? What are they? To 
what are they applied? "\Yhat case is the 2d person ? 



NOUN. 83 

pendent case, and is preceded by the interjection 0, or 
ah, (or some other word, in hailing,) either expressed or 
understood. See "Relations and cases of nouns," p. 
79. As a general rule we may say that the independ- 
ent case alone is 2d person, and all other cases of nouns 
are of the third person. 



NUMBERS. 

Nouns have two numbers, singular and plural : 
the singular denotes but one object; the plural, 
any number of objects greater than one. 

In writing, the plural of nouns is generally formed by 
adding s to the singular ; as hook, books ; pen, pens ; day, 
days. 

IS'ouns ending in s, sh, ch, x, or o, in the singular, form 
their plural by adding es ; as dress, dresses; dish, dishes ; 
match, matches; box, boxes; hero, heroes. 

Nouns ending in y, change y to ies for the plural ; as 
lady, ladies ; but when a vowel occurs before the y, an s 
is merely added for the plural ; as tray, trays ; day, days. 

Nouns in / or fe change / or fe to ves for the plural ; 
as loaf, loaves ; wife, wives. 

Observations. 

"When ch is pronounced like k, at the termination of 
words, the plural adds merely an s ; as pibroch, pibrochs ; 
stomach, stomachs. 

Portico, solo, quarto, grotto, tyro, junto, canto, and all 
nouns ending in io, take s only in the plural ; as nuncio^ 
nuncios; grotto, grottos, etc. 

Nouns ending in ff (except staff, which has sometimes 
staves), take s, as cuff, cuffs. 

Scarf, dwarf, brief, grief, chief, gulf, fife, strife, handker- 

How many numbers are there ? What are they ? How are plurals 
formed ? 




84 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

chiefs mischief, proof, hoof, roof, and reproof, do not change 
/ or fe into ves. 

Proper nouns have no plural form, except when a 
race or family is indicated, as the Browns, the "William- 
sons, the Jews, the Turks, etc. Swiss, British, English, 
Dutch, are always plural, the singular being Switzcr, 
Briton, Englishman and Dutchman. 
i "We also write, the Messrs. Brown, meaning two or 
more of that name ; the two Miss Watsons, or the Misses 
"Watson ; the corner of State, and Main street, and not 
streets, there being but one State street, and one Main 
street, in any one place. Observe the comma after State, 
indicating the elliptical absence of street. 

Many nouns form their plural irregularly ; as — 



Sing. 


Plu. 


Sing. 


Plu. 


man. 


men. 


child. 


children. 


woman, 


women. 


tooth. 


teeth. 


foot. 


feet. 


penny, 


pence. 


etc.. 


etc. 


etc.. 


etc., 



An extended list of w^hich need not be given, as every 
child that can read or spell knows how to form irregu- 
lar plurals as well as those that are regular. 

Some words have no plural, as wealth, drunkenness, hay, 
poverty, etc. Some others have no singular, as arms, (wea- 
pons,') a7itipodes, etc. Some nouns are the same in the 
singular as plural ; as sheep, deer, swine, etc. We ssij pease 
and fish, meaning the species, but peas and fishes when 
speaking of any specified number. This latter rule is 
not always observed, peas and fish being used at all 
times. Snuffers, scissors, tongs, etc., are always used in 
the j)lnral ; and mathematics, pneumatics, politics, ethics, 
are singular. 

Many nouns from foreign languages retain their origi- 
nal form of the plural ; as radius, radii; focus, foci ; da- 

Do proper names have a plural ? Do some nouns form their plural 
irregularly? Give some examples. Are there some words which 
have no plural? 



ADJECTIVE. 85 

turriy data; erratum^ errata; calx, calces, etc., for a perfect 
knowledge of which the student is referred to those lan- 
guages, or to Webster's unabridged dictionary. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

The adjective is a word joined to a noun, and 
generally expresses some quality of the noun, or 
limits its logical extension. 

In order to constitute a word an adjective, it must 
have the syntax of an adjective ; that is, it must be 
joined to a noun. Many adjectives exj)ress no quality 
whatever, and a few do not limit or restrict the logical 
extension of the word to which it is joined, but all ad- 
jectives hold a certain and invariable relation with some 
noun or pronoun, expressed or understood. An adjec- 
tive is part and parcel of the noun to which it is at- 
tached, as the black stove expresses but one object ; and let 
there be ever so many adjectives, they do not augment 
the number of objects ; as, the large, black, iron stove may 
be considered the logical subject or subject-nominative 
of a sentence, the conclusion of which may be expressed 
by the words stands on the floor, as a predicate. 

A noun without an adjective is invariably taken in its 
broadest extension ; as, Man is accountable. America is 
a fine country. A knife is a useful article. The rose is 
beautiful. In these expressions, the words man, America, 
knife and rose, are taken in their broadest extension, 
meaning, respectively, all mankind, the whole continent, 
ali kinds of knives, and all kinds of roses. !N"ow, if we 
wnsh to express a part, we use the adjective, and say — 
white man (excluding the blacks). North America (and 
exclude the South), etc., from which it will be readily 

What is an adjective ? What must a word have to constitute it an 
adjective? Do all adjectives express quality? Do they all restrict 
extension? When is a noun taken in its broadest extension? 




86 ENGILISII GRAMMAR. 

perceived by the student, without dwelling longer on 
this point, that the legitimate use of an adjective is, to 
enable us to distinguish one object from another, to de- 
fine it; and that any word which has a syntactic rela- 
tion to and restricts the extension of a noun, hy excludinrj 
a part, is an adjective in its nature, whether it expresses 
quality or not; as, this room (alluding to the room in 
which you are while reading this) ; this is nothing but 
an adjective^ as it restricts the extension of the noun 
room, by excluding all other rooms. A he goat (exclud- 
ing the female). 

Some phrases, also, have the same relation to a noun 
that the adjective has, by virtue of the fact that they re- 
strict the extension of the noun. (See Relation of Sec- 
tions and Phrases.) 



The adjectives the and a or an. 

The and A or ax are words of an adjective re- 
lation, when used in a sentence. 

An is used before words commencing with a 
vowel or silent 1i ; as, an egg ; an hour. 

A is used before words commencing with a con- 
sonant or aspirated h ; as, a man ; a hoy ; a hun- 
dred ; etc. A is also used before words commenc- 
ing with u, ?/, and w; as, a union; a yoke; a loag ; 
not an union, etc. 

By some authors these words are denominated articles. 
"Webster says, such a thing as an article can not exist in 
language. He says : 

" There is no word, of class of words, that falls within 
the signification o^ article {a joint), or that can otherwise 
than arbitrarily be brought under that denomination. 
The words called articles are all adjectives or pronouns?'^ 

Do phrases also limit extension ? AVhat are the peculiarities of the 
adjectives a and the ? Do some grammarians call these words articles ? 

* In Latin or Greek. » 




ADJECTIVE. 87 

When they are used with nouns, they are adjectives, 
modifying the signification of nouns, like other adjec- 
tives, for this is their proper office. When they stand 
alone, they are pronouns ; as, /u'c, ille^ ipse, in Latin, 
when used with nouns expressed, are adjectives : hie 
homo, this man; ille homo, the or that man. When they 
stand alone, hie, ille (meaning he, etc.), they stand in the 
place of nouns." 

In English, says Webster, ^^the is an adjective; and 
why it should have been selected as the only definitive 
is very strange, when, obviously, this and that are more 
exactly definitive." Again: — 

" As to the English an or a, which is called, in gram- 
mars, the indefinite article, there are two great mistakes. 
A being considered as the original word, it is said to be- 
come an before a vowel. The fact is directly the reverse. 
An is the original word ; and this is contracted to a, by 
dropping the n before a consonant. 

" But an is merely the Saxon orthography for o?ie, un, 
unus, etc., an adjective found in nearly all the languages 
of Europe, and expressing a single person or thing. It 
is merely a word of number, and no more an article 
than two, three, four, and every other numeral in the 
language." 

In Greek, 5, rj, to ; and in French, le, la, as also the 
article (if such it m^y be termed), in some other lan- 
guages, might with propriety be called definite, inas- 
much as it serves to designate the gender of the noun to 
which it is attached : 6 belongs to masculine nouns, rj to 
feminine, and to to neuter. So le is always joined to 
masculine nouns only, and la to those that are feminine. 
We may say the same of the German dcr, die, das ; and 
the Spanish el, la, lo ; which belong resj)ectively to nouns 
masculine, feminine and neuter. 

Neither does the serve, in any manner, to define, desig- 
nate, or point out the noun to which it is attached ; on 

Are there any reasons why these words should be considered as ad- 
jectives? Give some of those reasons. AVhat is said of an or a? 
What is said of the article in other languages? Does the serve te de- 
fine any word ? 




88 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

the contrary, the is the least definitive of all adjectives, 
unless it bo such words as any^ all, few, many, and the 
like. Let us instance this sentence — "Bring me the 
book." Now, if there be several books in the room, no 
one would be enabled, by the word the, to designate what 
book is meant; and if there be but one book in the 
room, certainly the book is of itself a very definite word, 
and can not be made more so by prefixing the word the. 
Again : " Bring me the large book." Is it not obvious 
that the word large is not only the more definitive word, 
but the only one in the sentence? 

The is evidently a contraction of this, that, these, or 
those, being similar to these words in meaning; and, 
generally, can be readily substituted in the place of one 
of them, the only difficulty being that the is not suffi- 
ciently definitive to express the ordinary meaning of this, 
that, etc. 

Says Webster, quoting — " ' The article a is used in a 
vague sense, to 2>oint out one single thing of a kind; in 
other respects, indeterminate.' — Lowth. 

'' Example — ' I will be an adversary to thine adversa- 
ries ;' that is, in a vague sense, any adversary : indeter- 
minate ! 

" 'And he spake a parable unto them;' that is, any 
parable : indeterminate ! 

'''Thou art a God, ready to pardon;' that is, any 
God ! any one of the kind, in a vague sense, and inde- 
terminate ! " Again : — 

" ' The article a,' says Harris, ' leaves the individual 
unascertained.' Let us examine this position : 

" But Peter took him, saying, stand up ; I, myself, 
also am a man." — Noah Webster. 

(That is, according to Harris, Peter was not assured 
of his own identity ! ) 

Says A to me, " I have a worthy father." Quere : does 
it leave the individual unascertained? Washington was 

Of what word may the be considered a contraction? Is a used in 
a vague sense indefinitely ? 



ADJECTIVE. 89 

a great man ; London is a large city; drunkenness is a 
vice; charity is a virtue; Edward is a scholar; Webster 
was a statesman. Now, in these instances, the adjective 
a does not " leave the noun to which it belongs unascer- 
tained or indeterminate] " neither is it the word that does 
ascertain or determine the " individual,''^ this office being 
performed by some other word in the sentence. Says 
Webster again : 

" On testing the real character of an or a, by usage or 
facts, we find it is merely the adjective one, in its Saxon 
orthography, and that its sole use is to denote one, 
whether the individual is known or unknown, definite 
or indefinite." 

A Mr. Hamblin, who, some years ago, published an 
abridgement of Murray's grammar, introduced this 
highly original sentence : — " The bee is an industrious 
insect." Now, as none of his readers could tell what 
particular bee was meant by the, it being plain that bee 
Avas taken in its broadest extension, including in its mean- 
ing every bee on earth, he accomipanied the sentence 
with this learned commentary : — '' The is a definite arti- 
cle, because it poi?its out the signification of the noun 
bee!'' 

The preceding remarks, it is hoped, will be sufficient 
to induce any one to call the^and a merely adjectives. 
If, however, any teacher, making use of this work, 
should still persist in adopting the superstitious errors 
of past ages, let him not mystify the minds of his schol- 
ars by teaching them that the is any more definite than 
this or that ; or that a or an is any less so than one, two, 
or three. 



What does Webster say about a ? What renders nouns definite ? 
(Attributes.) 

8 




90 ENGLISH GRAMMAU. 



OTHER ADJECTIVES. 

This, that, these, those, are simply adjectives, this 
and tliat being added to nouns in the singular, 
tlhese and those to nouns in the plural This and 
these indicate things near or present; that and 
those indicate things absent, distant, past or re- 
moved. 

Says Smith in his grammar — " In the sentence ' Both 
•wealth and poverty are temptations ; that tends to excite 
pride; tliis^ discontent:* you perceive that the word 
that represents wealth ; and the word this^ poverty. 
This and that do, therefore, resemble pronouns, and may 
for this reason be called pronouns." 

May we not say the same, then, of any other adjec- 
tive? Let us substitute some other adjective in the 
above sentence, and say, " Wealth and poverty are 
temptations : the former tends to excite pride ; the latter^ 
discontent ; former what ? temptation ; latter what ? temp- 
tation. Again : " The first tends to excite j^ride, the 
second (or the other), discontent. Adjectives again. 
Another instance: " This paper is white; that is black.'* 
Now the words white and black are as much pronouns as 
this or that. Or again: '"Good and bad persons dwell 
on earth ; the good shall be rewarded, the bad punished." 
Are good and bad pronouns? Any adjective may be 
used in a sentence without a noun, but in all such cases 
the noun is evidently understood. Such elliptical omis- 
sion oi* the noun does not render the adjective a pronoun 
hy any means. 

What other adjectives are there? What are they, and what are 
their peculiarities? AVhat does Smith say of them? May not almost 
any adjective be used independent of its noun ? Is it, then, a pro- 
noun? 



ADJECTIVE. 91 

Each, every, either,* neither,* some, any, all, 
such, one, few, many, other, former, latter, an- 
other, any other, each other, which f and whatf 
may also be considered as adjectives. 

Sentence : — They looked at one another. 

Antecedent, p. p. nom. verb. 

Construction (Persons) they looked 

Adj. understood, understood. 

ONE (person) (looked) 

Prep. adj. obj. understood. 

AT ANOTHER (person) 

The above construction is in strict accordance with 
the rules of all grammars, and merely supplies the 
ellipses to make the sense complete. If, however, the 
teacher should consider other and its compounds pro- 
nouns, let him cease to call them adjectives ; for such a 
thing as an adjective pronoun can not exist in language. 



SECONDARY OR AUXILIARY ADJECTIVES. 

A secondary adjective is a word that has a re- 
lation to some other adjective; as, a verj/ cold 
day ; an exceedingly long journey. 

These words are, by many authors, considered as ad- 
verbs; but an adverb, as its name indicates, must belong 
to some verb : hence any word that is not joined to a 
verb can not be an ad-verb. Auxiliary adjectives, when 
formed from primitive adjectives add ly, generally, after 
the manner of adverbial terminations ; as, a supremely 
wise ruler; an extremely high tower, etc. 

What other adjectives are there ? Repeat them. Give example of 
their construction. What is an auxiliary adjective? How are tliese 
words considered by some authors ? 



* When not used as corresponding conjunctions, 
t When not relating to an antecedent or consequent ; as what book 
is this? 




92 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Ey means of the auxiliary adjective, words liitlicrto 
considered anomalous are easily parsed; as in the sen- 
tence, "the wall is three-feet thick." By comparison \vc 

see : 

The wall is extremely thick; extremely, aux. adjective. 
The wall is quite thick ; quite, aux. adjective. 
The wall is three-feet thick ; three-feet, aux. adjective. 
The wall is very thick ; ^Qvy^ aux. adjective. 

The term anomaly means that one word has a differ- 
ent construction from another; the term analogy sig- 
nifies that words having the same syntax, relation, or 
construction, must, from the necessity of that very con- 
struction, be the same part of speech. Xow. is the word 
"feet," in the above sentence, analogous to, or anomalous 
from the other words in italics? ^Ye first ask the 
learned grammarian to give us the syntax. He will 
agree that it holds a relation, as arranged in the above 
sentence, with thick ; three feet thick. Let me ask the 
student, who may be reading these remarks, if he ever 
knew a noun constructed with an adjective ; and do 
words become nouns in consequence of that construc- 
tion? If the auxiliary adjective, (or adverb, as stj-led 
by old authors,) is a noun without a governing icord, it 
would form one of the greatest anomalies that ever ex- 
isted in language. 

The adjectives a and the are often used as auxiliary 
adjectives : and in this way a or an is sometimes joined 
to an adjective that belongs to a noun in the plural; a 
thousand stars, a dozen eggs. In such cases one may 
be often used in the place of a; but there are cases in 
which it can not ; as, a few men attended ; a large con- 
course assembled. A, placed before little changes the 
signification; as, "he had little faith" and "he had a 

Are a air^l f^^ ssomfH'mPs used ns auxiliaries? 



ADJECTIVE. 93 

little faith." Observe the effect of a. The same thing 
occurs in the use of a before few. 

Care must be taken not to confound the auxiliary ad- 
jective with the simple adjective, in cases where two or 
more adjectives follow in succession ; as, " a pious, gen- 
erous man," in which case both adjectives belong to man, 
differing from ''a very pious man," where "very" belongs 
to "pious." Eecollcct the primitive adjective has a 
relation to a noun only ; the secondary, to an adjective 
only. 

EXTENSION OF NOUNS. 

[By extension we mean the number of individuals to 
which the noun can be applied; thus: "Man is account- 
able to his Maker." Here, 7nan is a noun, in the singu- 
lar number, denoting but one ; and yet, by its logical 
extension, it includes every individual of the human 
race ; for if there were one human being that was not 
accountable, the proposition, that "Man is accountable 
to his Maker," would not be true.] 

No word in a period or sentence can have any 
greater extension than the other words or sec- 
tions in the same sentence will give it. 

It now remains to be shown how a noun may be 
limited in its extension, or prohibited from extending to 
the whole race, genus or species of which each indi- 
vidual is a part; and this is affected in three ways : 

1. By appropriating to an individual a proper name. 

2. By prefixing an adjective. 

3. By subjoining to a noun a section of an adjective re- 
lation. 



What is the diiference between the adjective and auxiliary adjec- 
tive? How great an extension can any word have? How may a 
noun be limited ? 




94 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



George, David, William and Henry arc proper names 
used to point out certain individuals included in the ex- 
tensive, common name^ man. 

Boston, London, Troy, Eome, Massachusetts, Ohio, 
Somerville, Hudson, St. Lawrence, Mohawk, Mississippi, 
each restricts the extension of the more extensive noun, 
city^ state^ village^ and. river. 

It has been previously shown in what manner nouns 
are restricted by adjectives; but for the better elucida- 
tion of the present subject the following are sul)joincd : 
Table, carving, butcher, pen, pocket, and butter knife, 
are six fractions, of which ^' knife'' is the whole; as, 



O 03 



Table 

carving 

butcher 

pen 

pocket 

butter 



> KNIFE. < 



1 1 I European 
I » Asiatic 
American 
African 



> MAN. < i 2: 



From this view of the subject, we deduce the follow- 
ing rules : 

1. Every greater includes the less. 

2. All the parts united form a whole. 

Again : IN'ouns are restricted in their extension by 
subjoining a section of an adjective relation ;* as, 

1. Father; (all or any father — broadest extension.) 

2. Our father ; (extension limited by our — that is, 
father of us.) 

3. Father wlio art in heaven; (that is, heavenly father. 
!N"ow, as heavenly is simply an adjective, its equivalent 
phrase ^^who art in heaven'' is called an adjective phrase, 
and restricts the noun to w^hich it is subjoined in the 
same manner as any other adjective.) 



What rules are deduced ? In what other way are nouns restricted? 



See Relation of phrases, page 188. 



ADJECTIVE. 95 

4. Heaven hides the book of fate ; of fate, being equiv- 
alent to the adjective fatal, is called an adjective phrase, 
and as such restricts the extension of the noun, book, to 
one class only. 

For a further consideration of this subject, see Eela- 
tive Pronouns and Prepositions. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison; 
the positive, comparative and superlative. 

The positive degree expresses absolute quality 
or simple limitation ; as, an old man. 

The comparative expresses the quality or limi- 
tation in a Idglier or lower degree; as an older 
man ; a better boy ; a less evil. 

The superlative expresses the quality or limita- 
tion in the highest or lowest degree ) as, the oldest 
man ; the best boy ; the least evil. 

The comparative degree is used to compare two nouns 
only ; the superlative compares never less than three, 
and often more. 

The comparative is formed by adding er to the 
positive, or by using the auxiliary adjective more 
in connection with the positive ; as positive dear, 
comparative dearer.; positive extensive, compara'- 
iive more extensive. 

The superlative is formed by adding est to the 
positive, or prefixing most; as dear, dearest; ex- 
cellent, most excellent. 

Many adjectives are compared irregularly ; as : — 
Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Good, better, best. 

Little, less, least. 

Bad, worse, worst. 

Much or many, more, most. 

How many degrees of comparison are there? What are they? 
What do they express? How are they formed? Are some adjectives 
compared irregularly? 




96 ENGLISH a RAM MAR. 

As a general thing adjectives of quality only arc 
comparable. Words, naturally nouns, but by relation 
adjectives, are incomparable. Adjectives, which in them- 
selves express the comparative or superlative degree, 
admit of no comparison ; as, extreme^ excessive, right, 
wrong, infinite, supreme^ eternal, perfect, omnipotent, utter- 
most, etc., etc. 

, The use of double comparatives is incorrect ; as " he 
is the most wisest man ; " " it is more worse now." Most 
and more should be omitted. 



rURTHER CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE ADJECTIVE. 

Adjectives sometimes belong to pronouns. 

Instance : — John is studious. I am studious. John is 
industrious. They are industrious. 

Eelation of John, in the first sentence ; " John is ;" i. e., 
John is nominative to the verb is. Eelation of is ; " John 
is.'' That is, is agrees with John. Eelation of studious ; 
^^ studious John.'' Studious, an adjective, and belongs to 
John. By this we see that no word in that sentence has a 
syntactic relation to any word in' any other sentence; and 
this is true of all sentences. Hence — 

EuLE. — Every word in a sentence must have a 
syntactic relation to some oth'er word in the same 
sentence. 

If this be true, the word ^^ studious,''* in the second sen- 
tence, can not belong to " John " in the first. Hence W(J 
conclude it must have a relation to the pronoun J. 

An adjective can not be joined to a verb. 

Says Mr. Lennie — " The poets sometimes improperly 
use an adjective for an adverb." 

What adjectives do not admit of comparison ? Do adjectives some- 
times belong to pronouns? What rule is given on this page? Can 
an adjective be joined to a verb? What does Lennie saj about this? 




ADJECTIVE. 97 

He then adds, as an example : — 

"The lovely young* Lavinia once had friends, 
And fortune smiled deceitful on her birth." 

Deceitful what? Evidently, deceitful fortune; and de- 
ceitful is an adjective^ belonging to fortune. We think 
Mr. Lennie hath unjustly traduced the i)oets. Again he 
quotes : — 

*^ I, cheerful^ will obey " 

Why may not cheerful be an adjective belonging to the 
pronoun If These words obviously belong to the noun 
or pronoun, and not to the verb. An adjective can not he 
construed with a verb ; hence the above words are adjec- 
tives. 

Again Mr. Lennie gives the following sentence for 
correction : — 

"Eliza always appears amiably;^' implying that the 
word amiably should be armable, inasmuch as it is an 
adjective, and has a relation to the noun Eliza. Does 
not the word amiably or amiable in the above sentence 
occupy a position precisely similar to that of the words 
deceitful and cheerfid above quoted? Most assuredly 
it does. If the first words arc adverbs, why not the 
last? When learned grammarians thus contradict them- 
selves, we think their principles must be at fault. De- 
ceitful^ cheerful^ and amiable^ in the above sentences, are 
adjectives, beyond dispute ; as also the italicised words 
in the following sentences : — 

He throws the ball high (i. e., high ball). 

The house was painted wliite (white house). 

He gives much to the poor:^ 

The good are trulj^ hajypy.f 

The speaker waxed indignant. 

* Iluch belongs to things or alms^ understood ; and poor belongs to 
persons^ understood. 

t Good and happy belong to persons^ understood. Truly is an aux- 
iliary adjective, belonging to happy. 

9 



98 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES. 
Adjectives arc often formed from nouns by adding ly ; 
as, man^ manly ; jfrlncc, princely ; and sometimes by add- 
ing//^/; as, truths truthful; mirth, mirthful; Adjectives 
are sometimes compounded with other words and termi- 
nations ; as, senselesSf piteous, righteous, fulsome, loath- 
some, handsome, etc., etc. 

« 

OF THE PRONOUN. 
A PRONOUN* is a word used instead of the noun : 
as, the man is industrious^ therefore he is con- 
tented. 

Note. — If, in the above definition, yon read the three 
words in italics thus — (man), he is — you give to the pro- 
noun he its true rehition ; for all pronouns have a double 
relation ; and all refer to their antecedents for gender, 
person and number, and to another w^ord for case : hence, 
HE is a personal pronoun, standing for, and agreeing 
with MAN (in gender, number, and person), and in the 
nominative case, because it precedes the verb is. There- 
fore, no word of a single relation can possibl}'' be a |;7'o- 
noun — as, every ^ man — this adjective can not be a pro- 
noun, because it stands for no noun whatever ; hence, 
there can be no such thing as an adjective pronoun, or a 
pronominal adjective. 

There are two sorts of pronouns, personal and 
RELATIVE. Personal pronouns are used to repre- 
sent the three persons oi nown^ (fa^^^y second, third). 
I represents the first p>erson; as, / am [I, the 
speaker) . Thou represents the second jjerson ; as, 
thou art {tlioii^ the person '^ spohen to'^).. He, she 

■^ Pronoun is derived from the two latin words pro (for), and nomen 
(a name), signifying that it stands for a name or noun. 



How are adjectives sometimes formed? Are they sometimes com- 
pounded with otlier words? How? What is a pronoun? Vv'hat is 
the relation of a pronoun ? How many sorts of pronouns are there ? 
What are they? Do the personal pronouns always represent certain 
persons of the noun ? From what is the word pronoun derived ? 



PKONOUN. 99 

and it represent the tliird person; as, he is (He, 
third person spohen of). The relative pronouns 
may represent any one of these persons. 

The use of the pronoun is to obviate the too frequent 
repetition of the noun. As a part of speech, it is not 
an absolute necessity in any language, but is one of those 
ingenious contrivances, with which all languages abound, 
to make our words and sentences fall smooth and harmo- 
niously upon the ear. 

Personal pronouns, like nouns, have mimher 
and case as well as person. In the tlilrd person 
they also have gender ; as, lie^ site, it, being re- 
spectively masculine, feminine and neuter/ 

They vary, either in form or termination, for the dif- 
ferent cases ; hence they are declinable. 



DECLENSION OF THE PRONOUN. 
FORM. 

SINGULAR. PLUR 

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 



Case. 



MAS. FEM. NEUT. 

Nominative, I, thou, he, she, it. We, ye or you, they. 

p ,, , f™y» ^^y-t ^is? ^^®^^ ^^^j <5"^'5 your, their. 

1 o^.sEssiVE, I mine, thine, " own, hers, its; ours, yours, theirs. 

Objective, me, thee, him, her, it; us, you, them. 

Accusative, me, thee, him, her, it; us, you, them. 

Independent, — thou, — — — — ye, 

Absolute, I, thou, he, she, it; we, ye or you, they. 

Pronouns have the same relations as nouns. 

And it is by this relation that the case is determined : 
no reliance can, therefore, be placed on a table of " de- 
clension," in determining this attribute. ]^o noun or 
pronoun can have a case until it has a relation. The 
above table gives the forms of the cases for convenience 

What may relative pronouns represent? What is the use of the 
pronoun? Do personal pi'ououns have number and case? Do Ihcy 
have gender? Do they vary to form the different cases? Kopeat 
the declension of the personal pronouns? Do pionouns have the 
same relations as nouns ? What is determined by this relation ? 



100 ENCILISII GRAMxMAR. 

of reference; but a pronoun can not properly be said to 

have a case or ijositlon until it is incorporated in u 

sentence. 

A pronoun must be referred to its antecedent 

or consequent : 

For unless a word has an antecedent or consequent, 
for which it stands, it can not be a pronoun. 



COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Compound personal pronouns are formed by 
adding self to the simple pronouns ; as^ myself 
himself etc. 

All the cases of the personal j^ronouns, however, can 
not be so compounded ; as we can not say Iself, thouself, 
heself. It is, in fact, to the possessive and objective or ac- 
cusative cases, only, that self can be added. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Eelative pronouns, like personals, relate to 
antecedents, with which they agree in gender,, 
number and person. 

There are five relative pronouns, icJio, iclilchj 
what, that, and as. Who is declined thus : 

Nom. poss. obj. ace. ind. abs. 

who, whose, whom, whom, who, who. 

The plural is like the singular. .AH the other relatives 
are indeclinable. 



COMPOUND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

What and as are sometimes used in a twofold sense; 
and are then called compound relative pronouns, equal to 
*^the thing or things which;" as, "Heaven hides from 

To what must a pi'onoun be referred? Why? How are compound 
personal pronouns formed? Can all the cases of personal pronouns 
be compounded? l)o relative pronouns relate to antecedents? Do 
they agree with them in gender, number and person? How many 
relative pronouns are there ? What are they ? How is ivho declined ? 
Are the other relatives declinable ? What are the compound relative 
pronouns? to what are they equal? 



PRONOUN. • 101 

brutes icliat men ; from men what spirits know ; " i. e., 

hides from brutes the tilings tchich men know, and from 

men the things which spirits know. Again : — 

C He speaks as he thinks. 

I He speaks the thoughts which he thinks. 

From ivhat is recorded. 

From the fact which is recorded. 

Ey changing ivhat or as into the thing which^ or other 

words of like import, as above, to correspond with the 

evident sense of the sentence, we shall easily be able to 

construe and parse the Avords. 

Observations. 

If the words othe?^ another, some, any, one, and the like, 
be called pronouns, it must be clearly established that 
they stand for some noun. In this case they cease to be 
adjectives, for the nature of an adjective and a pronoun is 
as opposite as that of a verb and a preposition. Better 
far to- call them adjectives and supply the noun to which 
they belong. 

If a pronoun can be construed with a noun, then it 
would be grammatically correct to use such expressions 
as, ^^give me them books ;'' " lend me them pens,''' etc., in- 
stead of using the adjective these, as these books, those 
pens, etc. 

Of the relative pronouns it is proper to observe that 
ivho is always used in speaking of persons ; and ivhat and 
as in speaking of things. Which and that are generally 
used in speaking of things, but occasionally also applied 
to persons. 

That, when used as a relative pronoun, does not admit 
the preposition ivith before it. AVe can not say: "this 
is the same man with tliat you are acquainted;" but 
must use whom in the place of that. Smith, however, 
says we may say: "He is the same man that you are 
acquainted with ;" a very improper, inelegant and eri-o- 
neous sentence for several reasons: 1st. It is precisely 
like the first, when construed. 2d. It unnecessarily 

Give examples of compound relative pronouns. Can the same AvorJ 
be an adjective and pronoun at the same time? What may be ob- 
served of the relative pvononns? What is said of that? 




102 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

closes the sentence with a preposition ; and 3d. It vio- 
lates tlic riiio at the commencement of this paragraph, 
by malcini^ that the object oi" icith. 

Wiien w/io, which and ichat arc used as interrogatives, 
the word or words for which they stand follow in tho 
answer and for that reason are called subsequents instead 
oi^ antecedents ; the former signifying ^'■following after ;'^ 
and the latter ^^ going before.'" Which has no possessive 
form of its own ; we use therefore whose or of which. ; as, 
"the tree tuhose bark is rough;" or the tree, the bark of 
which is rouii'h. 

Who, which and what are often compounded witli ever 
and soever; as, ivhoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever^ 
whichever and whichsoever. Tho two latter are considered 
inelegant and seldom used. These compounds are used 
when we wish to give the pronoun its broadest exten- 
sion, or to ajiply it to some j^erson or thing unknown. 
We might, with great propriety consider these four 
latter words as mere adjectives, belonging to persoii or 
thing understood. By supplying ellipses, which and wJiat 
may, in all cases, be construed as adjectives. The word 
own may be construed as a noun, pronoun or adjective; 
generally the latter, signifying peculiar possession. 

Himself, herself, themselves, etc., are often used in the 
nominative, though inelegantly so. They are used cor- 
rectly in the objective, accusative, and sometimes the 
absolute; as, he reads to himself; she killed herself; them- 
selves being famished, etc. 

For a further consideration of the words that and aSj 
see conjunctions. 



VERBS. 

A VERB is a word used to express the existence 
or actio?!, performed or received by its nominative. 

The verb, from the Latin verbum, a word, is the word 
paramount to all others in a sentence, as the life giving 
principle. The noun or subject of a sentence may be 

What is said of who, which and tvhat 9 Are they often compounded 
"with ever and soever? What is said of herself, himself and themselves? 
What is a verb? From what is it derived? 



VERBS. 103 

compared to a body, of which the verb is the soul or 
spirit. These two words alone (i. e., the nom. and verb, 
as subject and predicate,) form the sentence, all other 
words, as adjectives, adverbs, etc., being non-essential 
further than to serve as a garh with which to beautify 
the living form of a sentence. 

All verbs imply the existence of their nominative ; for 
if we behold a work performed we must infer the ex- 
istence of some agent capable of performing it. All 
verbs, however, do not express action or motion. A 
simple definition of the verb is : " it is that word in a 
sentence which asserts, that something or some person 
exists, acts, or is acted upony 

There are three kinds of verbs, transitive, in- 
transitive, and PASSIVE. 

Transitive verbs have a nommative before 
them and an object after them; as, James ExiTS 
fruit. 

Intransitive verbs have a nominative, but no 
object; as, Henry tvalks. 

A PASSIVE VERB is the reversed form of the 
transitive verb, and generally expresses action 
received by its nominative ; as, fruit is eaten hij 
James, 

The old-time division of the verb into six classes, 
active transitive, active intransitive, neuter trans., tieufer 
intrans., active passive and neuter passive is now disre- 
garded. By the present method, the idea of motion does 
not enter into the formation or classification of verbs. 

The word transitive (from the Latin transeo, or more 
directly from the supine of that verb, transitum, signify- 

What do all verbs imply? What is a simple definition of a verb? 
How many kinds of verbs are there? What are they? Describe 
them ? From what is the word transitive derived ? What docs it 
signify ? 



104 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

ing to (JO over,) plainly indicates that the action passes 
over or goes over from the nominative to the object ; as, 

John strikes the tabley 

in which sentence the action is said to pass from JoJin to 
table. The same thing is equally true of sentences where 
there is neither action nor motion ; as, 

The table supports the bookj 

from which we see that motion has nothing to do with 
the formation of verbs, the only reliable guide being the 
relation which the words sustain to each other. As, for 
instance, in the above sentence, ^^ table supports book,'' 
the relation of supports is duplicate ; that is, it has a rela- 
tion to table on the one side, and to book on the other. 
Hence: 

All transitive verbs must have a double re- 
lation. . 

The contrary is true of intransitive (or not-go-ovcr) 
verbs: that is, there can be no ^'■passing over"" to an ob- 
ject, from the fact that intransitive verbs require no 
object; as in the sentence. 

The moon smiles, 

there is but one relation, and that is from the verb 
smiles to its nominative moon, there being no object; as 
it would be improper to say the ^^moon smiles anything.''' 
Hence : 

All intransitive verbs can have but a single re- 
lation. 

From the above two rules we deduce this axiom : all 
verbs of a double relation, in all languages, are transitive 
verbs ; and, a priori, all verbs of a single relation are in- 
trans-iT-ive (or not-go-over) verbs. 

Does motion have any thinq^ to do with the formation of verbs ? 
What, must transitive verbs have? What do all intransitive verbs 
have? 



VERB. 



105 



I 



Intransitive, (single rel.) Transitive, (double rel.) 

Man walks. John studies grammar. 

Tempest blows. God made the world. 

Trees grow. Trees hear fruit. 

John runs. John drives a horse. 

This list might be increased by inserting every verb 
in the language ; in which case all the transitive verbs 
would arrange themselves under the second column of 
the plus relation. From which it is plain that the only 
division of verbs founded on the language is to be traced 
to their single and double relation. 

1. Single relation, or intransitive. 

2. Double relation, or transitive. 

Passive ^-5^ verbs, being but the transposed or reversed 
form of the transitive, may, very properly, be included in 
that class. The passive form is used often when the 
agent of the verb is unknown ; as, a man was killed ; tlio 
house icas set on fire. The passive form can always bo 
changed to the transitive by supplying the real nomina- 
tive, if known ; or the word somebody , or soraething, if 
unknown ; as, somebody killed a man ; somebody set fire to 
the house, etc. And, vice versa, the transitive verb can 
be changed to the passive j as, John strikes the table ; 
i. e., table is struck by John. But the intransitive never 
can be made passive ; as, John walks ; we can not say, 
'' somebody or something is walked by John."" 

OF MOODS. 

Mood is the different form of the verb, to rep- 
resent the manner of existing or acting. 

Can all transitive verbs be changed into the passive form, and all 
passive into the transitive form? Can intransitive verbs be changed 
into the passive form ? From what is the word passive derived ? 

■"•• Passive, from the supine of the Latin verb patior^ to suffer^ or to 
receive, signifies receiving, or suffering, the action of the nominative. 



106 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

There are five moods — indicative, potential, 

SUBJUNCTIVE, IMPERATIVE and INFINITIVE. 

The INDICATIVE MOOD indicates that its nomina- 
tive case exists or acts, either afTirmatively or in- 
terrogatively ; in a positive or negative sense. 

Affirmative. < -^ -r , ^.^ . .^ 

[ JNcg. — John did not eat an orange. 

-r f Pos. — Will John eat an orange? 

Interrogative. ■{ -^j -rxr-;, ^ t u ^ o 

( JNcg. — Will not John eat an orange ? 

The POTENTIAL MOOD dcnotcs the possibility, 
liberty, power, will or obligation of its nominative 
to exist : as, I caii strike the table^ but I will not ; 
you ma?/ return^ if you please. 

Can strike, denotes that the act is possible ; but I icill 
not {strike it), imj^lies that no one can act against his will. 
I can strike you, but I will not that action ; therefore, you 
will escape with impunity. I could go to New York if I 
WOULD. Could, denotes that the act of going is possible 
in itself, while the section, if I would, implies that no 
possible existence or action can take place against the 
loill of liim on whom its performance dcj)ends, whether 
of God or his creatures. 

"What wo would do, we should do when we would, 
for this would changes." — -SJiakspeare. 

In all languages, except the English, this mood is de- 
nominated the SUBJUNCTIVE. The only object of this 
change in the English seems to have been to get a better 
and more ajoproj^riate name. The fact that, in other 
languages, this mood is subjoined or connected back to a 
previous sentence by the conjunction that, or some simi- 
lar word, renders it very properly the subjunctive mood. 
This is not the case in English. 

IIow many moods are there? What arc they? AVhat does tlie in- 
dicative mood indicate? The potential mood? What is this mood 
called in other languages ? V/hy ? 



VERBS. 107 

The subjunctive''' mood is used when we would 
express a douht or uncertainty regarding an action. 

The indicative form is often used in the sense of the 
subjunctive ; and some authors give this form in their 
tables of conjunction as a second for^m of the subjunctive. 

]!!^oah Webster, in the introduction to his dictionary, 
devotes a large space to the consideration of this mood, 
showing the indicative form to be correct. He says : — 

*' The propriety of using the indicative form of the 
verb to express a present or past act conditionallij docs 
not rest solely on usage ; it is most correct on principle. 
It is well known that most of the words which are used 
to introduce a condition or hypothesis, and called, most 
improperly, conjunctions^ are verhs^ having not the least 
affinity to the class of words used to connect sentences. 
If is the Saxon gif^ to give, having lost its first letter ; ?/, 
for the ancient gif. Though is a verb now obsolete, ex- 
cept in the imperative mood. Now let us analyze this 
conditional tense of the verb. ' If the man knows his 
true interest, he will avoid a quarrel.' Here is an omis- 
sion of the word that^ after if. The true original phrase 
was, ' If that the man knows,' etc. ; that is, ' give that 
(admit the fact that) the man knows, etc.,' then the con- 
sequence follows, he will avoid a quarrel." 

Again : "Admit that the man knows his interest. We 
have then, decisive proof that the use of the indicative 
form of the verb after if, when it expresses a conditional 
event, in present time, is most correct ; indeed, it is the 
only correct form. This remark is equally applicable 
to the past tense." ,. 

Smith, in his grammar, says : '' When any verb, in 
the Subjunctive Mood, present tense, has a reference to 



When is the Subjunctive Mood used? Is the Indicative form some- 
times used in tlie Subjunctive? What does Webster say about this 
Mood? From what is the word Subjunctive derived? 



■•• Subjunctive from the Latin suhjungo, to join together, indicates 
that the sentence in which the subjunctive occurs is connected back 
to the former sentence by a conjunction. 



108 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

future time, wc should use the subjunctive form;" as, 
if thou love, if he love, etc. But, "when a verb in the 
Subjunctive Mood, present tense, has no rrference to 
future time, we should use the common (i. e. Indicative) 
FORM ; " as, if thou lovest, if he loves, etc. 

This distinction, at first sight, seems a good one ; but 
we find that some of the best writers use the Indicative 
form when future time is clearly indicated; as : 

"If America is not to be conquered." — Lord Chatham. 
"If we are to be satisfied with assertions." — Fox. 
"The politician looks for a power that our workmen 
call a purchase, and \f he finds the power." — Burke. 

^^If he finds his collection too small." — Johnson. 

"The prince that acquires new territory, if he finds it 
vacant." — Dr. Franklin. 

"If any persons thus qualified are to be found.'' — George 
Washington. 

"If discord and disunion shall icound it, (Liberty) — if 
party strife and blind ambition shall haick at and tear it — 
if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and 
necessary restraint shall succeed to separate it from that 
union by which alone its existence is made sure, it will 
fall, if fall it viust, amid the j^roudest monuments of its 
own glory and on the very spot of its origin." — Daniel 
Webster. 

"But nothing he'll reck if they let him sleep on." — Bic- 
rial of John Moore. 

"If I am gone from you when you read this." — Willis. 

"We might continue these quotations, ad infinitum, but 
the above will doubtless suffice to convince any rational 
person that the Subjunctive Mood, in the Indicative 
FORM, is used as often to represent future action as the 
past or present. 

We must, therefore conclude, either that all verbs fol-. 
lowing the conjunctions, if, though, unless, except, whether, 

What does Smith say ? Is the indicative form used to indicate future 
time? Give examples. How is the Subjunctive Mood known ? 



VERBS. 109 

etc., are in the Subjunctive Mood, or that there is no 
Subjunctive whatever. Since there are a few forms of 
the verb, representing a contingent action, and usually 
subjoined to a previous sentence by one of the conjunc- 
tions, which can not be used in an Indicative sense, we can 
not say there is no Subjunctive Mood. Hence we will 
say : 

Any verb following any of the conjunctions, 
if, tliougli, unless, except, ivlietlier, since, aWioucjh, 
lest, notwltlistanding , jpravicled, is in the Sub- 
junctive. 

Sometimes there is an intervening clause between the 
Subjunctive and the conjunction ; as, " if, ichen I return, 
I find you convalescent, I shall be pleased." The phrase 
'•^lolien I return'' is parenthetical, as indicated by the 
commas placed before and after it, and is not, in reality, 
the immediate subsequent of the conjunction if. When 
properly construed the sentence reads : " I shall be 
pleased if I find you convalescent, when I return." This 
arrangement brings the conjunction if between the sen- 
tences it connects, and before the Subjunctive ^ntZ, which 
it renders contingent ; and, also, places the parenthetical 
clause ^^when I return" at the close of the sentence where 
it seems more properly to belong. 

Lennie says, the Subjunctive is '' preceded by a con- 
junction and followed by another verb; as, 'If thy 
presence go not with us, carry us not up hence.' " 

This, so far from being the Eule, is the exception ; for 
it is obvious that if "i/" is a conjunction, it must connect 
some word or sentence. We have already shown that 
this is bad arrangement, in the previous sentence, " If I 
find you convalescent," etc. Hence, when the sentences 

When a parenthetical clause intervenes after the subjunctive con- 
junction, which verb is subjunctive? What does Lennie say? Is 
this always true ? 




110 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

are properly construed, and the conjunction placed be- 
tween those sentences it connects, the Subjunctive will 
immediately follow one of the conjunctions, ?/, though, 
etc. ; and no sentence, unless parenthetical, explicative 
or irrelevant can follow. For a test of this rule, examine 
and construe all sentences by the best writers, containing 
a Subjunctive verb. 

It must be borne in mind that it is the conjunction, 
and not the form of the verb that indicates the Subjunc- 
tive Mood. It is frequently the case that, not only the 
Indicative, but the Potential form is used in the Sub- 
junctive — indeed the potential form is, apparently, more 
often used than any other, and that, too^ in all its tenses ; 
as : 

If I may he permitted ; present or future time. 

If I can assist you ; " " 

If I must yield ; " " 

If I might conjecture ; 'present time.* 

If I could escape ; present, past, or future. f 

If I would engage ; " *' " 

If I could have seen ; past time, 
etc., etc., etc. 

The imperative and infinitive forms are never used in 
the subjunctive : hence, in the sentence " if to be a sol- 
dier is your desire,'' the verb to be is not in the subjunc- 
tive after if not only because it has the infinitive form, 
but because the sentence, transposed, reads : " if it is 
your desire to be a soldier,'' showing is to be the true sub- 
junctive. 

Does the form of the verb xilways indicate the subjunctive mood? 
Is the potential form sometimes used in the subjunctive mood? Give 
examples. Are the imperative and infinitive forms ever used in this 
mood? 

* Although might is regarded as the form of the imperfect potential, 
it nevertheless certainly indicates pi*esent time without have^ as above. 

t "I thought if I could escape;" j:>a5i. "I could escape this mo- 
ment;" pres. 



VERBS. Ill 

The imperative mood is used for commanding, 
exhorting and entreating; as, "John! returoi to- 
morrow." Soldiers ! stand firm. 

This mood has but one tense and one person — the pre- 
sent tense, the second jDerson — as all commands must bo 
given to a second person (not to a third), and must be 
given at the present time. 

The infinitive mood expresses the verb in gene- 
ral terms. It has neither nominative case, person, 
nor number. It is usually indicated by to being 
placed before it ; as, to walk ; to have walked. 

This mood will always take the word to before it, if 
not already expressed; as, "I saw him go to school;" 
i. e., " I saw him to go to school." " Let little children 
come unto me ;" i. e., " Let little children to come unto 
me." By this it will be seen, that the use of to after 
such verbs, as see, let, hear, and some others, is very in- 
elegant; a-nd, although we must supply the word in 
parsing, we must omit it in speaking or writing. 

The infinitive is often used as a nominative; as, to see 
the sun is pleasant; to die (is), to sleep, no more" (i. e., 
is no more than to sleep) ; " to sleep (is) perchance to 
dream. 

As the infinitive has no nominative case, it must have 
some other governing word, and this governing Avord is 
usually a verb, or the accusative after the verb ; but, in 
some cases, the infinitive is governed by adjectives (as, 
he is eager to learn) ; sometimes by pronouns, when they 
are the accusative of a verb (as, I saw him (to) depart; 
I told hi?n to return, etc.) The participle, also, consid- 

For what is the imperative mood used? What peculiarity about 
this mood? What does the infinitive express? What peculiarities 
about it? How is it indicated? Is to always understood when not 
expressed? Is the infinitive sometimes used as a nominative? How 
is the infinitive governed? 




112 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

crcd as part of the verb, governs the infinitive; as, ho 
is going to return ; he is beginning to learn, etc. In some 
instances the infinitive seems to have no governing 
word ; as, " to j^roceed with the story," " to tell the 
truth," etc. We niay, however, supply the words "7/" / 
rtm," before " to jproceed^'' *' to tell," etc., which would be 
more consistent. 



OF THE PARTICIPLE. 

The participle is a certain form of the verb, 
and derives its name from the fact that it partici- 
fates of the nature of a verb and an adjective ; as, 
'•' the soldier being looimded ;" i. e., wounded^ soldier^ 
making wounded an adjective; or, soldier, who 
was loomided, making was loounded a verb. 

The participle can always he thus construed, despite the 
seeming improbabilities in the case ; as, " on opening the 
box I found it empty.'' The word opening, as an adjective, 
belongs to the pronoun /; as a verb, it may be construed 
thus : " I, who was opening the box, found, etc." It is in 
its construction as a verb, only, that it can be made to 
govern the accusative box. 

The participle may also be construed as a noun, in the 
objective after a preposition, or the nominative to a 
verb ; as, " on opening the box, I found it empty." 
Opening, as a noun, is the object of the preposition on. 
Hence, the same participle may be construed either as 
a noun, a verb, or an adjective ; nay, must be construed 
both as noun, verb and adjective, in all Sentences like the 
above. " The taking of the census is attended by diffi- 
culties." The word taking is nominative to the verb is. 
In this sentence taking is not properly a partici2)le, 

What is the participle? From what is its name derived? Give 
example of the construction of a participle. May the participle be 
construed as a noun? 



VERBS. 113 

although it may be construed as such ; for, as an adjec- 
tive, it may qualify person understood ; and, as a verb, 
we may say ^^ person, who is taking the census." But 
when we use this construction, we must change the rest 
of the sentence, and say, " the joerson who is taking the 
census meets with difficulties." 

The participle has three tenses and six forms, as 

follows: 

^ , f loving, 

Present, | ^^^ing loved. 

Perfect, { ^^/^ j^^^^ 

/-. A -D p i. ^ having loved, 

Compound Perfect, ^^^^-^^^^ ^^^^ 1^^.^^^ 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 

The Auxiliary Verbs are used to form the 
moods and tenses of the verb. 

They are, have, do, be, shall, icill, may, can, with their 
variations ; and must, which has no variation. These 
auxiliary verbs are each confined to a certain mood or 
tense, as in the plan on page 121, by carefully studying 
which, you can always ascertain the mood and tense of 
any verb. The ed termination of the past tense is a 
contraction of did, the past of do, as John walk did, or 
John did walk, and always denotes the action expressed 
by the verb, to which it is prefixed, to be did, or done, 
past, ov finished ; as, I loved, I rvded, I smWed, which de- 
notes the actions of loving, ruling, smiling, to be did or 
done actions. 



How many tenses and forms has the participle? Repeat them. For 
■what are the auxiliary verbs used? What are the auxiliaries? What 
do they denote. 

10 




114 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

EXPOSITION AND DEFINITION OF AUXILIARIES. 

We will that execution be done upon the earl. 
We will that you execute the earl. 
We will execute the earl. 

1. We will execute the earl to-morrow; there arc evi- 
dently two actions, one of the mind, expressed by wiU^ 
which denotes a present determination that somebody 
shall perform the other future action, denoted by execute. 

2. I will go to-morrow ; will denotes a present deter- 
mination of the mind, that my body shall perform a 
future action, expressed by go; to-morrow qualifies go, 
not will. Will, denotes a present mental action. Go, 
denotes a future bodily action. 

3. I now will, or determine, that my body shall here- 
after go to New York, next week : Query. Does will and 
go express but one action? If so, which is it, present or 
future ? of the mind or body? Am I to go to jS'ew York 
next week, and will it afterward ? 

4. You ought to write to your father; ought denotes 
obligation, or duty. 

Ought is the obsolete past tense of the verb, to owe, 
and signifies an indebtedness. More properly, ought is 
the past tense of the obsolete verb ought. See Web. Diet. 

5. She may be at home ; may denotes possibility. 

6. You may go home ; 7nay denotes liberty or permis- 
sion. 

7. I can strike the table ; can denotes possibility. 

8. May you find your friends well ; inay denotes an 
act of the mind, a wish. 

9. You must return ; must denotes necessity. • 

10. They might and should read ; might denotes that '^.^ 
they have or had the power of performing an act, repre- 
sented as obligatory by the word should. 

11. I would that all men might be saved; would de- 
notes a desire or wish of the mind ; tnight denotes possi- 
bility. 



i 



VERBS. 115 

12. You should repent; should denotes obligation aris- 
ing from duty. 

13. He would not read ; would denotes a resolution of 
the mind. 

14. I do write; do signifies action, performance. 

15. If he be saved : be denotes existence. 

16. I shall conquer ; shall rej)resents a future act as 
sure and certain. 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING THE AUXILIARIES. 
Do and its past form did are used to give greater em- 
phasis to the verbs to which they are attached. Shall 
and will are often used emphatically, and sometimes im- 
peratively; as, you shall return, I icill enter, etc. Can 
often signifies not only mere possibility, but great cer- 
tainty^ ; as, I can conquer my enemies. 



OF THE TENSES. 



Tense is tlie division of the verb in such a way 
as to express different periods of time. 

There are six tenses, the Present, Perfect, 
Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, and Future Per- 



fect. "" 



The Present tense represents present time, or 
whatever is passing at the present moment; as, 
I walk, I am walking, I do ivalk, I am loved, etc. 

The Present tense may be, and very often is, used to 
denote future time; as, "I am going to town to-morrow;^^ 
*'you will^ doubtless, he gone when I arrived Particu- 
larly when the Subjunctive Mood is used: as, "?/ you 



For what other purpose are the auxiliaries used? What is tense? 
How many tenses are there, and what are their names ? What does 
the Present tense represent ? How is the Present tense often used ? 




116 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

sell the horse, return immediately;" ^^ifjondo receive 
the money by the first of the next month.'' The words 
am going, is going, are going, etc., when joined to verbs, 
in imitation of the French always express future time ; 
as, I am going to leave my home to-morrow. I am going 
to study my lesson directly, etc. 

This tense is sometimes used by historians in animated 
descriptions, to bring past actions, as it were, in array 
before us ; as, " He enters the territory of the peaceable 
inhabitants ; he fights and conquers, takes an immense 
booty which he divides among his soldiers, and returns 
home to enjoy an empty triumph." 

The Perfect Tense represents time just now 
completed ; as, I have returned just now. I have 
coynpleted my educatioiij a little while ago. 

If we suppose the Present tense to represent the pass- 
ing moment of time, we shall then see that the Perfect 
tense brings all past actions up to the very present mo- 
ment ; as, I have just eaten my breakfast. 

The Imperfect tense represents any past time ; 
as, / returned this morning ; Noah was saved ; 
God existed before the creation. 

" This tense," says Noah Webster, " is not properly 
named imperfect. All verbs of this form denote actions 
finished, past and perfect; as, 'In six days God made 
the world.' Imperfect or wfinished action is expressed 
in English in this manner: he was reading; they were 
writing.''' 

There is much truth in the above. It would be much 
better to denominate this the indefinite tense, or the in- 
definite p)ast, after the majiner of French, or rather an 
improvement on the French, who call this tense the^re- 
terite definite ; the j^erfect of the English being called 
preterite indefinite. If these names were directly re- 

What does the perfect, tense denote? The imperfect ? What does 
Noah Webster say of this tense ? 



VERBS. 117 

versed, they would then indicate, with great precision, 
the time of the respective tenses. 

The imperfect or indefinite tense is very often used in 
the sense of the perfect; as, "I went, just noiv^ to the 
postoffice." " I went, a moment ago, into the other room." 
This tense may even be used to denote time much nearer 
the present moment tlian the perfect ; as, I looked at you 
just now, and saw you smile as I have seen you smile 
many a time before.''' To convince any person that the 
above is good English, let him attempt to transpose the 
tenses in the above, " I have looked," etc. 

Might, could, would and should, the words used to indi- 
cate the imperfect of the potential (Latin subjunctive), 
are all occasionally used to represent future time, and 
almost always so used when placed after a subjunctive 
conjunction; as, " if it should rain to-morrow;" " if I 
might be permitted •" " if I could translate the sentence;" 
" if he would pay me the balance of the debt," etc. It 
may be thought that some of the above indicate present 
time ; granted : yet no one, however stupid, could for a 
moment suppose that they indicate time that is past or 
imperfect. 

The IMPERFECT is often used to express present time, 
in the indicative, when it is employed immediately after 
another verb of the same tense ; as, " Then Manasseh 
knew that the Lord, he luas God" (i. e., is God). "It 
was just remarked that marine fossils did not comprise 
vegetable remains." " Cicero vindicated the truth, and 
inculcated the value of the precept, that nothing was 
truly useful which teas not honest." " lie undertook to 
show that justice was of perpetual obligation." " The 
apostle knew that the present season was the only time 
allowed for this preparation." " I told him if he went 
to-morrow, I should go with him." This latter indicates 
future time. Webster declares that these are incorrect 
modes of expression, and contrary to the genius of the 
language ; nevertheless, they have the full sanction and 
approbation of every distinguished writer and S2)eaker 



How is the imperfect, tense often used ? IIow are might, could, would 
and should occasionally used? When particularly so used? Does the 
imperfect often express present time? Give examples. Are these ex- 
pressions considered proper ? 




118 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

of the present age. It would be better, in nearly every 
case, to substitute the infinitive or present indicative for 
that tense ; as, " Manasseh knew the Lord to he God." 
" It was remarked that fossils do not, etc." " Cicero 
vindicated that nothing is useful, etc." '■ I told him if 
ho should go to-morrow, etc." In this latter case the 
subjunctive, in the potential form, seems the better ex- 
pression. 

Webster urges the adopting of this form of speech, 
and we would also heartily advocate it. 

But when both verbs point to a past action, the use of 
the imperfect is correct ; as, " he saw that his friend was 
falling down the cliff;" " he held that the law of nations 
prohibited the use of poisoned arms" {i. e., prohibited at 
that time). 

The difference to be observed in the use of the perfect 
and imperfect tense is briefly this : The perfect tense 
should be employed when we speak of some period of 
tiine, not yet completed : as, I have icritten a letter to-day. 
I have paid my bills this month; I have studied French 
this year^ etc. To-day, this month and this year being 
periods of time not yet fully elapsed, we use the perfect 
tense. On the contrary, we use the imperfect tense in 
speaking of a period of time that is fully completed ; as, 
I icent to town yesterday, or last week, or last month ; but 
not correct to say this morning, this iceek, etc., unless fol- 
lowed by another verb in the imperfect, expressing a 
past action ; as, " I went to town this morning, and met 
my friend." The perfect tense is also used in speaking 
of the past acts of a nation, people, tribe, class or, sect 
not yet extinct; as, " The Jesuits have (always) claimed 
great power;" "The English have conquered many 
countries," etc. But of the Eomans, we would not say, 
"they have subdued the Gauls," or the "Eomans have 
conquered the Britons," since they no longer exist as a 
nation. 

The pluperfect tense is used to indicate an 
action that had taken place at or before the per- 

What would be a better substitute for the imperfect, when used to 
express present time? Give examples. Should the imperfect be some- 
times used? When? What is the difference to be observed in the use 
of the perfect and imperfect tense ? For what is the pluperfect tense 
used ? 



VERBS. 119 

formance of some other act; as, I had JinisJied 
when you returned. 

The pluperfect must have existed prior to tlie im- 
perfect : hence we never can use the pluperfect tense 
unless it precedes a subjoined clause containing a verb 
in the imperfect or pluperfect tense ; as, God had created 
the world when he formed man. This subjoined clause 
may be omitted, if it has been previously mentioned 
either interrogatively or in direct affirmation ; as, " What 
had you been doing previous to my return?" "I had 
visited the fair, and had been to the concert " The plu- 
perfect goes back to the very beginning of all time ; as, 
" if God had not existed prior to the creation, the uni- 
verse would have been a blank." 

The future tense simply denotes future time ; 
as, I will return (^. e., at some future time). 

The future perfect denotes a period of time 
antecedent to the future simple ; as, I shall have 
accomplished my design before you will be able to 
baffle my efibrts. 

This tense is generally followed by the present indica- 
tive, in the sense of the future; as, "I shall have com- 
pleted my studies when you return." The future perfect 
occupies a place nearer the present than the future sim- 
ple ; as, " I shall have finished this task (on which I am 
now employed) by the time you will come back." 
' Shall, which indicates the first future, in the first per- 
son, simply foretells, as, I shall go. In the second and 
third person, shall promises, commands and threatens; 
as, thou shalt not steal ; " ye shall surely die." In inter- 
rogative sentences, we find the reverse ; as, shall I return 

When only can we use the pluperfect tense? Give example. How 
far back does the pluperfect reach? What does the future tense de- 
note ? The future perfect ? By what is this tense sometimes followed ? 
What is said of shall ? 




120 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



to-morrow? i. e., may I (permission)? Shall never ex- 
presses the will or purpose of its nominative. "We do 
not say, " I shall succeed," but " I will succeed." " I 
shall be rewarded," indicates the purpose of some other 
person to reward. 



SCALE OF THE TENSES. 



PAST. 



■1 






^ 


. 




r ^ 


ir 


PLUPERFECT. 


IMPERFECT. 


PERFECT. 


PRESENT. 


FUTURE PERFECT. 


FUTURE. 


CO 




most remote 


Indefinite 


Present 


Present 


Future time. 


Indefi- 


r< 


ii. 


time. 


past. 


time 


moment. 


nearest present. 


nite 


H 








completed 






future. 


O 
25 



Line representing the passage of time. 



OF PERSON AND NUMBER. 

The person and number of the verb are gene- 
rally indicated by the nominative ; as, first per- 
son, / love, second person, thou lovest, third, 7ie 
loves, for the singular ; and ice love, you love, they 
love, for the first, second and thhxl person plural. 

The second person singular is seldom used, except by 
the poets, the second person plural taking its place ; as, 
you owe me a shilling, instead of thou owest^ etc. The 
Quakers use the accusative of the third, person singular, 
with the verb ; as, thee is ; this is an outrageous error. 
The second person is sometimes used without the pro- 
noun, in imitation of the Latin ; as, " Hearest me, Cas- 
sius?" Always interrogatively. 



What is said of will? Describe the scale of the tenses? How are 
the person and number of the verb indicated ? What is said about 
the second person singular ? Is it sometimes used without the pro- 
noun? 



VERBS. 121 

Becapitulation. 

SYNOPSIS OF MOODS AND TENSES. 

Moods. Tenses. Auxiliaries and Terminations. 

Indicative — Simply indicates or declares. 

Present, represents present time, I , 

Perfect, " present time completed, I have ed, 

Imperfect, " past time, I ed, 

Pluperfect, " past time completed, I had ed. 

Future, " future time, I shall or will ■ 

Future P., " future time com., I shall or will have ed 

Imperative — used for commanding, exhorting, entreating or permitting. 
Present, thou or ye. 

Potential — implies possibility, liberty, power, will or obligation. 

Present, I may, can or must , 

Perfect, I may, can or must have ed. 

Imperfect, I might, could, would or should , 

Pluperfect, I might, could, would or should have ed. 

Subjunctive — represents an action as contingent and future. 

Present, *If I , 

Perfect, If I have — ed, 

Imperfect, If I ed. 

Pluperfect, If I had ed, 

Future, If I shall or will , 

Future Perfect, If I shall or will have ed. 

Infinitive — has no nominative case, consequently no person or number. 

Present, To , 

Perfect, To have ed. 

Participle — partakes of the nature of a verb and adjective. 

Present, ing. Perfect, ed. 

Com. Perfect, ing, ed. 



THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

In English, regular verbs have but one conjugation ; 
^ that is, one form of the regular and fixed changes which 
a verb undergoes to express the different moods and 
tenses. 

Give a synopsis of the moods and tenses. How many conjugations 
have verbs in English ? 

* Or any other subjunctive conjunction; as, though, unless, etc. 
11 




122 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



Transitive verbs have two forms, called the active and 
passive voice. Intransitive verbs have but one form ; 
as it has already been shown that an intransitive verb 
can not be changed to a passive. 

Yerbs are regular when their past tense and perfect 
participle end in ed ; as — 



PRESENT. 

love, 
walk, 



PAST. 

loved, 
walked, 



PERF. PART. 

loved, 
walked J etc. 



CONJUGATION OF THE IKREGULAR AND AUXILIARY VERB, TO HAVE. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT. 



PERFECT. 



Singular. 
I have, 
thou hast, 
he has or hath. 



Singular. 
I have had, 
thou hast had, 
he has had. 



Plural. Plural. 

"we have, we have had, 

ye or you have, you have had, 

they have. they have had. 



IMPERFECT. 

Singular. 
I had, 
thou hadst, 
he had. 

Plural. 
we had, 
ye or you had, 
they had. 



PLUPERFECT. 

Singvlar. 
1 had had, 
thou hadst had, 
he had had. 

Plural. 
we had had, 
ye or you had had, 
they had had. 



FIRST 

Singular. 
I shall have, 
thou shalt have, 
he shall have. 



FUTURE. 

Plural. 
we shall have, 
you shall have, 
they shall have. 



FUTURE PERFECT. 

Singular. Plural. 

I shall have had, we shall have had, 
thou shalt have " you shall have " 
he shall have " they shall have " 



PRESENT. 

Singular. 
I may or can have, 
thou mayst have, 
he may or can have. 

' Plural. 

We may or can have, 
you may or can have, 
they may or can have. 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 

PERFECT. 

Singular. 
I may have had, 
thou mayst have had, 
he may have had. 

' Plural. 
we may have had, 
you may have had, 
they may have had. 



IMPERFECT. 

Singular. 
I might or could have, 
thou miglitst have, 
he might or could have. 

Plural. 
we might or could have, 
you might or could have, 
they might or could " 



How many forms has the transitive verb? What are these forms 
called? 'How many forms has the intransitive? When are verbs 
regular? Give examples. 



VERBS — TO HAVE AND TO DO. 



123 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

I might, could, or would have had, we might, could or would have had, 

thou°mightst, couldst, etc., have had, you might, could, etc., have had, 

he might, could, would, etc., " they might, could, etc., have had. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT. 

Singular. 
If I have, 
If thou have, 
If he have. 

Plural. 
If we have, 
If you have. 
If they have, 



PERFECT. 



Singular. 
If 1 have had. 
If thou hast had. 
If he has had. 



IMPERFECT. 

Singular. 
If I had, 
If thou had. 
If he had. 



PLUPERFECT. 

Singular. 
If I had had, 
If thou hadst had, 
If he had had. 



Plural. Plural. Plural. 

If we have had, If we had. If we had had, 
If you have had, If you had. If you had had, 
If they have had. If they had, If they had had. 
Future and future perfect like the indicative. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE, 



Singular. 
Have thou. 



Plural. 
Have ye. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. PERFECT TENSE. 

To have. To have had. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Present, having. Perfect, had. Com. Perfect, having had. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE VERB DO. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRES. PERF. IMPERF. PLUP. FIRST FUT. SECOND FUT. 

Do, have done, did, had done, will do, shall have done. 
POTENTIAL MOOD. 

PRESENT. PERF. IMPERF. 

May do, may have done, might do, 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESEJTT. PERF. IMPERF. PLUPERFECT. 

If I do, if I have done, if I did, if I had done. 



PLUPERF. 

might have done. 



f other tenses 
\ like indicative. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Present tense, do. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Present, to do ; perfect, to have done. 



Present, doing. 



PARTICIPLES. 
Perfect, done. Com. perf., having done. 



124 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



^ 'o 9 S '^ a 



o S S' 



ja 



c c V 





C5 


a> 




3 

0) 




ftl 





g 






^ 


• 


, 






F^ 


C4 


CO 


H 










{^ 




















CO 










Ol 










S2 






•a 

<U 

> 








•0 









^ 


a> 


-»-» 


>- 




1. 


>• 


Lh 


Q 




^ 





c3 






1. 


a 


3 



tc 




s 


c4 


^ 


© 




i« 


l-l 


H 


» 






r-< 


ci 


CO 



<o > C • z. 't 9 ►J— i« 



o J 



^ 



p; H H ^ ?f t*^ H 



ft. -*' =• ^ 

^ P? J- H 



«H Cfl CO r-l (?< rs 

^ 9. Ji fe 



-a 



a> c 5 

O S n 



i •s^'S i-s 1^1 .g«| 

§ ^l^.l i!l1 i|^P l^li 

^ li§- ml HIS lilt 

pq ImHW igMHM cZmhS ^--hS 

^ r^dcO -lO^d r^<NCO r^CJM 

H ^ --a ^^„^ 

r-i "O a> > "O S > 

^ ? Jr ^ . 9 > o 

0^0 r "o 



J?; 

o 

♦—I 





^ 



•O © • — ""■ "O 



^ g . -"^cT^'g .-s>ii «ilil s-s-siJ 

W^pfHH g^^>H£H "^I^K-iH .. r'P^H 



P ^ « 1 I « I .•- 



;> 

Hw •>«; -OS'S i!!!? *-"o^~ 

^ s*s| Uis^ §,>§- e.Sg'=' 

O ogo"^ S'S®^ §^°2o !S.S^O 

'^ s^^© s,aj3®. .5-~-^>2 ri^tla 

{OmHW t^MHa CQI-lHhM CQMtHH-i 



1-5 Ci CO r-l IM CO 



»> c © 

n © © 

S o >2 

© .a 









• Q .® 5 ^ Qw ti O 






r4 C4 CO rl (M CO 



© . -^ fl 

lag" II 5-^ till l^l* 

•l^^a f;:ga Im^w i^MHa 

nHc4co iHc4eo p^cico »-(Neo 



VERBS. 



125 



CO ^ >, 

4, 3 «> 

" e4 CO 



■^--o 









t»- . s* 0) 2 ii 

^ - . . . 

I-KNCO 



H 

IN 









M(N CO 



«2 



*^' 







J-^^ 






"" _ >> 


> 


§ 


aj S « 


IH 




■ ^ 


§ 




tH(NCO 


•«J 












^ 






^ 






W 




.£3 . 




v! 


is- 




J 


^ ?=s 




1 


1§'^ 

GO ^ O 




«2 


mHM 



^ J3 Z 
rH c4 CO 



»-' •^'^-^ -~ • 

^ "^ £ - P ? S 

^ TO >■ 3 >• > > 

gi ,C O o O "" o 
.S to ^- ^ -" <B pS 

«2 M H W 

rH (N p3 



& «3 



rs i* =5 3 

e « q o 

i-i c4 CO 

<u 

t- 

"o « S 

O ■" "^ 

I— I U) 0) 

B ^ ® 
i-i im'cO 



«2 






|i i* O 



5 ? -r -3 ? -a 

^ oj < o 5 

> d) O 3 O 4J o 

P^ >^ H 
f-i (N eo' 



ft 
O 

o 



e8 -w 

U S i 3 > 

fci -3 O o o 



H 

W ad 

o 



H 

H 



W 



CQ 






^ H H 






J - ^ 



& =: B ? c 5 a 

<s- 2 a; 2 9J ? ffi> 
«Q M H W 



sis 

rHNCO 



e 
.a 



S3 



03 

•Hc4co 






nj TJ OS "n a "O 

So^ 3 OJ O) 

a,^ SO 0.0 

►C o~'!B'^ 



5 ? S 

® ■" fe 
b. m ra 

*: S ,>> .^ . 

S ^T3 StJ S^-O 
a >. J' B oj CO a> 

§> I $ g § s s 

H H W 
H ei CO 



OQ 



B.^>, 




>,!^cj 




« 5 a 


^ 






P=>^H 


u 




H 



S^ g 01 c « 



^o 



>^ H 



*: I - ? -"^ . 
& gogg.sg 

B — ^— oj — 



CO 



M IM 



© 



Si "^ 

^B * 3 3 B 
^ fl^ 3 ^^ H n^ 






E S 0) B 0) " © 
i-i c4 CO 






o 

.a 



^f,= Sa5s'a 

S ?«^ 3 © 3 © 
•S B -» ^ ^ <jj -Q 
CCi M H M 



C4 CO 



126 



ENGLISU GRAMMAR. 



« > rt 



a^>. 

i-i <N CO 



St? 



r-lo4eo 



® t- o 






o 

^ 'o 

m CD ^ 

s .sps a 







"0)^ 












. +^ J 






Sf,.SP 




^ 


•SP-ga 






p4 


® 3 § 


M 




, , 


-<1 




.-JiMM 






P3 







i! jj '3 -^ 

e 2 a.a> 

rHcicO 



gj a a 

I I I 

S " 5: 

> a ^ 



•'=' to - 2." . 
•S .SP'o'S'a's'3 
g rt © B a> " © 
^ " o fl o ^ o 

1-1 <N CO 



© 
© 

,2 






« 



© 



.5P o ■ 



J l^-g a c.^'o 

a W> > S *• S > 

laiJ^Sl 

cZ M H w 



r-t C* CO 






H Oh 

H 
Q 

W 

» 
P 

Hi 



3 © H © " © 

«5 §^ g^ 
^ H g 

i-i <^^ CO 



> 






c« 






.a 




© 


ave 
htst 




^ 

ja 


•^ SP 




-u 


•ti-a S 


■c 




Tfl^ s 


© 


"3 © 

a > 


a^^ 


o 




a>,^ 


M H 




w 



rl c« eo 



« -s c a s « « 

i-i (N « 

o 

^ ® 

. I 2 ^ 

f .^"ggsas 

CQ M H W 

f-i oi «o 









9 '" o 




JT o-^ 




o •-- «, 




^-. o 




©^-^ 


"c 


""■ « ?^ 


1. 




5 


> £-^ 


s; 


? >,♦-• 


I*' (« <M 




Mhlh^ 




1-5 (N CO 





-^•a 




73 O © 




©— > 




> © O 


« 


o^ — 


». 


" © 


^ 


© 5.a 

•^ 2 © 


Si 

J2 


•-I'z: J 




<» <»• <<-i 


i2 


1— 1 HH t-< 




f-ioico 



o 
o 



1-1 
H 
O 

Hi 

OQ 






H 






tf 






P4 




© 

^ o © 
©-< >- 




J 


> 2 O 

^2o 




s 




si 


>-i:Sd 






«« «W «M 




tc 


M l-H M 

fidco 



^7 9 



"O o © 



w t« © 
« P S Jt 

OQ »— I ^ ^ 
T-JiNCO 



gi > o 

fc-l M 1-1 h-c 

Pi 

» 

M p __; 

. "O S © 

« > si 
"3 O o 

^ u^ t:: j3 

C<2 M M M 



^ 


© 


^ 


© 


^ 




^ 




>, 




a 


© 


g 


o 








iH(NCQ 



.a . 

^ .a '^ „ 
|j -3 2 

g HH *-> .— 1 

OQ M M M 

fH(NCO 



03 fe U 

c s :2 © 

a © - > 
"s sf 2 o 

•S t>> <» tax 
OQ MI-IM 

»-ic4eo 



VERBS. 



127 




fcO 

a 

'aj 



60 




o 
o 









S5 

O 
Ph '- 
^ o 
W H 
on 

Pi 



Pi 



TO W 



H 
Pi 



H 

I?; 

00 
P4 



El „ 

-< a? 

Pi o 

H -^ 
O 

P4 
Ph 

Pi 



Ph "^ 



H 


o 


O 




H 


tUO 


b 


a 


pj 


'> 


H 


o3 


Pi 


w 



o 
o 




^ 

^ 



bo 

a 



p:; 



bo 

a 

w 



128 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

PROGRESSIVE AND EMPHATIC FORMS. 
Ycrbs in tho active or neuter voice may be conjugated 
through all their moods and tenses by adding their ^re- 
sent participle to the various inflections of the verb to be. 
This is called the progressive form, inasmuch as it ex- 
presses incomplete action, or a state of continuation ; as, 

PRESENT. PERFECT. PAST. 

I am loving, I have been loving, I was loving, 

Thou art loving, Thou hast been loving. Thou wast loving, 

He is loving. He has been loving. He was loving. 

The emphatic form is indicated by do or did^ used in 
the indicative past and present only ; as, 

PRESENT. IMPERPECT. 

I do love, I did love. 

Thou dost love, Thou didst love, 

He does love. He did love. 



OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Impersonal or monopersonal verbs are so called be- 
cause they are used only in the third person singular of 
each tense. The verbs used as impersonals are — to rain, 
to snow, to freeze, to thaw, to lighten, to thunder and to blow. 

The following are also often used as impersonal verbs : 
to begin, to happen, to fall out, to seem, to become, to suit, 
to belong, to come, to amount, to appear, to suffice, to follow, 
to concern, to commence, to remain, to be, and a few others. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

The defective verbs are such as are used only in a part 
of their moods and tenses ; as, 

PRESENT. IMPERFECT. 

quoth, 

Shall, should. 

Will, would, 

Wis, wist. 

What are the defective verbs? How can we determine the tense 
of ought? 

* Ought is often used in the pluperfect; as, ''I had ought to have 
known better." This use is very improper: it should be, "I ought to 
have known better." 



PRESENT. 


IMPERFECT. 


Can, 


could, 


May, 


might. 


Must, 


must. 


Ought,* 


ought. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



129 



To wit, signifying to say, is also a defective verb, used 
only in the infinitive; as, "to wit, namely," etc. 

Quoth and ought are used always as independent or 
principal verbs; as, "he quoth" — " Ae ought to do it.'^ 
We determine the tense of ought by the infinitive which 
follows it; as, " he ought to go," in which ought is pre- 
sent, because it precedes the infinitive present. " Ho 
ought to have gone," in which ought is past, as it pre- 
cedes the infinitive perfect. 



OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Irregular verbs are those which do not form their im- 
perfect tense and perfect participle by the addition of d 
or ed to the present tense ; as, 



PRESENT TENSl 


IMPERFECT 


TENSE. PERFECT PARTICIPLE. 




Go, 


Went, 


Gone 


, 




Begin, 


Began, Begun. 






LIST OF IRREGULAE VERBS. 






Those marked r admit likewise a regular form. 




Present, 


Imperfect, 


Perf .or Pass. Part. 


Present. Imperfect, Perf. or Pass. Part. 


Abide, 


abode, 


abode. 


Cost, cost. 


cost. 


Am, 


■was, 


been. 


Crow, crew, r. 


crowed. 


Arise, 


arose. 


arisen. 


Creep, crept, 


crept. 


Awake, 


awoke, r. 


awaked. 


Cut, cut. 


cut. 


Bear, to 


^'•»»^}bare. 


born. 


Dare.to venture,d\irst. 


dared. 


forth. 


Dare, to chal- > 
lenge, / * 




Bear, to 


carry, bore. 


borne. 




Beat, 


beat. 


beaten, beat. 


Deal, dealt, r. 


dealt, r. . 


Begin, 


began, 


begun. 


I>ig, <i"g, r. 


dug, r. 


Bend, 


bent. 


bent, 


Do, did. 


done. 


Bereave 


, bereft, r. 


bereft, r. 


Draw, drew. 


drawn. 


Beseech 


besought. 


besought. 


Drive, drove. 


driven. 


Bid, 


bid, bade. 


bidden, bid. 


Drink, drank. 


drunk. 


Bind, 


bound, 


bound. 


Dwell, dwelt, r. 


dwelt, r. 


Bite, 


bit. 


bitten, bit. 


Eat, eat or ate. 


eaten. 


Bleed, 


bled. 


bled. 


Fall, fell. 


fallen. 


Blow, 


blew. 


blown. 


Feed, fed. 


fed. 


Break, 


broke. 


broken. 


Feel, felt, 


felt. 


Breed, 


bred. 


bred. 


Fight, fought. 


fought. 


Bring, 


brought. 


brought. 


Find, found. 


found. 


Build, 


built. 


built. 


Flee, fled. 


fled. 


Burst, 


burst, 


burst. 


Fling, flung. 


flung. 


Buy, 


bought. 


bought. 


Fly, flew. 


flown. 


Cast, 


cast. 


cast. 


Forget, forgot. 


forgotten,forgot 


Catch, 


caught, r. 


caught, r. 


Forsake, forsook. 


forsaken. 


Chide, 


chid. 


chidden, chid. 


Freeze, froze. 


frozen. 


Choose, 


chose. 


chosen. 


Get, got. 


got.* 


Cleave, 


to sticky , 
ere, | ^^Oular. 




Gild, gilt, r. 


gilt, r. 


or ndh 




Gird, girt, r. 


girt, r. 


Cleave, 


split, clove or cleft, cleft, cloven. 


Give, gave, 


given. 


Cling, 


clung. 


clung. 


Go, went. 


gone. 


Clothe, 


clothed. 


clad, r. 


Grave, graved. 


graven, r. 


Come, 


came. 


come. 


Grind, ground. 


ground. 




When 


is a verb irregu 


lar? Give examples. 





• Grotten is nearly obsolete. Its compound, forgotten, is still in good use. 




130 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



Present. 

Grow, 

Have, 

Hang, 

Hear, 

Hew, 

Hide, 

Hit, 

Hold, 

Hurt, 

Keep, 

Knit, 

Know, 

Lade, 

liay. 

Lead, 

Leave, 

Lend, 

Let, 

Lie, to lie ( 

Load, 

Lose, 

Alake, 

Meet, 

How, 

Pay, 

Put, 

Read, 

Kend, 

Rid, 

Ride, 

Ring, 

Rise, 

Rive, 

Run, 

Saw, 

Say, 

See, 

Seek, 

Sell, 

Send, 

Set, 

Shake, 

Shape, 

Shave, 

Shear, 

Shed, 

Shine, 

Show, 

Shoe, 

Shoot, 

Shrink, 

Shred, 

Shut, 

Sing, 

Sink, 



Imperfect. 


Per/, or Puss. Part. 


Present. 


Imperfect . Perf. or Pata. Part. 


grew, 


grown, 
had. 


Sit, 


sat. 


sat. 


had, 


Slay, 


Blew, 


slain. 


hung, r. 


hung, r. 


Sleep, 


slept. 


slept. 


heard, 


lieard. 


Slide, 


slid. 


slidden. 


hewed. 


hewn, r. 


Sling, 


elung. 


slung, 
slunk. 


hid. 


hidden, hid. 


Slink, 


slunk. 


hit. 


hit. 


Slit, 


slit, r. 


slit, or slitted. 


hold. 


held. 


Smite, 


smote. 


smitten. 


hurt. 


hurt. 


Sow, 


sowed. 


sown, r. 


kept. 


kept. 


Speak, 


spoke. 


spoken. 


knit, r. 


knit, r. 


Speed, 


sped. 


sped. 


knew. 


known. 


Spend, 


spent. 


Sfient, 


laded. 


laden. 


Spill, 


spilt, r. 


split, r. 


laid. 


laid. 


Spin, 


spun. 


spun. 


led, 


led. 


Spit, 


spit, spat. 


spit, spitten. 


left. 


left. 


Split, 


split, 


split, r. 


lent, 


lent. 


Spread, 


spread. 


spread. 


let. 


let. 


Spring, 


sprung, sprang, sprung. 


e?oicn,lay. 


lain. 


Stand, 


stood. 


stood. 


loaded. 


laden, r. 


Steal, 


stole. 


stolen. 


lost, 


lost. 


Stick, 


stuck. 


stuck. 


made. 


made. 


Sting, 


stung. 


stung. 


met. 


met. 


Stink, 


Btnnk, 


stunk. 


mowed. 


mown, r. 


Stride, 


strode or strid 


, stridden. 


paid, 
put, 


paid, 
put. 


Strike, 


struck. 


f struck or 
\ stricken. 


read. 


read. 


String, 


strung. 


strung. 


rent. 


rent. 


Strive, 


strove. 


striven. 


rid. 


rid. 




„*-/>.,. fstrowed, or 
st"^' { strewed. 


f strown, strowed 
\ ftrewed. 


rode. 


rode, ridden.* 


Strew or 


rung, rang. 


rung. 


Swear, 


swore, 


sworn. 


rose, 


risen. 


Sweat, 


swet, r. 


swet, r. 


rived. 


riven. 


Swell, 


swelled. 


swollen, r. 


ran. 


run. 


Swim, 


swum, swam. 


sv\um. 


sawed. 


sawn, r. 


Swing, 


swung, 


swung. 


said. 


said. 


Take, 


took, 


taken. 


saw. 


seen. 


Teach, 


ta\ight. 


taught. 


sought. 


sought. 


Tear, 


tore. 


torn. 


sold. 


sold. 


Tell, 


told. 


told. 


sent. 


sent. 


Think, 


thought, 


thought,' 


set. 


set. 


Thrive, 


throve, r. 


thriven. 


shook. 


shaken. 


Throw, 


threw. 


thrown. 


shaped. 


shaped, shapen. 


Thrust, 


thrust. 


thrust. 


shaved, 


shaven, r. 


Tread, 


trod, 


trodden. 


sheared, 


shorn. 


Wax, 


vaxed. 


waxen, r. 


shed. 


shed. 


Wear, 


wore, 


worn. 


shone, 


shone. 


Weave, 


■wove. 


woven. 


showed. 


shown. 


Weep, 


■wept. 


■wept. 


shod. 


shod. 


Win, 


■won. 


■won. 


shot. 


shot. 


Wind, 


■\vound, 


■wound. 


shrunk,! 
shred, 


shrunk, 
shred. 


Work, 


■wrought, r. 


f wrought, or 
\ worked, r. 


shut. 


shut. 


Wring, 


■wrung. 


wrung. 


sung, sang. 


sung. 


Write, 


■wrote. 


written. 


sank, sank. 


sunk. 









Observations. 



Many verbs are often used both transitively and in- 
transitively; as, " he sings well ;" in which si?} gs, haying 
no accusative after it, and requiring none, is intransi- 
tive. " Can you sing a song?" in which si7ig is transi- 
tive, governing the accusative song. To dance, to live, to 
eat, to drink, and some others, are included in this class. 
To do and to have are sometimes used intransitively ; as, 

Are some verbs used both transitively and intransitively ? 



• Bidden is nearly obsolete. 



t Shrank is nearly obsolete. 



VERBS. 131 

"you would do better there;" '^bow do you do?" ''I 
have enough to do ;" " you had better go," etc. 

Some intransitive verbs seem to be used (improperly) 
in a passive form; as, John is arrived, instead of has 
arrived. If, however, we consider arrived an adjective, 
belonging to John, and is intransitive, this mode of 
expression may not be regarded as wholly improper, 
" He is returned,'* and " he is alive,'' may be considered 
fts sentences having relations similar to one another. 

Prepositions are sometimes added to intransitive verbs, 
therebj^ rendering them transitive ; as, to give np, to lay 
out, etc. Prepositions thus annexed sometimes give quite 
another signification, as in the words to cast, which sig-" 
nifies to throw ; and, io cast vp, which signifies to compute. 
Prepositions joined to transitive verbs sometimes render 
them intransitive ; as, to hold on, to get up, to call out, to 
cry out, etc. The verbs to grow and to lie should never 
be used transitively. 

There is a peculiarity about the verbs teach, tell, ask, 
forbid, deny, and one or two others of this class that de- 
serves notice. They may all be used transitively, under 
a passive form ; as, / was taught the language ; I have been 
told the secret ; he was asked a question ; I have been for- 
bidden an entrance ; they were denied the privilege, etc. 

Some of these verbs may also be used intransitively, 
under a passive form ; as, / have been well taught. Here 
have been taught is not a passive verb, for a person can 
not be taught or communicated like knowledge or edu- 
cation. 

He TEACHES (well), intransitive verb. 
I TEACH LANGUAGE, transitive verb. 
Language is 'taught (by me), passive verb. 
I am taught the language, transitive verb. 
I am taught (better), intransitive verb. 

Compare the last form I am taught with the passive 
form language is taught, and the difference is at once ap- 
parent. Nevertheless, as this is the passive form of the 
verb, there might be no great impropriety in calling it 

Are prepositions sometimes added to intransitive verbs? Does this 
render them transitive ? Does it sometimes change the signification 
of the verb ? What peculiarity ia there about the verbs teach, tell, 
ask, etc. ? 




132 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

passive, particularly as it may be changed to the active 
form, he taught me better. It is of little consequence 
what name we bestow upon a part of speech if we un- 
derstand its syntax or relation. 



OF ADVERBS. 

An adverb is a word having a single relation 
to a verb, being used to modify it ; as, John walks 
slowly ; the bird flies swiftly, etc. 

An adverb can not be joined to any word except a 
verb, for the moment it is added to any other word it 
ceases to be an ad-verb.^ 

Adverbs may be compared like adjectives ; as, 



POSITIVE. 


COMPARATIVE. 


SUPERLATIVE. 


Often, 


oftener, 


oftenest. 


Much, 


more, 


most. 


Soon, 


sooner, 


soonest. 


Quickly, 


more quickly, 


most quickly. 



Adverbs may be formed from adjectives by 
adding ly ; as, qidch^ quicMy ; wise, wisely, etc. 

All words ending in ly are not adverbs, as many ad- 
jectives are formed from nouns by adding ly ; as, man^ 
manly^ etc. 

The numeral adjectives, firsts second^ thirds etc., are 
converted into adverbs by adding ly ; thus: Jirst-ly, 
second-ly, etc. (First-ly, improper. See dictionary.) 

The first three numerals, one, two and three, are 
changed into once, twice and thrice, when used as adverbs. 

Adverbs are formed from nouns by adding a as a pre- 
fix; as, aboard, aground, afoot, etc. 

And, nevertheless and jiotwithstanding, may be called 
adverbs when they open a sentence. 

What is an adverb ? Can an adverb be joined to any word except 
a verb? How may adverbs be compared? How may they be formed ? 
How are numeral adjectives converted into adverbs? What other 
words are adverbs ? 

* See auxiliary adj., adv. and prep., page 68. 



ADVERBS. 133 

No and yes are adverbs, qualifying the verbs to which 
they reply. 

Some nouns and adjectives, when used with a prepo- 
sition, may be called adverbs, or adverbial i:>hrases; as, 
on boards on hand, in general, in fact, etc. 

Many prepositions are used as adverbs ; as, " ISTow 
came still evening on;'' "he went up into an exceeding 
high mountain," etc. 

To-day, yesterday and to-morrow may not improperly 
be called adverbs, inasmuch as the}^ always sustain a re- 
lation to some verb. Lennie recommends to call them 
nouns, governed by some approj)riate preposition under- 
stood ; as, on or during. 

In short, any word holding an indisputable relation to 
a verb, in a modifying sense, must be an adverb. 



OF AUXILIARY ADVERBS. 

An auxiliary or secondary adverb is a word 
which is added to an adverb for the purpose of 
modifying it; as, very, more, most, etc. 

These words, like auxiliary adjectives or prepositions, 
have always been considered as adverbs, by old writers. 
"We can not see the propriety of the name. The general 
term adjective would have been more appropriate. 

Adverbs can not qualify nouns. 

(See adjectives, page 96.) 



OF^HE PREPOSITION. 

A Preposition is a word placed hefore a noun 
or pronoun, and serves to connect the phrase in 
which it occurs, to the verb, noun, adjective or 
adverb preceding it; as, John is in the room; 
this is the house o/my father. 

What is an auxiliary adverb? What do old writers call these 
"words ? X;!aii adverbs qualify nouas ? What is a preposition ? 




I 



134 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Grammarians clo not seem to have understood tlio 
nature and use of the preposition. Smith says "a pie- 
position is a word used to connect words, and show the 
relation between them." A more vague or unsatisfac- 
tory definition could not have been given. We may say 
the same of the conjunction, the transitive verb, or the 
pronoun. Here, is one-half the number of "parts of 
speech," actually showing a relation between words, and 
connecting them together. Says Lennie, "a preposition is 
a word put before nouns and pronouns, to show the rela- 
tion between them!'^ By which we are to suppose that 
prepositions show a relation between nouns and pro- 
nouns only ! But, say the learned grammarians, " a 
preposition shows the relation between words." Now, if 
the is a definite article and defines the word relation^ it 
must point out to us the kind of relation that exists be- 
tween the object of a preposition and the preceding sen- 
tence — Does it? What relation is "f/^e relation?" Can 
Mr. Murray, Kirkham, Smith, Lennie, or any other dis- 
tinguished grammarian tell ? ISTo ; not one of them — 
They have but just been able to discover that such a 
relation exists, but what is its nature they have not 
ascertained, or if they have, they have never defined it. 

If we consult the genius of language, we shall learn 
that the use of the preposition was, originally, to con- 
nect all sentences back to the verb ; as, John is in the 
room ; he returned from school, etc. Afterwards the 
preposition o/^^ was used to connect phrases back to 
nouns or pronouns, and give the phrase in which it 
occurs, an adjective relation to the noun or pronoun 
preceding. For^ in, among, and some other prepositions, 
may occasionally be found holding a syntax to a noun 
or pronoun in the preceding sentence^ 

This seems to have been the original office of the pre- 
position ; but a higher refinement of language rendered 

Is the relation of the preposition generally understood? What do 
we learn from the language? Does of generally give its phrase an 
adjective relation to the preceding noun? What has been rendered 
necessary by a higher refinement of language ? 

"'■' Of is not always used to denote the genitive. When it signifies 
about or concerning, it has a relation to a preceding verb instead of a 
noun. 



PREPOSITION. 135 

it necessary that the preposition should sometimes con- 
nect its phrase back to an adjective or adverb, in which 
case the rehition would be either that of an auxiliary 
adjective or adverb; as, "The soul, uneasy and confined 
from home ; " ''Full of its original spirit ; " ''Essential to, 
the cause;" "He answered evasively, in a measure;" 
(i. e., somewhat evasively.) 

Hence we see that the preposition has four relations, 
and four onl}", as follows : 

• 1. Adverbial; as, the table stands on the floor; the 
bird flies over the house,* etc. 

2. Adjective ; as, the baiic of a tree ; " the regard of 
Heaven on his ways," etc.f 

3. Auxiliary Adjective ; as, disagreeable to the ear ; 
anxious in his behalf, etc. 

4. Auxiliary adverbial ; as, he moved sloidy, in 
truth ; X he writes well^ beyond dispute, etc. 

There are but few instances of prepositions being 
construed under the latter form : — in almost all cases 
prepositions following adverbs do not modify those ad- 
verbs, but hold a relation back to the verb; as, he sat 
silently in doubt; i. e., he sat in doubt. "The moon 
smiles serenely o'er nature's soft repose ;" i. e.; smiles o'er 
repose. No preposition can hold a relation to an adjec- 
tive or adverb, unless the phrase in which it (the prepo- 
sition) occurs, clearly modifies the adjective or adverb 
to which it may be joined. 

All prepositional phrases qualify the words to which 
they are joined, like other adverbs, adjectives or auxilia- 
ries. For further consideration of this subject, sec Eola- 
tions of Phrases. 

How many relations has the preposition? What are they? "What 
do all prepositional phrases qualify ? 



"'■*■ The relation is adverbial also when the preposition has a syntax to 
a participle. 

tThe relation is adjective when the preposition is referred to a pro- 
noun, since the pronoun is only the representative of the noun itself. 

+ In truth can not be an adverbial phrase qualifying moved; as that 
"ffoiild not express the sense of the sentence. 




136 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



The following list presents most of the prepo- 
sitions : — 



Among 
around 


as touching 
at 


concerning 
down 


near 
of 


touching 
up 


amidst 
athwart 


by 
below 


except 
excepting 


off 
on 


upon 
under 


after 


between 


for 


over 


underneath 


about 


beneath 


from 


out of 


unto 


against 
across 


behind 
betwixt 


in 
into 


respecting 
to 


via 
with 


above 


besi^re 


instead of 


towards* 


witliin 


according to 
as for 


beyond 
before 


I'ike 
next 


through 
than 


without 


as to 


but 


notwithstanding 


throughout 





OF AUXILIARY PREPOSITIOXS. 

An auxiliary preposition is a word holding a 
single relation to a preposition, and is used to 
modify its sense or restrict its extension ; as, he 
went almost to Albany; he stood /a/- above all 
others ; the house is qxdte near the river. 

A few words only are used as auxiliary prepositions. 
They belong to the heterogeneous class of words de- 
nominated adverbs by most authors ; although, in gene- 
ral, they do not seem to have observed the peculiar 
construction of these few words at all. It is impossible 
to say what they would denominate such words as almost, 
far and quite^ in the above sentences, as they have no 
rule by which an adverb can be made to qualify a prej)o- 
sition. 



OP THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

Conjunctions are used to join words and sen- 
tences together. 

Hence the conjunction is a word of a double relation. 
The conjunction and preposition both belong to the class 

Repeat the list of prepositions. AVhat is an auxiliary preposition? 
"What is its relation? What is a conjunction? What is its relation? 

* Not toward — see note ( || ) page 172. 



CONJUNCTION. 137 

/)f words denominated "connectives;" but there is this 
difference : a preposition connects nouns or pronouns 
only, on one side ; to verbs, nouns, adjectives or adverbs 
on the other. The noun or pronoun which follows the 
preposition m ist be in the objective case ; and the words 
which precede it may be of any case if a noun, or of any 
mood or tense, person or number, if a verb; but we 
must observe that — 

Conjunctions usually connect the same moods 
and tenses of verbs; the same cases of nouns; 
verbs governed by the same nominatives; adjec- 
tives belonging to the same nouns ; and nouns or 
pronouns having the same or similar syntax, rela- 
tion or construction in a sentence, generally. 



OF AUXILIARY OR CORRESPONDING CONJUNCTIONS. 

An auxiliary or corresponding conjunction is 
one that holds a relation to another conjunction; 
as follows : 

Both — and ; both ho and his brother have come. 

Neither — nor ; neither he nor I did it. 

Whether — or ; I know not whether it be so or not. 

Though — yet ; though he was rich, yet for our sakes, etc. 

Either — or ; either you or I must yield. 

As — as ; as wise as a serpent. 

As — so ; as he sows so shall he reap. 

So — as ; I am not so rich as thou. 

So — that ; he was so lame that he could not walk. 

In parsing, we usually sa}^ that the first of these Avords 
(as neither or ichether) is a corresponding conjunction, 
and corresponds to the second, (nor or or, etc.) 

This is only a partial consideration of these words; 

What IS the difference between the preposition and conjunction ? 
What do conjunctions usually connect? What are the corresponding 
conjunctions? How do wo parse them? 

12 




138 ENQLISII GRAMMAR. 

for, in addition to tlicir office as corresponding conjunc- 
tions, they can, in almost avavy case, be construed as 
conjunctions, adjectives, auxiliary adjectives or adverbs : 

^5 16 the young bears seized on. the rej^ast, sole we snatch our fill. 

Now, this word as is a corresponding conjunction, cor- 
resi>onding to so; and exj^ressing a comparison, of 
equality between the two sentences, like the sign of 
equality (not plus, nor minus) in Mathematics; thus: — 

iS, aslG bears seized repast ===, 
1, so 16 "we snatch fill ==. 

If you wish to make as a conjunction, invert the terms 
2 and 1, thus: 

1, So 16 we snatch our fill, 

2, As 16 the bears seized on the rich repast. 

In all cases, one of the corresponding conjunctions must 
be exiled or thrown out of its proper place. Eoth these 
conjunctions maybe inserted between the two sentences, 
thus : 

The bears seized on the repast, so =■= as "we snatch our fill. 
By rendering this sentence plenary (f^ill), both conjunc- 
tions will have their -pro-per place and relation : 

The bears seized on the repast, so 16 -we snatch our fill ; 

and, 

We snatch our fill, as 16 the bears seized the repast. 
In the following sentence : 

2, If 16 you wish to be a grammarian, 

1, You must study, 

If is exiled from its proper place. !N'ow, invert the sen- 
tences, thus : — • 

1, You must study, 

2, If you wish to be a grammarian. 

and If occupies its proper place between the sentences it 
connects. 

Again: ''Both he and his brother returned." Eola- 
tion of both: both persons'; i. e., both is an adjective, be- 
longing to persons, understood. 

Neither he nor I did it. That is — 

1 , Neither he did it ; 

2, NOR I did it. 

How can corresponding conjunctions be construed? Give examples. 



ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF SPEECH. 139 

1st relation {of nor) : he did it nor I did it. 
2d relation (of neither) : I did it neither he did it. 
Or neither may be construed as an adjective by joining 
it to persons understood. 

I know not whether it is so or not. 
Mel of whether : I know not whether it is so, (co7ij.) 
Eel. of or : it is so or it is not so, (coiy.) 

Thouqh he slejDt, yet he dreamed not. 
*Eel. of yet: lie slept, yet he dreamed, {conj.) 
1. Rel. of though : He dreamed not, though he slept, (conj.) 
Either you or I must yield. 
Rel of or: you (must yield) or 1 must yield, (conj.) 

1. Eel of either : I must yield either you must yield, (co?ij.) 

2. Eel of either: either person, (adj.) 

Be thou as wise as a serpent. 
Eel of 1st as: as wise, (au.v. adj.) 

Eel of 2d as? be thou wise as serpent (is wise), (conj.) 

I am not so rich as thou. 
Eel of so: so rich, (aux. adj.) 

Eel of as : I am not rich as thou (art rich), (conj.) 

He was so lame that he could not walk. 

Eel of so : so lame, (aux. adj.) 

Eel of that : he was lame that he could not walk, (conj.) 

''^Neither sometimes closes a sentence in a peculiar 
manner, thus : " Men come not to the knowledge of ideas 
thought to be innate, till they come to the use of reason ; 
nor then neither.'' — Locke. 

[That is, not either when they come to the use of reason, 
nor before.] 

" Formerly in English, as in Greek and French, two 
negatives were used for one negation. But in such 
phrases as that above, good speakers now use either in- 
stead of neither.'' — Webster's Dictionary. 

Eel of neither : come not neither, (adv.) 

Eel of either : come not either, (adv.) 



ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF SPEECIT, 

In accordance with the Table of Relations on page 28, and the axioms on 

page 74. 

From the following observations it will be seen that 
the adverb, preposition, conjunction and pronoun so fre- 




140 ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

qucntly change their position, office or signification, that 
unless we have some surer guide than a mere list to be 
committed to memory, we never can be fully secure 
against falling into error. The figures indicate the part 
of speech of these variable words by referring them to 
the table of relations. These exercises should also be 
used in connection with those on page 62, 63, 64, etc., 
the class being required to parse and give the relation 
of all the words marked with figures until they are 
thoroughly understood, as this is one of the most im- 
portant exercises in English grammar. 



As is a conjunction when used to connect sentences or 
words; as, "he paused as^^ he spoke." « 

As is a relative pronoun when it relates to an antecC' 
dent and can be construed in any one of the six positions 
or cases of the noun; as, "Much ^as^ man desires, a little 
will suffice." 

As is a compound relative when it is equal to that 
which; as, he speaks ^as^'^ he thinks. 

As is an auxiliary adverb when joined to another ad- 
verb; as, he drinks as^^ well as* I (drink). 

As is an auxiliary adjective when joined to another 
adjective; as, he is as'^^ good as* I (am). 

(As can not be used as a preposition ; it is incorrect to 
say, " I am as good as him, etc.) 

But is a conjunction when used as a connective; as, 
" I can go, but^^ I will not (go)." 

But is a preposition when it governs a noun or pro- 
noun in the objective case, and connects its phrase back to 
some noun, pronoun, verb, adjective or adverb ; as, "All 
have gone biit^^ me." Rerlation, " All but me.'' f 

But is an adverb when it holds an adverbial relation 
to a verb, in the sense of only ; as, " lam but^^ doing my 
duty ;" (qualifies am doing.) 



* The second as a conjunction. 

t But me is a complement of all; i. e., all, less me. 



ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF SPEECH. 141 

Both is a corresponding conjunction when it is fol- 
lowed by and; as, " I boW^ saw and admired the men."* 

Both is an adjective when it can be joined to a noun ; 
as, " both^ boys seem happy." Did you both* see and 
admire the man ? "I did both^ (i. e., both things). 

(Both can never be. construed as a conjunction.) 

Also is a conjunction when used as a connective; as, 
*' you are well ; so am I also^^ ;" i. e., you are well ; also^^ 
I am well." 

But it is better, in all cases, to construe also as an ad- 
verb ; as, "He came also,^^'' etc. 

And is a conjunction when used to connect words or 
sentences ; as, " John and^^ James are hai)py ;" "a white 
and^^ red cow." 

And is an adverb when it qualifies a verb (in which 
case it usually heads a paragraph) ; as, " And^^ it came 
to pass" (i. e., now^^ it came to pass.) 

Either is a corresponding conjunction when followed 
by or ; as, '^ Either ^^ you or I shall 8ta3\t 

Either is an adjective when it holds a relation to a 
noun; as, "Take either'^ book." 

Either is an adverb when qualifying a verb.f 

Neither is a corresponding conjunction when it pre- 
cedes nor ; as, " Neither^^ you nor 1 can remain." f 

Neither is an adjective when joined to a noun ; as, 
^^ Neither^ boy could say his lesson." 

Yet is a conjunction when it serves to connect sen- 
tei)ces ; as, " He may be innocent, yet^^ shall he be tried." 

Yet is an adverb when it qualifies a verb j as, " We 
shall see him yet.^^ " 

Nevertheless, notwithstanding, resides, moreover, 
albeit, else, likewise, otherwise, therefore, where- 
fore, ALTHOUGH, are usually adverbs. 

Then is a conjunction when used to connect ; as, " If 
he commands, then^^ will I obey." 

* Both, when used as a corresponding conjunction, may be con- 
strued either as an adjective or adveib. In this sentence it may be 
called an adverb, qualiiying saw and admired; i. e., also admired. 

t See page 139. 




142 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Then is an adverb when it modifies a verb ; as, " lie 
"will return thenP " 

Than is a conjunction when used to connect ; as, "lie 
is wiser than^^ I (aiii). 

Than is a preposition when it governs a pronoun in 
the objective ; as, " He was a man, than^"^ whom no wiser 
has written."^ 

Than seems sometimes to hold the relation of a rela- 
tive pronoun; as, "My punishment is greater ^than^ I 
can bear."f 

What is a relative pronoun when used to ask a ques- 
tion ; as, "^ What^ do you say?" 

What is a compound relative pronoun when it repre- 
sents " that which," or " the thing which ;" as, " " What^-^ 
thou bidst unargued, I obey." 

What is an interjection when it has no relation to any 

other word ; as, " What \^'' can you do it ? " 

What is an adjective w4ien joined to a noun ; as, 
*' What^ questions did he ^sk you?" 

[In all the above cases what may be construed as an 
adjective ; thus : 

1st. What (words) do you say? 

2d. What {commands) thou bidst, etc. 

3d. What (words you say!) can you, etc. 

4th. What questions. 
Nor is what ever used in such a manner that it can not 
be construed as an adjective."] 

For is a conjunction when it signifies because; as, 
*'He believed, for^'^ he perceived the truth." 

For is a preposition when used as such j as, " There 
is a home for^'^ all (persons).''' 

Much and such are adjectives, though often used 

* Thau should never be used' as a preposition, except in sentences 
of this construction: in all other cases, than must be used as a con- 
junction; as, "he is wiser than I" (not me)] "I am older than he" 
(not him), etc. 

t Since bear is a transitive verb, it must have an object ; and as 
punishment is the nominative to z's, it can not be made in the accusative 
after bear : hence it seems that than is a relative pronoun, relating to 
punishment, and in the accusative, governed by hear. 



INTERJECTION. 143 

without a noun ; as, " We give much^ for charity ; " i. e., 
much money. 

Much is sometimes used as an auxiliary adjective ; as, 
" He is much^ older than I." 

More and most are used like much and such. 
When and if seem sometimes to be used in cases of 
similar construction ; as : 

When he comes I shall receive my money. 
If he comes I shall receive my money. 

I shall receive my money when^^ he comes. 

I shall receive my money if^^ he comes. 
If the word if is a conjunction, why is not ichen also? 
"Words having the same syntax or relation should have 
the same etymology ;" for which reason we should think 
when as much a conjunction as any other word used to 
connect sentences. 

But if when is an adverb, qualifying comes, rendering 
that verb in a manner contingent, why is not if an ad- 
verb also? What is the distinction between the two 
words beyond their etymological signification ? 



OP THE INTERJECTIONS. 

An INTERJECTION is a word that holds no rela- 
tion to any other word, and is used as an ejacula- 
tion to express some emotion of grief, joy, sorrow, 
pain, etc. ; as, ! alas ! 

The Interjection expresses, in a single word, the 
sense of an entire sentence. It derives its name from 
the two Latin words inter (between'), and jacio (to cast)^ 
signifying that it is a word " cast between" other words 
or sentences in a detached manner, holding no relation 
to them. But if we translate the interjection into intel- 
ligible language, we shall be able to give to each word 



What is an interjection? What does it express? From what is it 
derived ? Can we translate the interjections into more intelligible lan- 
guage? 




144 , ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

its syntax or relation just as we would in any other sen- 
tence. Take, for instance, the word adieu. Its deriva- 
tion is French, d Dleu, si<i:nifyin<i^ "to God;" i. e., "I 
commend j'ou to the care of God," is the complete sen- 
tence translated into intelligible English. Alas, from 
the Persian halaka, perdition, destruction, if translated, 
might mean something like ^^ I perish," "I am lost," etc., 
etc. The interjection O, may be made to mean any thing 
the speaker desires. It may express fear, joy, sorrow or 
pain ; and, what is also remarkable, it is a word intelli- 
gible to almost all nations, and common to all languages. 

Many interjections may be construed with some other 
word understood ; as, "strange!" in which case the rest 
of the sentence may be supplied ; it is strange. " Well ! " 
i, e., it is well, or you say icell. " Away ! " i. e., go away. 
^' Welcome!'' i. e., thou art welcome, etc. 

Many words used as interjections are mere verbs in 
the imperative mood; as, hark! hist! hush! list! lo f 
behold ! hail I etc. 

The following is a list of the principal interjections, 
with their translation : - 

O ! r I am hurt. I am pained. 

Oh 1 < I am glad. I am astonished. 

Ah ! (^ I am surprised. I am delighted, etc. 

Alas I I perish. 

Halloo ! ho ! I call you. 

Fudge ! pshaw ! That is nonsense. 

Fy ! for shame ! It is for a shame. 

Pish ! tush ! I am disgusted. 

Language is full of these little ejacnlatory expressions; and each 
has its appropriate translation or signification. Inasmuch as some of 
them may be used to express various emotions, the signification niu^t 
depend on the words that follow. If a person were to exclnim 0! V3 
should at once ask hira the cause (^. <?., the meaning) of such ejacula- 
tion, particularly if the interjection were not accompanied by any 
other word or expression ; and his reply would be the appropriate 
translation of the interjection used. 



Translate ac?/(2M and alas. What is said of 0? May interjections 
be construed with some word understood? What are some interjec- 
tions ? Give the list, with their translation. 



SYNTAX. 

Syntax, from the Greek ^Iv and tLOr^fiiy to put together, 
treats of the relation* of words in a sentence. There 
are, generally speaking, three kinds of relations : — 

1st. The relation which every subject must have to its 
predicate ; as, John- walks. 

2d. The relation which every predicate has to its sub- 
ject; as, "John walks ]^ "John shot^"^ Si bird;" "a bird 
was shot.^^ " 

3d. The relation which all other words and phrases as 
complements hold to the subject or predicate. 

The complements of the subject have the 1st, 8th or 
13th relation. The complements of the predicate have 
the 12th, 14th and 16th relation. 

Words, based on the 3d, 4th and 17th relation, are in- 
dependent. 

A sentence is formed by the correlative f relation of 
the subject and predicate. 

A RULE OF SYNTAX 

Is a law for the proper union of subjects, predicates and 
complements. 

* Relation, from the Latin re, again, and latum, the supine of fero, 
to bring, signifies a bringing together again; so that the word Syntax and 
Relation mean one and the same thing. 

t Terms are said to be correlative when they mutually depend on 
each other; as, husband and loife ; father and son. The relation be- 
tween the nominative and verb is correlative ; for no predicate can 
exist without a subject; and, vice versa, no subject can exist, as a sub- 
ject, unless connected with some predicate. This correlative relation 
exists only between the nominative and verb, while all other words 
have but a simple relation as complements (words of the 3d, 4th and 
17th relation excepted). A subject may exist without a complement, 
but a complement or attribute can have no existence whatever independ- 
ent of a subject or predicate to which it is attached, and on which 
it depends. 

13 ( 145 ) 




146 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

True Syntax is tho trno relation of words, in accord- 
ance with the table on page 28 ; and a conformity to the 
rules of syntax; as, "John walks in the field;" True 
syntax: Joiin^ walks.^ 

False Syntax is the union of words which have no 
relation to each other; or a nonconformity to the rules 
of syntax, in the following pages ; as, walks field (false 
syntax). 

J KuLE 1. — Every adjective belongs to a noun or 
pronoun ; as, a good boy ; a large book. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

[^Supply the nouns to which the folloicing adjectives belong.'] 

The good^^ are truly happy. It is not the rich that are 
always prosperous. The wise^ the generous^ the noble, the 
good and true do not strive for vain distinction. Let 
each of you endeavor to learn. The more you give the 
more he wants. He did not say much. Much as man 
desires, a little will answer. 

Observation 1. The adjectives this, that, each, every ^ 
either, etc., agree with singular nouns, verbs and pro- 
nouns ; these, those, many, all, etc., with plural nouns, 
verbs and pronouns. 

Examples. These kind of indulgences injure the mind. 
I have not seen him this ten years. How many\ a sorrow 
should we avoid if we were alwa^^s to live virtuous and 
temperate lives. I saw one or more personsX enter the 
house. He would not exercise economy, and by tliese 
means^ he became poor. He had abundance of capital, 
joined w^ith sterling integrity and business tact ; and by 
this 7neans% he grew rich. Every one of the letters bear date 



* There is no serious objectfon to calling these words nouns. 

t " IIoiv many sorrows.'^ The above is a common expression. It is 
admissible only in poetry; as, "Many a time." "Many a furrow in 
my grief-worn cheek," etc. 

X " One person or morej^ We may say " tico or more persons,'' etc. 

§ When the word ?neans refers to a single thing, or act, it should be 
singular, ^^ this means;" when it refers to two or more circumstances, 
it should be plural, " these means." Mean is never used as a noun, but 
often as an adjective. 



SYNTAX. 147 

after his banishment. Neither of those men seem to have 
any idea that their opinions are ill-founded. Are either 
of these men your friend? By discussing what relates 
to each particular in their order, we shall better under- 
stand the subject. Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, 
took either-^ of them his censor. Industry is the mean of 
obtaining competency. This is the means-f between two 
extremes. 

Obs. 2. This and these refer to things near or present ; 
that and those to things distant, absent or removed. This 
refers to the latter noun ; that to the former. 

Ex. Vice and virtue are directly opposed to each 
other; that elevates us; this degrades. Honesty and 
deceit can not dwell together; that renders a man con- 
temptible, this makes his existence a blessing to himself 
as well as others. We are havinc; beautiful weather now 
in those days. AYashington and Napoleon were generals 
of the highest renown ; thist was illustrious for his in- 
nate goodness of heart, thatX for the brilliancy of his 
military exploits. 

Obs. 3. Adverbs are sometimes improperly used for 
adjectives; as, "his hands feel coldly/' instead of "his 
hands feel cold," etc. 

Ex. How delightfully the country appears. § How si- 
lently they are! She always appears^ neatly. Charles 
has grown greatly by his wisdom. They now aj^pcarg 
happily. That behavior was not suitably to his station. 
The rose smells § sireef^?/. The clouds look § cZarA??/. How 
bitterly the plums tasted. § 

Obs. 4. Auxiliary adjectives generally require the ter- 
mination ly ; as, he is tolerably well, and not tolerable 
well.\\ 

* Every and either should not be used for each. It is quite correct to 
say, " every six years f^ i. e., " every period of six yearsj' 

t Tliat is, the 77iean difference; mean, an adjective. 

X This and that should not be applied to persons. Say the former and 
the latter. 

§ Any verb that can be changed to is, or any part of the verb to he, 
requires the adjective and not the adverb. 

II The termination /// is not always required, as we say, " There was 
no stronger proof." "It is a very probable case." "He was the more 
sensible of the f«ct," etc., etc. 




148 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Ex. IIo was exceeding'-^ careful not to give offense. 
She was exeeedinf]^* upright in her dealings. They arc 
miserable poor. lie was extreme prodigal, and his ])ro- 
pcrty is now near exhausted. They were admirable 
adapted to the task. Suchf distinguished virtues seldom 
occur. JSuch-f an amiable disposition is universally ad- 
mired. 

Obs. 5. The use of double comparatives or superla- 
tives is highly improper; as, "Yours is a more better 
book than his ; but mine is the most best," should be 
"Yours is a better, etc., but mine is the best," 

Ex. She was the most beautifulest woman I ever saw. 
James is a worser scholar than John. He was the 
chief est I among ten thousand. A more serener temper I 
never knew. After the most strictest sect, I lived a 
Pharisee. The tongue is like a race-horse, that runs 
the faster the. /esser J weight it carries. 

Obs. 6. The comparative degree, and the adjective 

other require than after them. 

Ex. He has little more of the scholar besides the name. 
They had no sooner risen but they applied themselves to 
their studies. He is no better nor I. He is wiser nor 
me.% This is none other but the gate of paradise. To 
trust in him is no more but to acknowledge his. power. 
James is the wisest\\ of the two. He is the iceakest\\ of 

* " Exceedingly careful.'' Nevertheless exceeding is often used with- 
out the adverbial termination ; as, " he went up into an exceeding high 
mountain." The termination is especially suppressed when the adjec- 
tive ends in bj ; as, "Her appearance was excefding lovely," etc. 

t " *S'o distinguished;" "so amiable a disposition," etc. Neverthe- 
less, suck may not be considered very inaccurate. Very good writers 
use it in similar constructions. 

X Words which convey a superlative idea in themselves, do not 
admit of comparison ; nevertheless the word lesser is often used ; as 
' the Lesser Asia,' ' Lesser lights,' etc. 

§ But is frequently used after other, and, indeed, in some cases, it 
would sound exceedingly stiff to use than. " I know no other man in 
all this town hut (than) you." "There is no other business but (than) 
this in which I would succeed." "I could not see any other person 
hut (ihan) him," etc., (not he.) 

II When two objects are compared the comparative is generally used; 
and when more than two, the superlative. Many respectable writers, 
however, use the superlative in comparing two objects; as "He was 
the youngest of the two," etc. 



SYNTAX. 149 

the two. Ho is the likeliest^ of any other to succeed. 
This is the hest\ way and the most likdy to bring our 
journey to speedy issue. Xapoleon and Wellington were 
great generals, but, in my opinion, Washington was the 
greatest.^ 

Obs. 7. The natural position of the adjective in 
English is before the noun, although the contrary is 
the case in nearly all other languages: nevertheless the 
adjective is often placed after the noun to which it be- 
longs, particularly when it is emphatical, when several 
adjectives follow in succession, or when the verb to he 
intervenes between the noun and adjective. In some 
cases adjectives should not be separated from the nouns 
to which they belong, particularly when the adjective, 
thus separated, would come before a noun which it does 
not qualify. A due regard to the successive position of 
adjectives should also be observed. 

Ex. Thomas has bought a new pair of slioes.X a new 
pair oi" gloves, and a fine dozen of collars. This is a new 
gentleman's hat.X I have found an old girl's gaiter. 
Have you read the long president's message? He has 
for sale an extensive gentleman's plantation. He is tlie 
servant of an old rich ??ia/i.§ She is a young beautiful 
woman. 

Rule II. The Nominative case is the subject 
of the verb ; as, / am ; John is. 

EXERCISE FOR CORRECTION. 

Jlim and / will go together. Them are the same 
persons. Whom, among all the people, will make the 

*The comparative is very often elegantly used in comparing more 
than two objects, particularly when the comparison is instituted 
between different classes ; or when we have a doubt as to the exist- 
ence of a superlative. 

t Not the best of all ways ; but better than any knoicn, and more 
likely, etc. Washington was greater than these, but perhaps not the 
greatest man tliat ever lived. 

X A pair of new shoes. A gentleman's neto hat, etc. 

^A rich old man. A beautiful young woman, etc. When an 
adjective forms, as it were, part of the noun, it must not be separated 
from it. 




150 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

sacrifice? Her and Susan are good girls. The general 
and him barely escaped. 

Obs. 1. The nominative case is often placed after the 

verb, when the sense is not thereby obscured; but in 

parsing it is necessary to construe it before the verb, 

according to Eule I. 

Ex. There was him and one or two others present. 
There goes him and his sister. The great end of life is 
happiness, (correct — construe). \ 

Obs. 2. The various inflections of the verb to he, and 
some other intransitive verbs, admit a nominative or 
accusative after them when in apposition with a nomi- 
native before them ; as, ' he is a scholar.^ ' I took that 
person to be him.^ 

Ex. It is only me. It was him that did it. He resem- 
bles his brother so much that I took it to be /ie.* I saw 
a lady whom I took to be sAe.* Let him be whom he 
may. TFAo* do you thinjc him to be? Whom do they 
say they are? It was them'\ indeed. 

Obs. 3. If the verb to he is understood, it does not 
change the general rule ; as, in fact, all nouns in appo- 
sition (or meaning the same thing or person) must be in 
the same case. 

Ex. They appointed I leader. Him shall remain 
governor of the Provinces. JSer lived a Christian. Him 
died a beggar. 

EuLE III. — All nouns of the second person are 
in the independent case ; as, 0, John ! Ah ! thou 
excellent man ! 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

O, thee, slaves ! Ah, thee, deceiver ! 
Obs. 1. All nouns in the independent case are of the 
second person, and all pronouns, except the first singu- 

* He should be him^ the accusative in apposition with it which is 
accusative after took. She and ivho follow the same rule, 
t Them should be ihei/, nom. after the impers. verb is. 



SYNTAX. 151 

lar, which takes the objective or accusative form ; as, 
"Ah! me!" 

Ex. O, they, miserable beings ! Alas ! them, pitiful 
creatures! Ah // O, thee scoundrel! What! tlice 
indeed 1 

Obs. 2. The third person seems sometimes to be used 
as an independent; as, "Alas! those miserable behujs ! 
Alas ! what cruel tortures! Ah ! those cruel fiends ! 

Rule IY. — The absolute case precedes a parti- 
ciple ; as, " the general being killed, victory was 
lost." 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Solomon made as wise and true proverbs as any other, 
him only excepted who was much greater and wiser than 
he. Tlie winds rising, and him being lost, we resolved 
to return. The trunk was heavy, and its being over- 
turned, the contents rolled out. Their going home, he 
was detained. 

Obs. 1. AYhen the noun or pronoun is the accusative 

of a verb, it can not be made in the absolute; as, " him, 

rising, they struck." 

Ex. And this man, icho, being my uncle, I have re- 
vered, reviles me. He, liberated, they drew in a chariot 
through all the streets. He, being known, they resolved 
to persecute. (It is better, in such cases as this, to add 
him, and make he abs. before being, etc.) 

Rule Y. — The possessive case possesses a noun ; 
as, John's book. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

This is Pompeys pillar. Such is virtues reward. A 
7nans manner's frequently influence his fortiuies. I will 
not destroy the city for ten sake. Asa his heart was per- 
fect with the Lord. 

Obs. 1. When several nouns in the possessive come 
together, the apostrophe and s are annexed to the last, 
and omitted in the rest. 

Ex. Peter's, John's and Andrew's occupation was that 




152 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

of fishermen. It was the men's, women's and childreh's 
lot to suffer. This is John's, Jame's and Williams house. 

Obs. 2. When any words intervene, or when the noun 
to which the possessive holds a relation comes before it, 
the possessive sign should be annexed to each. 

Ex. This gained the king, as well as the people's admi- 
ration. Is this book John or Eliza's? He asked his 
father, as well as his mother's advice. 

Obs. 3. The possessive of pronouns is used without 
the apostrophe. 

Ex. Every tree is known by ifs fruit. Whos'e house 
is this? Is this book hefs or his' ? It is their' s. Is this 
house our's? 

Obs. 4. To prevent too much of the hissing sound, the 

s, after the ajDostrophe, is usually omitted in nouns already 

ending in s. 

Ex. Righteousness' s sake. For conscience's sake. Mo- 
seses' rod was turned iuto a serpent. For Uerodiass 
sake, his brother Fhilips's wife. 

Obs. 5. In many instances it is far more elegant to use 
of instead of the possessive ; as, " the wisdom of Soc- 
rates" for " Socrates' wisdom :" "the reward of virtue" 
for " virtue's reward." It seems better to say, " She 
married the brother of my son's wife," than " She mar- 
ried m}^ son's wife's brother. The successive use of "o/" 
is often unpleasant; as, "The distress of the son of the 
king touched the nation. It would be better to say, 
"The distress of the king's son," etc. 

Ex. The world's government is not left to chance. 
This is my wife's brother's partner's house.. It was 
necessary to have both the physician's and surgeon's 
advice. The extent of the prerogative of the king of 
England is sufficiently ascertained. 

Obs. 6. Nouns in apposition should have the same 

case ; as, I bought it at Brown's the cutler's.'^ 

* That is, at Brown's store, the cutler's store. 



SYNTAX. 153 

Ex. I lived at Wilson's^ the farmer. These works aro 
Cicer^Sj the most eloquent of men. 

Obs. 7. But in many instances, the use of the apos- 
troi:)he and s is inelegant ; as, " These Psalms are David's 
the king, priest and prophet of the Jewish people " is 
better than "David's the king's priesfs, etc." 

Kv. Give me John's the Baptist's head. This is the 
emperor's Leopold's palace. This is my brother's John's 
hat. Prince's William's sound. ^ 

Obs. 8. In some instances, both of and the possessive 
are used ; as, " It is a discovery of Sir Isaac Newton's ; 
i. c, one of ]S"ewton's discoveries. " A picture of the 
king" means simply a portrait of him; but "a picture 
of the king's," means a picture of any descrii^tion be- 
lonc:in2: to the kins;. 

Ex. That picture of the king's does not resemble him. 
These pictures of the Idng were sent from Italy. This 
estate of the corporation's is much encumbered. That is 
the eldest son of the king of England's. 

Obs. 9. The possessive case frequently comes before 
"participial nouns;" as, "much will depend on the ^w- 
p^Y's composing, but more on his reading.f 

Ex. What can be the cause of the Senate adjourning 
at this time? The time of Eliza entering the class, at 
length, arrived. Such will ever be the effect of youth 
associating with vicious companions. I think the object 
of the assembly being called was to clear a doubt of the 
king about the lawfulness of the Hollanders throwing off 
the monarchy of Spain, and the withdrawing their alle- 
giance to that crown. 

Rule VI. Transitive verbs govern the accusa- 
tive (or objective) ; as, We love him; he loves us. 

••• All such harsh and inelegant sentences may be made smootli and 
elegant by the use of " o/; '' or by changing the words as indicated b3' 
the rules given. 

t ^Vhen the phrase in which tlie participle occurs is, in eflfect, the 
nominative, the noun preceding the participle is in the possessive ; but 
wlien the noun is absolute, or nominative to some other verb, or the 
accusative after a verb, it can not be put in the possessive. 




154 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 
ITe and they we know ; but thou we know not. lie 
who committed the offense ehouldst thou correct^ and 
not / who am innocent. Ye only have I known. And 
I, who never did him an injury, he would endeavor to 
destroy. Who should I esteem more than the wise and 
virtuous? WIlo should I see the other day but my old 
friend ! 

Obs. 1. Intransitive verbs do not admit an accusative 
after them. jm 

Ex. Go ! flee thee away to the land of Judea. Bepent 
thyself of thine iniquities. Let him repent him of his 
designs. Lie the hook down on the table.* Now I lie 
me down to sleep. I can not agree (reconcile) his conduct 
witli his professions. JReturn you at once. I inquired 
the cause of it. 

Obs. 2. The participle, being a part of the verb, 

governs the accusative. 

Ex. Esteeming theirselves wise, they became fools. 
Having exposed hisself, he took cold. 

Obs. 3. The participial noun may also govern the 

accusative. 

Ex. Upon seeing 7 he turned and fled. On meeting he, 
I explained the matter. After C07isulting 7, they left 
the house. ». 

Obs. 4. When of is used after a participle, the parti- 
ciple is parsed as a noun, and the preposition governs 
the following word. This construction is always indi- 
cated hj the word the, or some other adjective, which 
immediately precedes the participle; hence, when the 
precedes the participle, of must follow it, and when the 
is not used, of must be omitted. 

Ex. The storming thd castle was no easy task. On 
taking of the cars, we whirled rapidly through the 
country. Nothing could have made her so unhappy as 
the marrying a man who possessed such principles. 

*The verb to lie is intransitive, and, as such, can not admit an 
object after it. Lie should be lay, yihioh. is transitive, and can govern 
the object, book. 



SYNTAX. 155 

Obs. 5. Transitive verbs should not be used as intran- 
sitivo; nor should they admit prepositions between 
them and the accusatives which they govern * 

Ex. I shall premise icith these general observations. 
I will lay here until you return. If all the States would 
unite in prohibiting the issue of notes of a less denomi- 
nation than twenty dollars, much of the viciousness of 
banking would be done away iclth. " Of this rule thero 
are many variations to be met with.''1[ 

Obs. 6. The accusative is often understood. 

JSx. (Supply the appropriate objects.) The Lord is 
mighty; he can create, and he can destroy. lie taught 
last winter. She studies diligently, I understand. 

Rule YIT. Prepositions govern the objective 
Cease ; as, ^ To ivhom much is given, of him much 
shall be required ;' ' on 1dm and not me, etc. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

To who will you give it? lie can do nothing ofhisself. 
He laid the suspicion upon somebody in the com])any, I 
know not xcho-l Tiiey willingly, and of theirsclves re- 
solved to return. 

Obs. 1. The preposition should be placed immediately 

before the relative which it governs. § 

Ex. Who were you speaking off Who did John go 
with ? Who do you serve under? Who didst thou 
receive that intelligence from? 

Obs. 2. It is regarded as inelegant to connect two 

prepositions, or a preposition and a transitive verb, with 

the same noun. Thus, " They were refused an entrance 

info, and driven /ro7?i the /lowse," should be "They were 

refused an entrance into the house, and were driven from 



* Except -where the preposition is compounded "with the verb; as, 
"Do not ffive xtp the ship," etc., etc. 

t Verbatim, from Smith's Grammar, page 130. 

X This sentence is correct if we supply ' it was' after ^rcho.' 

^ In familiar conversation the preposition is almost invariably used 
after the relative; but as this gives rise to error, it is better to use it 
before the pronoun j and in writing this rule should always be observed. 




156 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

ity ''I wrote to and warned him," should be " I wrote 
to him and warned Itim.'^ 

Ex. He is quite unacquainted with^ and consequently, 
can not speak, upon that subject. He had an altercation 
with^ and afterward struck the man. 

Obs. 3. It is also inelegant to close a sentence with a 
preposition, when it is possible to avoid such a construc- 
tion. 

I Ex. There was an island which it was difficult to sail 
around. This problem I did not know what to do with. 
His services I no longer had occasion for. 

Rule VIII. — Pronouns must have the gender, 
person, and number of the nouns for which they 
stand ; as, John is a good boy, because he studies 
attentively. Helen is a good girl, because slie be- 
haves well. The hooh is on the table : bring it to 
me. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Take handfuls of ashes and let Moses sprinkle it to- 
wards heaven, and it shall become small dust. Can any 
person on their entrance into life, be fully secure that 
they shall not be deceived?^ Answer not a/oo/ accord- 
ing to their folly.f They whichX seek wisdom shall cer- 
tainly find her. The boat was wrecked, and every man 
and woman endeavored to save themselves.^ The wheel 
killed another man, which is the sixth that have lost their 
lives by this means.] | 

"^'' " Can any person, on his entrance;" but as this ■would exclude en- 
tirely one of the sexes, a better method of expression would be : " Can 
any person on entering life be fully secured against being deceived ?" 

t " According to his (or her) folly." 

X Which may sometimes relate to persons. 

§It is always good policy to avoid the use of sentences which seem 
to involve the necessity of using pronouns that do not agree with their 
antecedents. It would sound peculiarly awkward to say, ''Everyman 
and woman endeavored to save himself and herself; and, hence, we are 
almost brought to the conclusion that " themselves " is correct. It would 
be better to say, " All the men and women endeavored to save them- 
selvesJ^ In this way we correct the sentence by introducing a plural 
antecedent. 

II "That has lost his life," etc. It certainly would be better to say, 
" The wheel killed another man, making six that have lost their lives." 



SYNTAX. 157 

Obs. 1. A pronoun should not be used in a sentence 
when it has no case-rcUition to any other word ; as, 
"The Lord, he is just." We should say, "The Lord 
is just." 

Ex. There are many persons, who, instead of doing 
good, they are intent on doing mischief. Whoever^ en- 
tertains such an opinion, he judges erroneously. He 
that hath ears to licar, let him hear.f You liave griev- 
ously offended, and that not only m^^self, but God. And 
myself^ do you not think /have suft'ered? Mr. D. IL 
Taft, having associated with him Mr. S. P. Green, they 
will continue the business at the old stand. 

Obs. 2. Who relates to persons, which and that to per- 
sons or things, what and as to things only. 

Ex. I am the man ichat made it. You are the woman 
what I wish to see. You are the very man as I came 
for. This is the child whom\ I saw at the gardens. It 
was this faction who^ endeavored to subvert the govern- 
ment. And France, icho^ formed an alliance with Eng- 
land, esjDoused the cause of the Turks. He is like a 
beast of prey, who destroys without pity. Having once 
disgusted him, he could never regain the favor of Nero, 
iclio was but another name for cruelty. || Who^ of 
these men came to his assistance? Which^^^ among 
you dares approach? 

Obs. 3. As the relative pronoun does not change to 
express distinction of person, number or gender, it 



* Compound relative, equivalent to ' he^ who^ or ' the person who.^ 

t'/Zc' is obviously redundant, and yet some word seems to be re- 
quired before that. If we supply sonje such words as " Whoever he is 
that hath," etc., the word he might with propriety be retained : or we 
may consider the word him a redundancy, in wliich case we should 
say, " He that hath ears to hear should hear." 

X Which or that is generally applied to children; nevertheless whom 
may not be deemed a violation of language. 

^ Such words as people^ nation, country/, faction, clan, company, hodt/^ 
parliament, senate, conyress, etc., etc., require which or that instead of 
who. 

II " Whose name was but another word for cruelty." 

1[ Which (i. e., which one) of these, etc. 

«« u Who, among you," etc. Observe the effect of the prepositions. 




158 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Bliould be placed next its antecedent, to prevent am- 
biguity. 

Ex. The king dismissed his minister without any in- 
quiry, who had never before committed so unjust an 
action.* The boy beat his companion, whom everybody 
believed incapable of doing mischief f This man and 
his neighbor quarrelled, who never had been known to 
speak an angry word before. J 

Obs. 4. As the relative pronoun u7io, and its com- 
pounds whoever and whosoever^ ar6 declinable, particular 
attention should be given to their construction in regard 
to case. 

Ex. These are the men whom, as you might suppose, 
were the authors of the work. If you were to go there, 
3'ou would find one, at least, whom, 3'ou would say. passed 
his time pleasantly. Whoever % he appoints, I shall re- 
ceive. I shall attack whoever \\ comes this way. Whom- 
ever II comes this way shall be attacked. Whomsoever he 
is, I shall be pleased.^ ' Whomsoever book it is, I shall 
appropriate it. 

Obs. 5. The noun or pronoun that is used in answer 
to a question, must be of the same case as the relative 
pronoun used m asking. 

Ex. Of whom did jou get your books? Of a book- 
seller: he who keeps on Main street. Who told 3'ou 
this? Both him and the clerk. M7io** was the money 

-:■:- ««The kinor, who had never," etc.; or if it be the minister who is 
regarded as culpable, then, "his minister, who had never,"' etc.; and 
'^without any inquiry'' should follow ^'- kingj^ 

t "The boy, whom," etc.; or, if it was his companion that was 
deemed incapable, the sentence is correct as it stands, 
a X This is an extremely ambiguous construction: avoid it. 

g Whomever is seldom used. 'Webster excludes it entirely from his 
dictionary; nevertheless, it^eems consistent to use it here. 

II When Avhoever is used as a compound equal to " Ae icho^' or " /j/m 
who,'' it should have the case which its position in the sentence would 
indicate. 

% Whoever and whomsoever are not always resolvable into " he who," 
etc.; as, "Whoever hath eyes to see, let him see." 

«-■» ^Yg must first correct the error in the question, by changing the 
nem. who to the obj. whom. 



SYNTAX. 159 

paid to? To the teacher and he who lives with him. 
Who has done this? Not me. TFAo* did you meet? 
He and his sister. 

Obs. G. The pronoun should be generally referred to 

its nearest antecedent. 

Ex. I am the man who command you.f I am the pcr^ 
son who adopt this sentiment. He fired the gun twice, 
and having secured two birds^ he resolved to carry it to 
the house. J He walked tlirough iXxa fields, and having 
discovered the truant lambs, recrossed them. % 

Obs. 7. In some cases, the pronoun seems to be referred 
to its first antecedent; as, ''Jam the man icho command 
you:" when such is the case, that agreement must be 
continued through the entire sentence; as, "I am the 
man who command you, who entertain these opinions, 
and who adopt these sentiments. 

Ex. Thou art a friend that hast often relieved me, and 
//r^s not deserted me now. Thou art the man irho didst 
revile my sentiments, de-^pised\\ my counsels, mocked my 
words, and have now come to want. I am tlie person 
iL'ho have received thy kind favors, and hast come to re- 
munerate thee. 

Obs. 8. The pronoun you, whether it is used to repre- 
sent a noun in the singular or plural, ahva^'s requires 

••• We must first correct the error in the question, by changing the 
nom. who to tlie ohj. ichom. 

t y is first person; 7nan is third. Who should be in the third person, 
as man is its nearest antecedent. Now, as there is nothing about who 
to determine the person, we must change tlie form of the verb, and say 
" who commands.'" So, we see it is in reality the verb and not the pro- 
noun that is wrong. 

X Pronouns should also be referred to the nearest word for an ante- 
cedent; or rather sliovdd be placed nearest their antecedent in con- 
stiui'ting the sentence. It would certainly refer iogwi; and if that 
was the object he resolved to carry to the house, we should say: "He 
fired the gun twice, and resolved to carry it to the house, having se- 
cured,"' etc. Otherwise, we should change il to them. 

^ It would be absurd to refer them to lambs: hence we should say: 
"He walked through the fields, and recrossed them, having discov- 
ered, ' etc.; or, "He walked through the fields, and having discovered 
the truant, lambs, reaolved to return." 

tl " Didst despise ;' " didst mock.'' 



160 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

the verb to which it belongs to be plural, (except in 
cases where the verb is preceded by it ; in which case it 
must be singular, in the same manner as any impersonal 
verb.) 

Ex. Where was you when the roll was called? John ! 
was you at the gentleman's house? AVilliam! I think 
you told me you was at New York last spring. It were^^ 
you who assembled to hear me. Were^-^ it not you that 
threatened to attack the fortress ? Are * it ye who wor- 
shij) false gods? 

Rule IX. — A verb agrees with its nominative 
case, in number and person ; as, I livey thou livest, 
he lives ; we live, you live, etc. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

The frequent commission of crimes harden his heart.f 
A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. There is 
more than ten thousand men advancing upon us. A ju- 
dicious arrangement of our ^iM&iQQ facilitate the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge. There's several articles left. There 
was but a few persons present. Every hundred years 
constitute a century. J Every few days bring a recurrence 
of the malady. J Every twenty -four hours afford us the 
vicissitudes of day and night. J The /oc/t, and not the 
fleece, are the objects of the shepherd's care.§ The meeting 
were well attended. § The people was very numerous. | 



'-^' Impersonal verbs should always be third person, singular. 

t The introduction of a phrase or sentence between the nominative 
and the verb frequently induces this error. 

% The word period understood is the real nominative to these verbs. 
The rule which some grammarians give that '■'■plural nouns after every 
requii-e a singular verb," is a libel upon language. Th&s>Q plural nouns 
are governed by the preposition of understood. 

§ All nouns, whether ''of multitude" or otherwise, that have both a 
singular and plural form, follSw the general rule, and require verbs to 
agi'ee with them in person and number. The word jlock is singular 
number, and hence requires a singular verb. The plural oi jlock is 
flocks. The plural of meeting is meetings ; but the word people has but 
one /orw, being plural in idea; hence all nouns of multitude thai have 
but one form, must be regarded as plural nouns, and, as such, require 
a plural verb. In fact, these nouns {people, public, etc.) are plural as 
much as the words tongs, scissors, arms, etc. ; and instead of regarding 
them as nouns in the singular, having no plural form, the contrary is 



SYx\TAX. 101 

When the nation complain, the rulers should listen to 
their voice. The regiment consist of ii thousand men. 
The multitude eagerl}^ pursue pleasure as their cliief good.* 
I believe the r/overninentf have a rii^ht to do this. Man 
are an accountable beingX The following set of exer- 
cises are arranged on a new plan.^ A part only of the 
individuals are meant. || The crowd were great. The 

the truth. There are but a few words belonging to this chiss that 
require a plural verb. Grammarians do not seem to have exjibiinei 
the nature of these words. When the student has been told that nouns 
of multitude, expressing unity of idea, require a singular verb, and 
nouns expressing plurality of idea require a verb in the plural, he has 
a confused idea of the true intention of the rule, but yet is unable to 
tell when plurnlily or unili/ is expressed. For instance, he learns that 
nation is a noun of uniiy, but council is one expressing plurality ! As- 
tonishing perception that could make so minute a distinction! The 
fact is, both of these words are in the singular, the plural being 
nations and counciU. The rule, as generally laid down, is no guide iu 
distinguishing the singular from the plural form. 

* Multitude is in tlie singular; plural, multitudes. We say the 
multitude is; and the mullituilcs are. If multitude is a plural noun, re- 
quiring a plural verb and pronoun to agree with it, it will also require 
a plural adjective: hence we should say '■'these muititude;" ^^ those 
multitude;'' "scirraZ multitude;" ^'■mani/ multitude," etc., instead of 
" ;/t/5 multitude;" ^^ thai multitude," etc. The absurdity of calling 
multitude a plural noun must be apparent to any person of ordinary 
comprehension. 

t Government is in the singular. It is right to say the government 
js, and governments are. 

J Let us inquire of any respectable grammarian if the word man 
here does not express plurality of idea? Does it not include all man- 
kind? Is there a single human being that is excepted? Certainly 
not. If it is plural in idea, why not have a plural verb? It is simply 
because the word man has a plural form, i. e., men. We say, " Man is 
an accountable beim/ ; but ^^ Men are,'^ etc. Do we say "The bee are an 
industrious insect,' or "the bee j5," etc.? Any noun, taken without 
an adjective, is used in its broadest extension, and is, in every sense 
of the word, a noun of multitude, being used to indicate a whole class; 
as, man, beast, bird, etc. 

^ Copied verbatim from Lennie's grammar; page 53. The plural 
of set is sets. See dictionary. 

II This highly elegant sentence is from Smith's grammar, being part of 
a rule which teaches the monstrous falsehood that '-A verb in the plu- 
ral will agree with a collective noun in the singular when a part only 
0/ the individuals are meant,'' adding as example, "The Cf> tncil were 
divided in their sentiments;"' as if, not being satisfied wlili the error 
in the rule, he would add one still more preposterous by way of ex- 
ample. It should be, " The council was divided in sentiment."' The 
T.'luial of council is councils. The plural of part is parts. We can not 
join a plural adjective to council or part 

u 



162 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

parliament are difiHolved. The arrrnj are destroyed. The 
parliaments of different nations makes laws. The armies 
of Napoleon was vietoriouH. The multitude are clamor- 
ous for liberty. The multitudes is eager for the fray.* 
The committee were divided in their sentiment. Tiie com- 
mittee was agreed in its sentiments. f The public is jealous 
of its rights. The Republic stand on a firm basis. The.'^e 
Bepublics is built on the principle of self-government. ^ 
Congress^ are composed of the representatives of the 
people. The country are filled with fanatics. The flock 
of birds fly past the door. The flocks of sheep grazes on 
the hills. The herd of cattle are heard bellowing loudly. 
A large drove of cattle are coming to market. A great 
collection of men are in the street. The crowd press for- 
ward. The crowds is as numerous as the sands on the 
seashore. 

Obs. 1. The impersonal verb " it is " and " it icas,'' may 
be followed by nouns or pronouns in the jolural ; as, " It 
was they who did it ;" " it was the heretics who first began 
to rail," etc. They may ajso be followed by pronouns 
of the first person ; as, " It is I who told him ;" it is we 
that have come," etc. 

Ux. It were the soldiers that made the noise. It am I. 
It are they. It is strange, the (how) few letters I now 
receive (i. e., how feiv are the letters which, etc.). It icere 
these arguments that decided the question. 

Rule X. — The Infinitive Mood is governed by 
the preceding word in construction. It is desig- 
nated by the word to, w^hich precedes it^ either ex- 



*' If it is correct, as many grammarians allege, to say, " the niulii' 
tude are clamorous," then is it equally correct to say, " the multitudes 
is,'^ etc. 

t The sentence is perfectly cprrect according to the rule usually 
given; for if committee in the singular is made to agree with icere in 
the plural, then may we violate the rule with equal propriety when 
the nominative is plural. 

J The word public is in the plural, and has no singular form ; but its 
compound Republic may be used in the plural. 

^ Congress is not, strictly speaking, a noun of multitude. It simply 
means the "coming together" of persons; and, as such, is a noun in 
the singular, having no plural form. 



SYNTAX. 163 

pressed or implied. The verbs, hid^ dare, need^ 
see^rnake^ lieai\feel, let, ohserve^ 'perceive, and heliold, 
usually require the infinitive to be used without 
the sign ^o.'-*' 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Permit mo examine the book. I shall endeavor learn. 
Consider if you are able orercoinc the difficulty. Ho 
can not be said have aceoinplished the feat unaided, 

I dare not to proceed so hastily. Bid the man to ap- 
proach. I need not to converse "svith him. lie has gone 
out to see the sun to rise. Jlahe me to know thy laws.f 
lie made the boat to cross the stream.]: Do you not hear 
him to call? I felt the wind to blow upon my cheek. I 
felt ashamed think I had done so.§ Did you observe the 
man to raise up his hands ?|| 

I perceived the clouds to rise, and the waves to dash 
violently about. We beheld, him to mount aloft. He was 
seen cross the stream.^ He has been heard utter such 
words. ^f Men of research have denied, or at least 
doubted them to be genuine.-!^-''^ 

Obs. 1. The infinitive is often used without a govern- 
ing word in a sentence ; but in ];)arsing, some suitable 
word must be supplied. 

Ex. To confess the truth I was at fault. ft To begin : 
I will relate what befell my friend. ff To acknowledge 
the fact, it was as the gentleman says. 



* To is used after the passive of all these verbs except let. 

t To is admissible sometimes after make. This sentence may not be 
regarded, therefore, as incorrect. 

t"IIe made the boat cross the stream" •would mean, he forced \i 
across; but, "he made the boat to cross," etc., would indicate that he 
constructed a boat for the purpose of crossing the stream. In the for- 
mer case, to cross would be governed by ^^made,^^ in the latter, b}- boat, 
or "wiVA which,'^ understood after the word boat — "the boat, zcilh 
tchich,'^ etc. 

§ Here to is required, because to tJiink does not hold a relation to /clt, 
but to the adjective, ashamed — asliained to think. 

U It must, be confessed that to does not appear improper here. 

% To is required here, because the verbs are passive. 

** It should be, " have denied them to be genuine, or doubted if they iccre 
50," because doubted is intransitive, and can not goveru tliem. 

tt Supply " Ij I a/?i, " or some similar words. 




164 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 2. In many cases the infinitive is used as a nom- 
inative to a verb, in which case the verb must be sin^u- 
hu' where one infinitive is used, or where two are used, 
connected by or or 7ior ; and plural where tv/o infinitives 
are used, connected by and. 

Ex. To icill are present witli me, but to perform that 
which are good, I find not. To he deprived of his pres- 
ence, or to be denied his wise counsels are trials almost 
insuperable. To exhibit a cheerful temper, and to be 
guarded in our expressions is our highest aim. To de- 
termine the true signification of these various words, to 
classify and arrange them was a work of no inconsiderable 
magnitude.* 

Obs. 3. It is highly improper to introduce an adverb, 
an adverbial phrase, or any other words between to and 
the infinitive verb. It is also improper to use /or before 

to.\ 

Ex. It was thought better to first open the box. He 
determined to heneeforth leave the intoxicaiing cup. 
Arrange the box so as to partially exclude the light. lie 
was so assiduous as to, in a measure, injure his health. 
He intended for to cross the river. What went you out 
for to see? For to plow, for to sow, for to reap, and 
to mow, for to be a farmer's boy. He set out for to ex- 
plore the country. 

Obs. 4. After the imperfect tense of a verb we should 
generally use the infinitive present instead of the infini- 
tive perfect.j: 

Ex. He was seen to have entered the house. He always 
intended to have reproved his son. We have done no 
more than it teas our duty to have done. Pie .rejoiced to 
have found once more histoid comj)anion. 



.*Tbis sentence may be considered correct as it stands, according 
to the 4th observation under Rule XVII. 

t The use of for before the infinitive seems to have been introduced 
from the French, in Avliich language it is both correct and elegant. 
It is a common fault to separate to from the infinitive b}^ an adverb. 

X Because the action represented by the Infinitive Mood was present 
at the time represented by the imperfect tense. 



SYNTAX. 1G5 

Obs. 5. The infinitive perfect should be used after the 
present tense, when a past action is referred to ; and 
after tlic imperfect of ought, to be, and some other verbs, 
when the past tense is jDeculiatly indicated. 

Ex. The man ought to know better.^ lie thinks the 
Enu^lish ought to spare^^- the life of the Maid of Orleans. 
The man was supposed to escape before the sherilf reached 
the place, lie is known to spend the greater part of his 
fortune. lie seems to know that this was the case, and 
to act in accordance with such knowledge at that time. 
I was to meet him there. f It would have afforded mc 
great pleasure to be the bearer of such intelligence. 
From the conversation I had Avith him, he appeared to 
study the classics a long time. 

Rule XI. — When two negatives occur in the 
same sentence, they neutralize each other, and 
produce an aflh'mation ; as, "" I am not unmindful 
of death." J Hence, when it is desired to express 
a negation^ we should use but a single negative. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

I can not drink no more. lie can not do r?othing. 
He will never be no better. Covet neither riches nor 
honors, nor no such perishing things. Do not interrupt 
me 3'ourself, nor let no one disturb me. 1 have resolved 
not to comply with the proposal; neither at present, nor 
at any other time.§ I can not, by no means, allow this 
to be the fact. I^or is danger to be apprehended, no 



* This construction ■would indicate the present tense; but if tlio 
past is meant, the injln. per/, should be used It is by the iufiuitive 
only that the tense of ought can be determined. — See page 120. 

t Tliis may be regarded as correct, according to Ohs. 4, ante. 

X An affirmation is elegantly expressed by the use of two negatives, 
when a former negation is denied; as, "1 did not rf/scontiuue the use 
of it," etc. 

§ "I have resolved neither to comply at present, nor at," etc. The 
above form of expression is admissible in speaking, -when it apjtoars 
that it is the first intention of the speaker to pause at the word "pro- 
posal," and adds the rest as a second thought. Thus, "I will have 
nothing to do with you. Neither at present, nor at any future time." 
Avoid it in writing. 




166 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

more than under llio ordinary casualties of existence. 
I could not, although I listened attentively, neither com- 
prehend his words nor actions. I can not never do nofh- 
ing with the child* I ^ouid n'^ never understand no 
more about it. 

EuLE XII. — Adverbs qualify verbs; and should 
generally follow them; as^ the bird flies swiftly. f 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

He unaffectedly and forcibly spohe, and was attentively 
listened to by the whole assembly. Not only he found 
her employed, but sweetly she was singing also. In the 
disposition of adverbs, the ear carefully requires to be 
consulted as well as the sense. 

Obs. 1. Adjectives should not be used as adverbs : ad- 
jectives qualify nouns; adverbs qualify verbs. 

[Adverbs that are foi-med from adjectives generally terminate in hj. 
By poetical license,* this termination is often omitted, but should be 
supplied in parsing. The li/ is elegantly omitted when an auxiliary 
ending in It/ precedes; as, "Ae speaks extremely loud."] 

Ex. She reads proper^ writes very neat^ and composes 
accurate. He speaks Yery fluent, reads excellent, but does 
not think very coherent. He acted bolder X than was ex- 
pected. They behaved the noblest, "l because they were 
disinterested. He spoke truer ^ than the other. 

Obs. 2. Adverbs are often used as nouns; § as, ^' Since 
then the constitution has not been changed. In a little 
while I shall return. The line extends from there to here. 
From should not be used before hence^ thence and whence^ 
as it is implied. 

*■ Triple negatives are absurd. 

t Many adverbs require to be placed before the verb, as never, whc'- 
ever, always, etc., •when emphatic^ Use discretion about the position 
of the adverb. We may say, "The women voluntarily contributed 
their rings;" or, "The women contributed, voluntarih', all their 
rings;" or, again, "The women contributed all their rings volun- 
tarily." Either may be considered correct. 

X More boldly ; most nobly and truly. 

^ It must be confessed that this use of the adverb is contrary to 
analogy, and is not a very elegant method of expression. It is better 
to avoid it in all cases. 



SYNTAX. 1G7 

Ex. From ivhence do you come? From thence lie re- 
traced his steps. From hence 1 go, never ai^iiin to re- 
turn. Where are you goincj to?* 1 intended to go 
there<^ this morning. Come hcre^^ Charles, immediately. 
The phice wlicrc i found hiin.f 

Ons. 3. Adjectives should not be used in the place of 
auxiliary adverbs, which should terminate in ly ; as, ex- 
tremely well done; hot extreme well, etc. 

Fx. The operation was exceeding icell performed. She 
sings real well, lie converses exceedintjly fiuently.\ He 
talks astonishing rapidly, § — and his voice sinks imper- 
ceptible lowly. She dresses exceeding neatly.^ 

Rule XIII. — Care must be taken to express the 
proper time by the appropriate tense. || 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

I have compassion on the multitude, because i\\(ij con- 
tinued with me now these three days. And he that icas^ 
dead sat up and began to speak. Next Xew Year's day 
I shall be at school three years. Ye will not come unto 
me that ye might have eternal life. Ilis sickness was so 
great that I feared he would have died'^'> before our arrival. 
It would have given me great satisfaction to relieve'\1[ him 
from that distressed situation. 

Obs. 1. The present tense should be generally used 

* The use of where, there and here for whitheVj thither and hither, is 
not strictly proper. The signification of where is in oi' at tvhat place; 
of there, in or of that place; of hrre, in or at this place ; wliile tiie signi- 
fication of tchither is to what place; of thither, to that place; and of 
hither, to this place; lience, a/ter verbs of motion, ichUher, hither and 
thither should be used: nevertheless, we may use where, here and there 
after verbs of motion, if we assign to them a signification similar to 
that assigned to whither, etc. Custom sanctions this use of here, where, 
etc. — See Webster's Unabridged Dictionari/. 

t Better to say, *'Thc place in tchich I found him." 
X Exceeding does not take (// when the adverb has it. 
^ Hetter to change the /// from the adverb to the auxiliary, and say, 
astonishinr/li/ rapid, impcrceptibli/ low. etc. This sounds more agreeable 
to the ear, and has the sanction of usage. It is not necessary that 
adverbs, derived from adjectives, should always terminate in ///. Low 
is an adverb; but lowh/ is an adjective. 

I See moods and tenses, page HG, ^ "That had been dead." 
** "That he ivould die." ft See Rule X, Obs. 5. 



168 ENGLISH GRAMMAR, 

after the imperfect or perfect, when the action is repre- 
sented as ijresent at the time expressed by the imperfect or 
perfect. 

Ex. The apostle knew that the present was the only 
time allowed for this preparation. It could not have 
been otherwise known that the word had this meaning. 
I told him if he went^^ to-morrow I should go with him. 
He said if he collected^^ the money in a few days he 
would pay the debt. The orations of Cicero and De- 
mosthenes have been-f brilliant productions; and were 
the admiration of every age.J 

EuLE XIV. — Care should be taken to express 
the proper relation and idea, with the appropriate 
preposition. § 

The words accused, boast, independent, need, observance, 
worthy, tired, etc., generally require to be followed by 

"0/." 

Adapted, agreeable, adverse, conformable, reconcile, op- 
posed, opposite, in regard, exception, resemblance, etc., 
should be followed by " to.'' 

Bestow, call, dependent, insist, icait, think, etc., require 
" on"" or '* upon " after them. 

Compliance, consonant, associate, provide, to fall in, dis- 
gust, plead, etc., require " with.'' 

Call, wait, change, taste, etc., generally have ^^for.*' 

Derogation, differ, dissent, freed, swerve, etc., usually re- 
quire ^^ from.'' 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

He was totally dependent of the papal crown. He 
accused the minister /or betraying the Dutch. You will 

*■ Here we can neither use the present nor future; but rather the 
imperfect potential, inasmuch as that tense expresses the idea of fu- 
turity. See tenses. 

f Were then — a long time ago. % Home teen ever since that time. 

§ It is impossible to give complete rules for the use of the preposi- 
tion. After studying the rules, and correcting the errors here given, 
the student should study the character of the language, and use judg- 
ment. 



SYNTAX. 1G9 

soon become adapted in our climate. lie came agreeable 
with his promise. The gentleman entertained an o])iniou 
entirely adverse against mine. This construction is con- 
formable icith the general riile.-'^ lie seemed reconcihMl 
with his fate. She is reconciled at her condition, lie 
was opposed against the measure. lie lives opposite off 
the church. My sentiments, in regard of that, are simi- 
lar witht yours. This is the only exception in the rule. 
He bears a strong resemblance icith his brother. Ho 
was true /or the interests of his constituents; and true 
in the cause of liberty. Jle bestowed curses against him, 
and called to^ him to desist. He waited || with his guests 
at the table. I thought ^j!^o</^^[ you very often. In com- 
pliance to 3'our request, I send you the document. The 
character of his deeds was consonant to his professions. 
Why will you associate in-^-^' such comjmny ? The gov- 
ernment will provide the army in arms. He pi'ovides 
well toff his family. 1 am provided o/<|'^: a long journey. 
He fell in among a band of robbers. He fell in togg the 
ditch. I was disgusted af\\\\ his impertinence. She 
l)leaded to^^\^^i him earnestly a long time. 1 shall call 
it'iYA*** you on my way to town. If 3'ou will waitftf mo 
at Mr. B's store, I will join you there. This is a change +++ 



* With may be used here. Words commencing with con, generally 
require tcilh. 

t " Opposite (o^ Opposite may be used without to. 

X Similar to. Always consider well the sense and meaning of the 
preposition you are about to use. 

g Called may be followed by to, tliough t/pon is probably better. 

II " Waited on." Wait may be followed by other prepositions also. 

^[ About is sometimes used after tliought. Custom has sanctioned its 
use, so that it may not be deemed incorrect. 0J\ as well as on, is used 
after thought. 

**■ " Associate with, or among." In is often used, but incorrect. 

"W '■'- Provides for.'' XX ^^ Provided for." Provided may be used ia 
many sentences without a preposition; as, "He provided (i.e., 7>ro- 
cured) a long stick,' etc. 

<iiJ Connect in and to {into) To fall in with means to meet, to encounter. 

]||| " Disgusted at' may be sufficiently cori-ect. 

\% Plead may have /or after it as well as icith. Plead is often used 
without a preposition. 

*"** To call for signifies to stop for a person or thing; to call on is to 
visit, or to cry to; to call in is simply to enter; to call to is to cry to, 

ttt " Wait for me.'' Wait is often followed by other prepositions. 

XXt ^Ve say sometimes "a change //-om good to bad," etc. 

15 




170 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

to the worse. lie has a taste 0/ reading. "Will you tasto 
on* the bread ? This act was a derogation to his merit.j 
I shall be obliged to differ with you. Why do you differ 
with me? There is a difference among X us. I must dis- 
sent to that opinion. He was freed of the chains of 
bondage. I am free o/§ the charge. You are quite 
free in\\ your advice. lie never swerves in the path 
of duty. I swei^ve^l to no man's opinion. You are con- 
versant t/i** that science, I think. This book was re- 
plete in errors. I find a difficulty of fixing my mind. 
This prince was naturally averse from war. Upon such 
occasions as fell into their cognizance. His abhorrence 
foft gaming was extreme. He was prejudiced tofj the 
cause. He was followed icith a great crowd. Certain 
words must be followed with appropriate prepositions.|:t 
I have been engaged on this work a long time.§§ 

The man actually died for thirst. He died of a Thurs- 
day. My bouse stands to the north-east side on the road. 
I have no occasion o/his services. He has made no use 
with his talents. He is in want for provisions. He 
wants/or| 1 1 1 provisions. ' See that the men do not want^^ 
provisions. His excuse was admitted 0/*** by his master. 
This construction admits ftt tlie use of the preposition. 
It was admitted oflU on all sides. All parties admitted 

* To taste of signifies to take into the mouth ; but a taste for^ signi- 
fies a mental relish ; as, " a taste for reading." 

t " Derogation of or from^'' J " A difference between us." 

§ Of and to are both used after free ; as, " He is free to act," etc. 

II " Free withJ^ If " I yield to," expresses the obvious meaning." 

** Words compounded with con^ generally require with — " Conyer- 
sant with." 

tt "Abhorrence of\ " and, "prejudiced against^ 

XX Copied verbatim from Lennie's grammar, page 111. To follow with 
5s to be embodied with the folloiving word, or whatever it may be ; as, 
*• He followed with the multitude." 

'{ §^ " Engaged m." But on may be used with propriety sometimes. 
\ nil "7(9 wanV^ is to desire; but " /o want for ^' is to lack. 

Yi Here for is required after want ; otherwise the sentence would be 
absurd. 

*■••* Of may be considered redundant in this place. " To admit,^' is 
to receive, to grant or allow ; to admit of is to permit or require. 

ttt " Admits of, i. e., permits, or requires. 

XXX " Admitted," panted or allowed. 



SYNTAX. 171 

o/* the fact. Wo walked about infof the park a while, 
and then went out. I am six feet liigh Avhen I stand 
into my boots. Thrust thy hand inX the molten liquid, 
"VVe went in the park, llo passed rapidly from the 
room, and went in that. We soon arrived in [New 
York.§ Wo stopped, in our way, in Albany. How long 
have you resided (it America? || I shall remain for some 
time at France. He has taken up his residence at New 
York. We went directly /or Boston.^lf He is going /or 
England. 'They started to the gold region. ^'^^--'^ He de- 
parted to the west. I have been at-\"[ London after hav- 
ing resided at France. I was in the place appointed, a 
long time before he arrived. There was a lai'ge number 
of passengers atH the boat. He resides in Somerville.i:^^^ 
He has a residence in the small town of Centerville.|||| 
They have rented a house at State street. He lives in 
No. 14, at Bank street.^[l[ 

Obs. 1. a preposition should not be separated from 
the noun which it governs by another preposition, not a 
compound of a preceding verb. 

Ex. Ho came through of the house. Ho thrust his 
head from*** out of the window. He withdrew the 



* " Admitted," granted or allowed. 

t Into is a contraction of in and totvards, and generally follows a 
verb of motion, because it signifies from without to the inside. In de- 
notes a position already within, but may follow either a verb of rest or 
motion. 

XInto, i. c., from without to the inside. 

^At should follow a verb of rest or position, (arrived does not denote 
motion.) 

II Before large cities, countries, states, counties, provinces, etc., we 
should use in instead of at. 

^ After a verb of motion use to or towards. 

•:»» After verbs of departure use for. 

It At is generally used after the verb to be ; but there are many ex- 
ceptions to the rule. It is better to say " ?n London,'' or "^o London.'' 

XX " In,'' or "on" the boat. At is ridiculous here. 

^At is generally used before the names of villnjrcs or small towns; 
but not always ; as we may say, " He owns a house in the village of 
P ." "A house was burned in Clieltenliam," etc. 

nil This sentence is sufficiently correct as it stands. 

tH In or 071 a street. At a number. 

*** From is redundant. AVe may say " he T^ithdrcw from out the 
fire," etc. 




172 " ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

iron from out of the fire. Place the book orer* on 
the shelf. He went up-\ into an exceeding l^i^'h 
mountain. Take the book from off the table. Put the 
Btool m* under the table. Lift your book off of the 
desk. lie came from beyond your placet I stood near 
hy the man at the time. lie came near about the house. 
He went acrosst% over the stream. He approached to- 
ward \\ of the man. 

KuLE XV. — Conjunctions connect the same 
moods and tenses of verbs^ when the nominative, 
is expressed but once. 

EXAxMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

He stood near the door and has spoken to me often. 
Anger glances into the breast of a wise man, but ivill rcjit 
only in the bosom of fools. She has played and sang that 
same song many a time. And dost thou raise thy voice 
against me, and bringest^ me to judgment ! If a man 
have a hundred sheep, an^^ one of them is gone astray, 
doth%\ he not leave the ninety-and-nine and goeth into 
the mountain and seeketh^ that which is gone astray. 
To be moderate in our views, and proceeding temperately 
in the pursuit of them, is the best w^ay to insure suc- 
cess. 

Obs. 1. But when the conjunction connects different 
moods or tenses, the nominative should be generally 
repeated. 

Kx. These people have indeed acquired riches, but do 
not command, our esteem. The jury icas closeted a long 
time, but could come ^-^ to no agreement. He might have 
been happy, and is now fully convinced of it. He wight 
have been rich, ?/ industrious. ff Eank may confer influ- 
ence, but will XX not necessarily produce virtue. 

*■ Redundant. t Correct. f^>, an adverb. 

% Correct. " He came from {the place which is) beyond,'' etc. 

§ There is no such word as acrost^ or acrosst. Across is the word. 

II Towards^ not ioiuard. Toward is an adjective, meaning apt, ready ^ 
etc., the opposite oi froward. 

% The same form, of the verb must also be continued ; '■Hhou dost 
raise and (dost) bring," etc. 

«-;■;- a /^ could come:" i. e,, the jury. 

tt Supply, " if he had been:' \X " But it will not," etc. 



SYNTAX, 173 

Obs. 2. Conjunctions connect the same cases of nouns 
or pronouns, when the nouns or pronouns so connected 
have a relation to one and the same word. 

Ex. My brother and me are tolerable mathematicians. 
You and him, I believe, are leagued together. There is 
no person more industrious than him/^ They have gained 
more than us. He is as good ^5 her. I am not so skill- 
ful as. him. He is a better scholar than me.f There was 
no one there but him. X He w^as the only person but me J 
at the house. We know as much as them that profess 
more. 

Obs. 3. The conjunctions if, though, lest, unless, although^ 
since, except, whether and provided, generally require the 
subjunctive form of the verb to follow, when both con- 
tingency and futurity are expressed. § 

Ex. If a man smites his servant and he dies, he shall 
surely bo put to death. If he returns to-morrow, he will 
call on me. Tliough he becomes \\ poor, yet will he bo 
rich. Take him away, lest he kills us. 51 1 can not 
hear unless he repeats it.** I shall not be able to tell 
whether it is white or black.** 1 will pay you every 
farthing provided I am liberated.** 

Obs. 4. When had or icere is used in the subjunctive 
without a conjunction, the nominative should follow the 
verb, the subjunctive conjunction being implied. 

Ex. '■'■ He had thy reason, would he skip and play." 
He had know me, he would have treated me differently. 
Was he ever so great and distinguished, this conduct 
would debase him. Was 1 to enumerate all her virtues, 
it would seem like flattery. 



* 'Than he isj Do not call than a prep, in such cases. 

t 'Than I am.' X Correct if but is called a preposition. 

§ The Indicative form is often used to express both futurity and 
contingency; and the Potential more often. — See page 107. 

II Here the Imperfect Potential is obviously required — ' though he 
should become — {at some future time.') 

If "Lest he kill;'' or, ''lest he should kill;'' (Potential Imp.) 

** We see no reason why these sentences are not correct as they 
Bland. 




174 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 5. Some conjunctions require their appropriate 
correspondents, according to the list given on i^age 137, 
(which see.) 

Ex. 1 could neither understand his language or his 
gestures. It is so clear as I need not explain it. Tlicro 
is no condition so secure as can not admit of change. 
His raiment was so white as snow, ^o * as thy days, so 
shall thy strength be. I could not see whether it was 
white nor black. I did not know if he had come or nol.f 
Though he was larae, still he used to go about. | I couhi 
not either determine the sense or the construction.^ ^'or 
am 1 either a fool nor a knave. He told me he should go 
himself, or send a faithful servant. || He and liis brother 
came.^[ 1 could not see John nor James.^* He took 
neither purse or script; no goods or money. I was so 
frightened as I ran away. He was so wise as he was 
eminent. I must be as'\^ candid as to own, I did it. 

Obs. 6. Such^ though not a conjunction, generally re- 
quires as after it. 

Ex. He gave such sharp replies that cost him his life. 
Such of you that come to me I w^ill assist. Such men 
that act treacherously ought to be avoided. 

Obs. 7. But when sucli signifies ^so great,'' '■so good,'' or 
^ so had,'' it requires that to follow it. 

Ex. He is such {so great) a knave as I left him. His 
behavior was such (so bad) as I expelled him. Such (so 
good) was her angelic disposition as we all loved her. 
He was such tt ^i^ apt scholar as he soon overcame all 

* So is redundant; it should be omitted. 

t Whether he had come, etc. It does not seem improper, however, 
to use if before or sometimes. 

X When still means yet or nevertheless, we think it should be retained. 

§ Not either is equivalent to neither. The same may be said of ^^JS'or 
either." \\ Hither — or. ^ Both — and. 

*••• Neither — nor. But we see no reason why these last three sen- 
tences are not sufficiently correct as they stand. The correspondent 
need not alwa^ys be used. 

tt So. The use of as and so must be governed by good taste. 

XX Used in the sense of so. Some grammarians recommend the use 
of so instead of such: "So apt a scholar;" "So brave a general;" but, 
as custom, has sanctioned the use of such, we see no utility in the 
change. 



SYNTAX. 175 

difHculticg. He was srich^ a brave c^encral as he won 
the estcciii of his army. IIo was i<uch an indolent fcUow 
that to lose all respeet.f Ho luid such an ambitious mind 
as^X ^^ n'oach his goal, he toiled uneeasingly. "For of 
such is the kingdom of heaven." § JSuch conduct is ex- 
tremely reprehensible. § 

Obs. 8. It is improper to use what for that when pre- 
ceded by the adverb buf.\\ 

Ex, I can not say but what ho did do so. I do not 
know but what the act was intentional. I have examined 
the work closely, and 1 do not see but ichat every thing 
is correct. I do not know but ivhat that was what I 
said. 

Obs. 9. Conjunctions are often implied. 

Ex. Intemperance, vice, crime, aU\\ lead to destruc- 
tion. Honesty, virtue, integrity make a man respected. 
1 think (that) he will return to-night. I know he is the 
man. 

Obs. 10. Conjunctions are often redundant, and should 
be omitted. 

Ex. The relations arc so uncertain as that they require 
much examination. He has too much sense and prudence 
than to become a dupe to such an artifice. He is far too 



* In the sense of so. S* note bottom of page 174. 

t Such requires as before an infinitive not used in a parenthetical 
clause. 

X But before an infin. used in a parentlietical section it requires that. 
(The parentheses are sometimes indicated by commas.) 

g Such is often used without the corresponding as or that: neverthe- 
less, one of these words is always implied; such as these, etc. 

II Because w/iaf can not be called a conjunction; nevertheless, it 
seems as if tchat could sometimes be construed as a pronoun. " I do 
not know but tohat he did;" i. e., "but he did what.^' On the other 
hand, it will be contended that this is not in strict accordance Avitli 
the uieaning of the sentence. What is very often used for that even 
in other constructions; as, "For all ivhat I can see, the thing is just." 
Here the word irhat may be parsed as a relative pronoun, or an adjec- 
tive belonging to thii\gs understood; so it is no gramuuviical enoi", 
but rather a violation of good taste. 

^ All is often introduced after a number of nouns to render the ex- 
pression emphatic. It is not redundant. >Vhere and is implied, the 
verb must be plural. 




176 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

wise as to commit such an error. He has little of the 
scholar than the name. 

Obs. 11. The poets often use or for either ^ nor for neither ^ 
and for both, etc. 

Ex. Nor Greek nor Turk shall ever wake again. Or 
Heroda or Eulalie would listen to the song. And horse 
and man plunged in the awful deep. 

Rule XVI. — Singular nominatives, connected 
by and, in such a manner as to express more than 
one person or thing, require verbs, nouns and pro- 
nouns, agreeing with them, or placed in apposition 
with them, to be plural ; as, James and JoJin have 
immortal souls : their bodies may return to dust, 
but they shall live.* 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Idleness and ignorance - is the parent of many vices. 
Wisdom^ virtue and happiness dwells with the golden me- 
diocrity. In unity consists the welfare and security of 
society. The day and night was spent. Great was the 
praise and applause he received. What causes this alarm 
and outcry? Out of his mouth cometh falsehood and 
blasphemy. 

Obs. 1. Singular nouns followed by etc., or c&c, require 
plural verbs. 

Ex. The firing of the guns, the rattling of the drums, 
the popping of the muskets, etc., etc., icas kept up a long 
time. The page, paragraph, verse, line, etc., was pointed 
out. The care of the young, the attention given to their 
education, etc., occupies much of our time. 

Rule XVII. — Singular nominatives connected 
by o?^, nor, or any conjunction except and, require 

* This rule is not always observed, as we may see by the following 
quotations : " And so was also James and John, the sons of Zebedee," 
etc. "For thine is the kingdom, the power and the glory." In these 
cases each nominative is construed separately with the verb. 



SYNTAX. 177 

verbs, nouns and pronouns in the plural ; as, nei- 
ther William nor Henry is tlie hoy. 

EXAxMPLES rOR CORRECTION. 

Neither pride nor env}^ (jive us happiness. Man is not 
such a machine as a cloclc or watch, which merely move 
as the]j are moved. Speaking impatiently to servants, or 
any thinii^ that betrays inattention or ill humor, are cer- 
tainly criminal. None exce})t a fool or madman do it. 
Ko person but lie who is educated know the value of 
knowledge. John, as well as James, luive returned. It 
may be confessed that neither satire nor ridicule carrij in 
them robbery or murder. 

Obs. 1. AVhcn singular pronouns, or a noun and pro- 
noun, are connected by any conjunction other than anJ^ 
the verb must agree with the noun or pronoun placed 
nearest it.* 

Ex. Neither John nor I are sure about the matter. 
Either I or thou am greatly mistaken. You or lie como 
every day now, I believe. 

Obs. 2. A singular and a plural nominative, connected 
by any disjunctive conjunction, require a i)lural verb to 
agi'ce with the plural nominative, which should always 
bo placed nearest the verb; as I or they icere offended. 
Neither he nor they are happy. 

Ex. He or they icas offended at it. Neither the king 
nor his iiiinisters deserves to be praised. The cares of this 
life or the deceitfulness of riches has choked the seeds 
of virtue in many a promising mind. f Neither poverty 
nor riches icas injurious to him. Heavy defalcations or 
the suspension of the bank has completed his ruin."]" 

Obs. 3. When a pronoun refers to two words of dififcr- 

* The verb, although expressed only after the last person, is under- 
stood in its proper place before each of the other persons; and the 
sentence " Thou or I am happ}',"' when the ellipsis is supplied, reads 
thus: "Thou art happi/ or I am happy." "I, tliou or he is the author 
of it; i. e., ''I am, thou art, or he is the author, etc. In parsing, or 
correcting, these verbs should be supplied. 

t Construe the plural nominative before the verb; thus, "the deceit^ 
fulness of riches, or the carts of this life, have choked," etc. 




178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

ent persons, coupled by and^ it becomes plural, and is 
used in the first person when I or we is mentioned, and 
in the second when /or we is not used ; as, " John and / 
will lend you our books." '' You and James have got your 
lessons." 

Ex. Thou and he shared it between them. James and 
/are attentive to their studies. You and he are diligent 
in reading their books, therefore, they are good boys. 

Obs. 4. When the verb to he comes between a singular 
and a plural nominative, it agrees with the one placed 
next it, or with that one which seems to be more natu- 
rally the subject of it; as, " the wages of sin is death.'" 

Ex. A great cause of the low state of industry was the 
restraints put upon it. His meat were locusts and wild 
honey. His chief occupation and enjoyment were con- 
troversy. The crown of virtue are peace and honor. 

[Note. — It is of little consequence -whether we use the verb plural or 
singular in these cases: we may say, " virtue and honor are the crown 
of virtue," or " virtue and honor «s," etc. "When we come to construe, 
or give the relation of each word separately for parsing, we must use 
the singular form of the verb in all cases when the nominative is sin- 
gular, and the plural form when the nominative is plural.] 

m 

Rule XYIII. — The past participle of verbs 
should not be used for the imperfect tense, nor 
should the past tense of irregular verbs be used 
for the perfect participle. 

EXAMPLES FOR COmiECTION. 

Do not lay the blame on me : I'm sure I never done 
it. You must have took it away, for I seen it here an 
hour ago. He begun to grow weary after having spoke 
60 long. He drunk nearly a pint. We have icrote our 
copies, did our sums, and spoke our pieces. He had mis- 
took his road, and so was drawed completely out of his 
way. His resolution was too strong to be shook by every 
idle wind. He thinks the horse was stole. The stream 
was froze over; it has froze since last night. She has 
showed me her drawings. He has broke his slate. He 
would have went with us, if he had been invite. I do be- 




SYNTAX. 179 

lievo I liad^ ought to have went. She had^^ ongLt to 
havo did it. Since then I have saivihat I was mistaken. 
I have just eat my breakfast. lie run to the nearest 
shop, lid has durst -\ to a])pi*oach the house again, ilas 
he so soon fonjot wliat I told him? He was took una- 
wares, lie has not yet wore off his rougliness of man- 
ner. Since you have forsook me I have icrote no more. 
They have bore no part in our hibors. When he done it, 
I seeyi him. I see him do it yesterday. J The whole flock 
hix^ flew away. The stake is drove fast into the ground, 
Tlic school has bc(jan% The boys run quite fast just 
now. The thief has stole my watch. lie was smote on 
his cheek. I was awoke by a great noise. He has came 
already : he come homo yesterday. This book was gave 
to me. He has abode there a long time, lie has bore 
his misfortune patiently. lie has ate his breakfast. John 
has tore his book. 

EuLE XIX. — Care should be taken to preserve 
the natural order of the sentence, tliat each word 
maj readily suggest its proper rekition to the 
mind; to prevent unusual fulhiess, or the repeti- 
tion of useless words; and to avoid an ellipsis 
that may render the sense ambiguous. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. * 

lie would not, it then appears, come up hero to-day.|| 
Long he afterward, by midnight toil, by unceasing 
energy and indefatigable assiduity, this unfortunate 
habit, in a measure overcame. The reward is his due, 
and it has already or will be hereafter given to him.^f 
He was more bold and active, but not so wise as his com- 
panion.** Sincerity is as valuable, and even more valu- 

* Had should not be used before ortght. See defective verbs, page 128. 
' t Dare^ to venture, is irregular; but dare, to challenge, is regular. 

X This is an error of frequent occurrence in the use of the present 
tense of the verb. 

^ Begin, hcgan^ begun. 

II Do not separate the principal parts of the verb by a long phrase. 

II " lias been,'' and "wj// be." {^^ Has been already given to him, or will 
be hereafter.'') 

** We can not say, " more bold a^." " More bold than his companion, 
but not so wise." 



180 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

able than knowledge.* I should often be pleased to see 
you.f He would have sooner cut off his right hand. 
She might afterwards have corrected this fault. His for- 
tune being at stake, his fortune'l was in danger of being 
lost. He has an affectionate brother and an affectionate 
sister. His temper will be often ruffled, and will be often 
disturbed. A house and orchard. § An animal and man.§ 
A learned and amiableg young man. I gladly shunned 
who gladly fled from me. I must, however, be so candid 
to own I have been mistaken. The captain had several 
men died in his ship of tho fever. Several alterations, 
additions and corrections have been made in the work. |j 
The court of France or England was to have been um* 
pire.^[ Which rule,-'^-^^ if it had been observed, the stu- 
dent would have found no diflliculty in correcting tlie 
sentence. Two sentences, when theij come together, and 
do not signify the same thing, the former must be in the 
genitive or possessive case. 

Otes. 1. It is improper to place a clause of a sentence 
between a possessive case and the noun to which it be- 
longs, when the clause so interposed is parenthetical. 

jKr. They implicitly obeyed the protector's, as they 
called him, imperious mandates. f| These are David's, 
the king, priest and projjhet of the Jewish people's 
psalms. tJ This is Paul's, the christian hero, and great 
apostle of the Gentile's advice. This Avas the venerable 
father's (for thus they all loved to call him) paternal 
admonition. 



* '^ As valuable as;" and, ^'-more than^ 

t It is quite inelegant to intei'pose an adverb between the members 
of a verb, unless usage gives it that place, as in the case of "«o^," etc. 

X " It was in danger.'' 

§ The adjective must be repeated when it assumes a different form. 
"A house and an orchard." "A learned and an amiable," etc. 

II "Alterations and correetions m;" "additions to;'' or, "The work 
has received several alterations, corrections and additions." 

^ " Or that of England." 

«--* a If -which rule had been," etc.; otherwise ^' rule^' will have no 
verb following it, as every nominative must and should have. liule 
can not be redundant, since it must have an antecedent. 

tt "Implicitly obe^yed the mandates of the protector, as they," etc. 

tt " These are the Psalms of David, the king, priest, and prophet of 
the Jewish people." 



RELATION. 



OF SENTENCES, SECTIONS, AND PHRASES. 
Being a guide to elegant composition and correct punctuation. 
IIiTHERTo we have principally considered the relations 
of single words only; their peculiar properties, and the 
positions they occupy in a sentence. But language af- 
fords another distinct division of sentences, into sections 
or phraseSj by means of which ideas are extended beyond 
their priniar}' conception, and continued to almost any 
length at the will of the speaker : thus, "John went to 
Boston and purchased an assortment of goods." Here 
we have two separate ideas, (i. e., two sections,) com- 
prised in one sentence, the latter being connected to the 
former by the conjunction and. But what is a sentence? 
It is necessary that the student should be able to answer 
this question before proceeding further. 

OF THE SENTENCE. 

A sentence is a complete idea, or connected 
succession of ideas, included 2vithin a period : as, 
*' John is." "• John went to Albany." 

In other words, a sentence is the union of any num- 
ber of words, sufficient to make sense. ^^ John icenf' ex- 
presses a complete idea, (of motion,) hence it is a sen- 
tence ; hwt, ''to Albany,'' although it contains a secondary 
idea, is not a perfect sentence, because it does not con- 
tain a complete idea independent of the preceding part 
of the sentence. Again: "John went to Albany; and 
he will return to-morrow," is a complete sentence in- 
volving two propositions, the latter being a secondary 
idea, dependent on the first ; for if we say, " and he wiU 
return to-morrow," it is evident the sense is incomplete ; 
not because an idea is not expressed, but because we do 

(181) 



182 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

not know the antecedent of the conjunction and* nor of 
the pronoun he. Hence : 

Every complete principal sentence must con- 
tain a noun in the nominative case ; and a verb, 
fully expressed. 

For, if the nominative be a pronoun, or if either the 
nominative or the verb be impHed, it is a secondary 
section, and must relate to a primary that contains the 
nominative or verb implied in this. 

. Thus it will be seen that sentences are of two kinds, 
simple and compound. 

A simple sentence is the union of its heinrf 

(nominative noun,) to its existence, (verb ;) and is 

composed of not less than hco, nor more than 

three principal words^ as, '^ John walks." "John 

shot a bird." 

For, although a simple sentence may contain a greater 
number of words than three, it must be remembered 
that all words except the nominative, the verb and its 
object are in no wise essential to the formation of the sen- 
tence. They may limit or extend, modify or general- 
ize and yet if they be all stricken out, the sense remains 
complete. Thus, " The black iron stove stands on 
the floor," expresses but one general idea, the two words 
that form the sentence being stove and stands. The ad- 
jectives black and iron form but part and parcel of the 
noun stove, and the adverbial phrase, " on the floor j'' is 
part of the verb " stands.'' 

THE FORM OF AN ANCIENT UNBROKEN SENTENCE.f 

ThemidnightMoonserenelysmileso^ erNature' ssoftRepose. 

By introducing a sj)ace between moon and serenely, we 
shall divide the first sentence into its logical subject 
and predicate. 

LOGICAL SUBJECT. LOGICAL PREDICATE. 

ThemidnightMoon serenely smileso'erNature'ssoft Repose. 

Here we see, that a logical subject is the nominative, to- 



*The conjunction, as well as the pronoun, requires an antecedent 
word or sentence. 
t The ancients used neither points nor spaces in their sentences. 



SENTENCES. 183 

p^ctlicr with all other words having a relation to it, and 
the logical predicate is the verb, and all those words 
whicli modily or liold a constructive dependence u])oii 
it. Now we will, by introducing into this sentence 
three more spaces, and a j^oint, draw out the grammati- 
cal nominative and verb, and divide the sentence : 

NOMINATIVE. VERB. 

Tliemiclnight mooa serenely smiles, o'erNature'ssoftRcposo. 

The grammatical nominative is the single noun or jiro- 
noun preceding, (</i construction,) and having a single 
relation to the verb; as, moon- smiles; and the gram- 
matical predicate is the single verb used to assert the ex- 
istence or action of that nominative; as, moon s?nilcs.^ 
Hence, words in a sentence naturally fall into this two- 
fold division : sentensic, or subject and predicate which form 
the sentence ; and insenten-'i/c, or complements which havo 
no sense until they are united to the sentensic. 

Insentemic. The midnight serenely o'er Nature's, etc. 

Sentensic. MOON 2 smiles 9 

If the sentence contain a transitive verb it must bo 
recollected that the accusative, and all the modifying or 
limiting words belonging to it form a j)art of the verb, 
i. e., the logical predicate : thus : 

LOGICAL SUBJECT. LOGICAL PREDICATE. 

A certain man built a long, broad, stone wall. 

A compound sentence is formed by the union 
of two or more ideas joined by a conjunction or 
pronoun, into one period. 

SIMPLE SENTENCES. 

SUBJECT. PREDICATE, 

William will return to-morrow. 

A broad, high, long, 

sto n w a 1 1 wa s bu i 1 1 by J oh n . 

John, James, and Henry study their lessons diligently. 
A good sou will always yield obedience 

to his parents. 




184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

SUBJECT, PREDICATE. 

John, who loved his father strove to conciliate his regard. 

Washington crossed the Delaware, and won tlie victory, 

GOD, WHO, at sundry times and in di- \ ( HATH, in these latter days 
vers manners spake, in times past V -j SPOKEN unto us by his 
unto the fathers by the prophets, J j Son. 

Our father who " art in heaven. 

OF THE SECTION. 

A section is a part of a sentence, constituted by 
having a word of the 2d, 3d, 4th, 7th, or 17th re- 
hition, for a trunk or base, and a hrancli word to 
give it a case relation f^ as, " John struck James.". 
" WiUiam is a good scholar (l*^ sec.) because he 
studies well, (2^ sec.) 

ORDER. 

Sections are divided into two orders, 1st, Pri- 
mai^y., 2(:Z, Secondary, 

A Primary section must always contain a nom- 
inative noun and verb expressed. 

Hence a Primary section is similar to a simple sen- 
tence. There is, however, this difference, that while a 
simple sentence admits a prepositional phrase in connec- 
tion with either its nominative or its verb, a Primary 
section does not; for ever}'' phrase thus following, forms 
a new section of a secondary order; and while a sen- 
tence of a simple form does not admit of the compound 
form the Primary section may be followed by any num- 
ber of consecutive secondary sections. 

A section containing an independent case must of ne- 

*The essenfiah of a section are — 
1st, The subject and predicate; as John 2 walks.^ 
2d. The case independent; as JohnJi 
3d. The case absolute; as, i\\Q general'^ being slain. 
4fh. The objective case and preposition ; as, m^4 silence.^ 
6th. The interjection; as, Akiyi alas.'n 

It will be seen that the accusative*case can never occupy the trunk 
position, as it entirely differs, in construction, from the objective. 
Jg^^ See the sections, aa they are found on the plate, page 33. 



SECTIONS. 185 

cessity be a primary, since it can not hold a relation to 
an}^ other section, nor be dci^endent on any other word 
for sense. 

A secondary section is one that follows a pri- 
mary, and is connected to it by a conjunction or 
a pronoun; a preposition, an adverb, or a par- 
ticiple. 

As has been already shown, a secondary section can 
make no sense until united to the primary section which 
should naturally sustain it. 

PRIMARY SKCTION. SECONDARY SECTIONS. 

Heaven hides the book ( of fate, 

I from all creatures. 

The first of these secondary sections, ^ of fate,' has 
an adjective relation to book (L c, fatal book), and the 
second holds an adverbial relation to the verb hides. 
11 ides thus. 

PRIMARY SECTION. 

"Julius Caesar would not disband his army, 

SECONDARY SECTIONS. 

And return a private person to llome,'^^ 

Because he was very sensible he should be called to an 
account for extravau^ant manai>'cnient, in the time of his 
consulship, in his province, which would have blasted 
his ambitious designs, of destroying the liberties of 
Home, AND taking the government to himself" 

The first and is a conjunction, uniting the two actions, 
expressed by the respective verbs disband and return, to 
a common nominative, Julius Caesar, and shows that he, 
who was unwilling to perform the first of these actions, 
Avas equally unwilling to perform the last; and that the 
reason was, because he did not icill that either should bo 
done. 

Beeaxise is a conjunction, uniting the latter part of this 
period to the former, and shows the relation it has to it, 
viz: that of a cause, producing the eficct mentioned in 
the former part of the period ; for, what is atfirmed in 
the latter part is by the conjunction because, represented 

* " And return," etc., is, in effect, part of the primary section, not- 
withstanding its secondary position. 

16 




186 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

as being the cause, reason, or motive, which induced 
Cffisar, not to will tlie disbanding of his army, and his 
private return to Eome; while the last and^ by connect- 
ing "destroying the liberty," and "taking the govern- 
ment," shows that he designed both. 

"God will not finally let the wicked go unpunished, 
though he bear with them so far in this life, as to let 
them fare sumptuously, and go down to the grave in 
peace; for man, in this world, is in a state of trial; 
therefore^ it would not be consistent with that intention 
of an all-wise God to punish wickedness, constantly and 
visibly, in this life." 

Though shows the subjoined clause to hold a con- 
structive dependence on the former, so far as to signify 
nothing in the mind of the speaker without a regard, 
thereto. 

The conjunction as unites its clause to that which 
goes before, and expresses its relation by determining 
the extent of what was indefinitely cxj)ressed in the 
foregoing clauses of the period. 

And connects "go down in peace" with "fare sump- 
tuously," and signifies that both of these actions are 
permitted by the Almighty for the reason expressed in 
the next section. 

For shows that the section which it heads holds a 
constructive union with the two preceding sections, and 
shows the relation to be that of a cause or reason why 
he suffers them to fare sumptuously, and to die in peace. 

Therefore shows that the part of the period which 
follows it, is construed with all that precedes it, as its 
cause, and implies that this world, being intended as a 
state of trial, renders it impracticable for him to punish 
vice consistently with that design, for that would not be 
to try them, but forcing them to be good, by destroying 
their power to be otherwise, since there can be no true 
virtue without liberty. 

The sentence whith follows a conjunction, is not 
always a secondary section when it contains a noun 
in the nominative ; for in that case it is not dependent 
on the former section for sense; thus, 'John has finished 
his task, and William is eating his breakfast.' A glance 
will serve to show that the section following ^ and' is a 
section of the primary order, since it does not depend 



ilJ 



SECTIONS. 187 

on tlio former for a completion of sense. "William is 
catini( his breakfast" is a pericct and complete idea. 

''John is a good scholar, but William is a better." 
Here the comparative adjective better indicates that the 
positive must have preceded it; hence, "William is a 
better " is a secondary section, depending on the in'i- 
mary for sense. 

" lie is a better scholar than I am." Here the posi- 
tive assertion folloics the comparative, by which wo see 
that " I am (a good scholar) is the primary section, and 
" he is a better scholar," the secondary, de2)ending on 
the primary " 1 am (a better scholar'') for sense. In the 
sentence, "John has learned his lesson, but William has 
not learned iiis lesson," both sections are jjriniary ; but 
ivhen we say, "John has learned his lesson, but William 
lias not learned his," the ellii)sis of the word lesson ren- 
ders the latter a secondary section. 

A relative pronoun may be used either in a sentcnsic 
or insentensic section, and shows that the section in. 
which it occurs sustains to the antecedent an adjective 
relation ; thus : 

Our Father who art in heaven. Here the two sec- 
tions, "who art" and "in heaven," sustain to the word 
Father an adjective relation, being equivalent in sense 
to "our Heavenly Father." Who art in heaven, re- 
stricts the word Father, by excluding from the exten- 
sion of that word all earthly fathers. 

PRIMITIVE SECONDARY SECTIONS. 

GOD, (?r/io, at sundry times, and in divers manners, 
spake, in times past, unto the fathers, by the 
pro])hets,) 
HATiT, in these latter days, 
SPOKEN, unto us by his Son. 

In this example, that part of the period included in 
parentheses has an adjective relation to God, and withal 
restricts the extension of that noun by excluding from 
it the other g:ods, of the Greeks, Eomans, etc., and is 
equivalent to the adjective Jewish; thus, "The Jewish 
God hath spoken," etc. 




188 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

OP THE PHRASE. 

A phrase is a secondary section of a sentence, 
connected to its primary by a preposition, an in- 
finitive mood, or a participle. 

The midnight moon serenely smiles {primary sec.) 
O'er nature's soft repose (secondary sec.) 

"O'er nature's soft repose " is a section of the second- 
ary order, and holds an adverbial relation to the verb 
smiles. 

The stove stands (primary sec.) 

in the room (secondary sec.) 

" In the room," is a secondary section, holding an ad- 
verbial relation to the verb stands. 

Heaven hides the book (prim, sec.) of fate (second, sec.) 

" Of fate " is a section of the secondary order, holding 
an adjective relation to the noun book. 

We are satisfied (prim, sec.) with our lot (second, sec.) 

"With our lot" is a' section of the secondary order, 
holding an adverbial relation to the logical predicate 
" are satisfied,'' or an auxiliary adjective relation to the 
adjective satisfied. 

He answered gravely (prim, sec.) 
in a measure (second, sec.) 

" In a measure," section, secondary order, and holds 
an adverbial relation to the predicate " answered grave- 
ly," or an auxiliary adverbial relation to the adverb 

^^ gravely.'' 

OF RELATION. 

Primary sections have no relation. 

For, since a primary section does not depend on any 
other section for its existence in the sentence, it follows 
that it can not hold a dependent relation to any other 
member of the sentence. 

Every secondary section must hold a relation 
to its primary. 

Although, in general, all the secondary sections in 
a sentence hold a relation to the same primary section, 



RELATION. 189 

yet it sometimes happens that when two or three sec- 
tions or prepositional phrases follow in succession, each 
seems to hold a relation to that which immcdiatel}' pre- 
cedes it; as, " The extent of the prerogative of the king 
of England is sufficiently ascertained." 

RELATION. PHRASE. 

Extent OF the prerogative (adj. rel. to extent.) 

Prerogative of the king (adj. rel. to prerogative.) 

King OF ENGLAND (adj. rel. to king.) 

Nevertheless, it must bo obvious that since the pri- 
mary section sustains the first of these sections, it sus- 
tains them all; hence, all hold an indirect relation to it. 

There arc three principal sectional relations, 
adjective, adverbial and coifjunctive. 

From what has already been stated, it will be seen 
that the prepositional phrase has the same relations as 
the preposition itself, as given on page 135 ; yet, for con- 
venience, it is perhaps better to make but two relations 
for the prepositional phrase, adjective and adverbial — 
adjective when it holds a relation to the subject, and 
adverbial when it holds a relation to the predicate of a 
sentence; thus, "A man bent with age was seen to ap- 
proach." " With age," strictly speaking, holds an aux- 
iliary adjective relation to the adjective bent; but it 
would be more concise to say, it holds an adjective rela- 
tion to the subject " a man bent.'' Either way is correct ; 
since, in one case, the phrase is referred to a particular 
word, and in the other, to the general subject. 

A section containing a relative prononn holds 
an adjective relation to its primary section. 

This has been explained already; but, for the better 
understanding of the subject, one or two more examples 
are subjoined. 

"And who but wishes to invert the laws 
Of order, sins against the eternal cause." 
Prim. sec. And (he) sins against the eternal cause. 
Second, sec. Who wishes to invert the laws of order. 

" AVho wishes to invert the laws of order" is a sec- 
ondary section, holding an adjective relation to its pri- 



190 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

mary section, bcc.anse it limits or restricts the signification 
or extension of the word he (or of the persons referred 
to) to a particular class. 

" Blest is the man who dares approach the bower." 

Blest is the man (primary section.) 

who dares approach the bower, {secondary section.) 

"Who dares approach," etc., holds an adjective rela- 
tion, because it restricts the extension of the noun man 
by prescribing a class. 

All relations not adjective, adverbial or aux- 
iliary adj. or adv., must be conjunctive. 

Sections connected to their primary by a personal 
pronoun do not give an adjective or adverbial relation ; 
as, 

John is a good boy ; he is industrious. 

John is in town ; he is going to Boston. 

"He is industrious" is not a section of an adjective 
relation, notwithstanding it has at first that appearance, 
for w^e see by the second sentence, the construction of 
which is similar, that the relation must be conjunctive. 
It is, therefore, the occurrence of the adjective only in 
the first sentence that gives the secondary section the 
sense of an adjective relation. 

Phrases, connected to their primary sections by verbs 
in the infinitive mood, are, in reality, part of the pri- 
mary to which they belong ; as, " He sins against the 
eternal cause who wishes to invert the laws of order." 
"To invert the laws" is so closely connected to "who 
wishes," as to form a part of that section. There are 
four sections in this sentence. "He sins" (primary sec- 
tion^^) " against the eternal cause" (secondary section^ 
adv. rel. to ^^ sins.") " Who wishes to invert the laws" 
(adj. rel. to pronoun "Ae") "of order" (secondary section 
adj. rel. to ^Haws.'") 

" Blest is the man Trimary section; no relation. 

The adverb or adverbial conjunction is often used as a 
connective, by means of which office it gives the phrase 

* It is better, perhaps, to call this a primary section, since the ante- 
cedent is not specified. 



RELATION. 101 

in which it occurs an adverbial relation to its primary; 
thus, " 1 will 2^ay you when 1 receive my money." 
I will pay you (primary sec. ; no relation.) 

when I receive my money, {second, sec, adv. rel. to '•'■ pay.^') 
" I can not tell you how soon he may return." 

I can not tell you (primary sec; no relation.) 

how soon he may return, (secondary sec, adv. rel. to " tell.") 

<' His follies had reduced him to a situation where ho 
had much to fear and nothing to hoj^e." 

His follies had reduced liiin (primary section ; no relation.^ 

to a situation [secondary sec, adv. rel. to ^^ reduced:^) 

where* he had much [second, sec, adj. rel. to " situation.^' 

[which) to fear [in/in. phrase, rel. to '■^much!^ 

and [where ■■ he had) nothing [secondon/ sec, adj. orconj. rel. to ^^ situation.'') 

[for which) to hope. [tnjln. phrase, rel. to ^^ nothing.'') 

Note. — When the proper relation, of either words or sections, is 
given, all the ellipses nuisL be supplied, and all the words arranged in 
their natural prose order. 

The participle connects its phrase to its primary 
section, and holds an adjective relation to the noun 
or pronoun therein ; thus, " John, having opened 
the box, found nothing." 

"John found nothing," (primary section ; no relation.) 
" having opened the box." (second, sec, adj. rel. to " John.'^ 
" And he, being destitute, renewed his efforts." 

He renewed his efforts, (primary section, no relation.) 
being destitute. (secondary sec, adj. rel. to "'He''') 

And the relation is invariably the same when the par- 
ticiple is the object of a preposition." 

"On ojiening the box, John found nothing." 
John found nothing (primary section, no relation.) 
on opening the box. (secondary sec, adj. rel. to ^^ John.^') 

But it must bo observed, that when the pronoun in 
the second section is neuter, and does not relate to the 
agent, the secondary section must be referred to the sec- 
tion containing the agent of the act, or to the agent 
itself; as, " On opening the box, it was found empty." 

* Where means in which; hence it gives its phrase an adjective rela- 
tion ; although the relation of the adverbial conjunctive phrase is 
usually adverbial. 




102 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

The participle opening holds no relation to the pronoun 
it^ since this neuter pronoun is not the agent that opens 
the box. The particiiyle must always he referred to the 
agent that performs the act; hence the section, "on open- 
ing the box" must be referred to the person who per- 
formed this act, "John," "James," or any other person, 
if known ; and to ^^ person'' or ^^ persons,'' if unknoAvn. 
But in the above sentence " it" stands for box, by which 
we see that the section, "it was found empty," is a sec- 
ondary section, holding a conjunctive relation to " box," 
in the first secondary section, to which it is connected 
by the pronoun it. 

" On opening the box," (secondary sec, adj. rel. to ^'■per- 
sons" understood. 

"It was found empty," (second, sec. conj. rel. to " box.") 
Having seen all we desired, it was resolved to return. 
Having seen all (things,) (second, sec. adj. rel. to ^'pjer- 
sons" uriderstood. 

(Which') we desired, (second, sec. adj. rel. to ^^ things.") 
It was* resolved to return, (second, sec. conj. rel. to 
^^ having seen.") 

It,f being open, was found empty. 

It was found empty, (second, sec. conj. rel. to '■^box.") 
Being oj)ened, (second, sec. adj. rel. to "^Y.") 
A section containing an absolute case holds a conjunc- 
tive relation to its primary. JSTevertheless the principle 
of the participle will remain the same, since it must 
hold an adjective relation to the noun or pronoun in its 
own section. 

"The general being killed, the army was routed." 
The army was routed, (prim. sec. no rel.) 
The general being killed, (second, sec. conj. rel. to '^ was 
routed.") 

" It having ceased to rain, we resolved to returo." 

We resolved to return, (primary sec, no rel.) 

It having ceased to rain, (second, sec. conj. rel. to 1st. 

section.) 

When the participle is used alone, without an object 

or a preposition, it may be considered merely as an ad- 

* " 7i" has no antecedent here — " ims" being impersonal. 
t Here it refers to the agent of the passive verb " was found." 



FORM. 193 

jectivo, and be incorporated into the section which it 
qualifies. 

" John, having returned, received the visitors " — a pri- 
mary section^ no relation. 

All the relations of phrases and sections may be enu- 
merated as follows : 

OF SECTIOXS. 
The primary section has no relation. 
The rckitive j^i'onoun gives its section an adjective 
relation. 

The conjunction and personal pronoun give conjunc- 
tive relation. 

The adverb, or adverbial conjunction, generally, gives 
an adverbial relation. ^ 

OF PHRASES. 

r> ., • • f an adjective or aux. adi. relation. 

1 repositions crive { i i • i i i 4.- 

^ ( '^'^ atlverbial or aux. adv. relation. 

The participle gives an adjective relation to its noun 
in all cases, and to its primary section also, except when 
the preceding noun is absolute, in which case the rela- 
tion to the prim. sec. is conjunctive. 

FORM. 

All sections have two forms, first^ Sentensic: 
second, LiHentenslc. A sentensic section contains a 
nominative and verb, as " John walks/' " John 
shot a bird." 

Hence all simple sentences and all primary sections are 
sentensic, since they must of necessity contain both a 
nominative and verb. 

An insentensic section is one that has no nom- 
inative case; and, generally, no verb. 

All secondary sections, connected to their primary by 
a conjunction, a relative pronoun, a personal ])ronoun, or an 
adccrl), are sentensic. 

All secondary sections connected to their primary, or 
to other secondary sections, by a preposition, or a parti- 
ciple, are, in all cases, insentensic. 

"John is in the room, and he will remain there." 

John is, primary sec. ; no ret. ; sentensic. 
17 



194 • "^ • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

In the room; second, sec. adv. rel. to ^' is," insentensic. 
and he will remain there. Second, sec. ; conj. rel. to 
*^ is ;'' sentensic. 

''John, who was expected, has returned." 
John has rcixxvned, primary sec. ; no rel.; sentensic. 
who was expected, second, sec; adj. rel. to '-John;'' 
sentensic. 

"John is in the room ; he has just returned," 
) John is in the room ; prim. sec. ; no rel. ; sentensic. 

he has just returned. Second, sec. ; conj. rel. to ''John ;" 
sentensic. 

" I shall be satisfied when I receive my due." 
I shall be satisfied, prim. sec. ; no rel. ; sentensic. 
when I receive my due. Second, sec; adv. rel.; sen- 
tensic^ 

" The table stands on the floor." 
The table stands, prim, sec ; no rel. ; sentensic. 
on the floor. Second, sec; adv. rel. to ''stands ;" insen- 
tensic 

"Napoleon resolved to make the attempt." 
Napoleon resolved, prim, sec ; sentensic. 
to make the attempt. Infiii. phrase ; insentensic. 
"James returned, having accomplished his design." 
James returned, primary sec. ; sentensic 
Having accomj)lished his design. Second, sec; insen- 
tensic 

Sections are also either positive or negative, in- 
terrogative or affirmative. (See page 106.) 

"John is in the house;" positive, affirmative. 
"Is John in the house?" pos. interrogative. 
" John is not in the house ;" negative affirmative.'^- 
"Is not John in the house?" negative interrogative. 

Sometimes a single section contains an interrogation, 
and sometimes it requires a number in succession to 
form the interrogation. When the latter is the case, 
each section should be considered as interrogative, inas- 
much as it contributes to the general understanding of 
the question. 

* A negative assertion may be affirmed; as, John did not shoot a bird. 
An af&rmation is an answer of any kind. 



COURSE. 195 

"Do you think that John will return in a few days?" 
Do you think {prim, sec; no rd.; sent., interrofj.) 
That John will return (second, sec; conj. rel. ; sent., 
inter rog.) 

in a tew days? (second, sec; adv. rel; insen. inter.) 

All sentences that ask a question arc interrogative, 
and those that reply, affirmative. 

All sentences stating a fact arc positive, and all that 
deny the fact, arc negative. 

COURSE. 
1. Direct. 2. Circiiwflcx. 
The course of a section is direct, when the 
words stand in their natural prose order \ as. 

Law is a rule (of action.) 
Law is a ride, a section of the primary order, direct 
course. 

Of action, a secondary section, direct course. 

The course of a section is circumflex, when the scnso 
flows back, owing to the words not being arranged in 
their prose order : as, 

AVhom^ ye ^ ignorantly worship, 

Ilim^ declare^ I^ unto you. 

Whom ye ignorantly worship, a section, secondary order, 
circumflex course, because the sense commences at the 
word ye, proceeds forward to worship, then flows back 
to whom. 

Ilini^ declare"^ I^ ; a section, primary order, circumflex 
course. The direct course would be : I ^ declare^ him.^ 
The words in these two sections are not only circumflex, 
but the sections are so likewise. 

Circumfiex, \Yhom ye ignorantly worship. Him de- 
chare I. 

Direct. I declare Ilim ye ignorantly worship whom. 

When the words of a single section only are circumflex, 
it does not aftcct the order of other sections. 

" The night winds sigh, the breakers roar, 
And shrieks the wild seamen." 

The night winds sigh: a section, primary order ; no re- 
lation; sentcnsic; direct course. 




196 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

The breakers roar : primary order, no relation ; scnten- 
sic ; direct course. 

■And shrieks the ivild seamen : section, secondary order, 
conjunctive relation to ^^ sigh'^ and ^^ roar ;'' scntcribic, 
circumflex course. 

"When the sections are circumflex, and the words them- 
selves direct, we may take cognizance of the fact by 
calling the first primary section circumflex ; or the 
course of the general sentence may be disregarded, and 
each section be called direct. 

" Until you return, I shall remain." 
" I shall remain," (^primary section, circumflex course.) 
" until you return," (prim, sec, direct course.) 

Sentences containing a relative in the accusative, are 
always circumflex. " This is the man whom^ 1^ met^ on 
my journey." 

STATE. 

-| J Plenary y ^ J Implenary^ 
\ Brohen.. * \ TJnhrokeii, 

The plenary state arises from that degree of 
fullness which admits of solution without supply- 
ing words ; as, [ 0, ] John ! give \tTiou t6\ me an 
an apple. It is at the ninth hour on the clock. 

The implenary state arises from the elliptical 
omission of any word or words necessary to a so- 
lution of the sentence; as, 

John, give me an apple. 

It is 9 o' clock. 

An elliptical or implenary section should be considered 
in the same light as if all the words were supplied ; thus, 
" He that believes and is baptized shall be saved." 

He shall be saved (U sec, no rel. ; sent, plenary.) 

that believes (2. sec. ; adj. rel. to " he f' sent., plenary. 

and [that] is baptized. (2. sec, adj. rel, to "he;" sent., implenary.) 

If we had not supplied the word ^^thaf in the last 
section, we should have su2:)posed it to be connected to 
the former by the conjunction and, and to hold only a 
conjunctive relation to the former section by means of 
that connection. But when we make the section plenary 



STATE. 197 

\)y supplying the ellipsis, the true relation becomes ap- 
parent. The conjuiK'tive rehition, nevertheless, exists 
in addition to the adjective relation to the antecedent 

A section is broken when a part of a sentence, 
another section or part of a section intervenes be- 
tween its parts ; as, 

Law (in its most comprehensive sense) is a ml:-. 
And varying schemes (of life) no more distract the will. 
The unbroken state of a section is the uninterrupted 
continuation of all its parts; as, 

Law is a rule (of action). 

Varying schemes no more distract the laboring will. 

It sometimes happens that the nominative is separated 
a long way from its verb by a great number of interven- 
ing sections. 

"He, who through vast immensity can pierce, 
See worlds on worlds compose one universe, 
Observe how system into system runs, 
What other planets circle other suns, 
What varied being people every star, 
May tell why heaven has made us as we are." 

" lie may tell," section, primary order ; broken state. 

Sometimes two or more nominatives follow each other 
successively, but this, although it separates the first 
nominative from its verb, does not constitute a broken 
section, since each nominative is but a part of the gene- 
ral whole. 

" Wisdom, virtue and happiness dwell with the golden 
mediocrity." 

Wisdom, virtue and happiness dwell, (sec. prim, ord.; 
unbroken state.) 

" Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him." 

Neither poverty nor riches were injurious, {}>riin. sec, 
unbroken state.) 

Bat when cither of these nominatives is connected 
with an entire phrase or section, the primary section is 
broken. 




198 ENGLISU GRAMMAR. 

" When some brisk youth, the tenant of a stall, 
Employs a pen less jDointed than his awl." 

"Youth, the tenant, employs," etc., prim, sec.^ broken 
state; i. c, broken by the phrase "of a stall." "A pen 
less pointed than his awl" is accusative of employs. 

Class. — 1. Literal. 2. Figurative, 

The literal class is that which expresses the meaning 
accoraiijg to the words (or letters) used ; as, 

The midnight moon serenely smiles. 
A ship sails on the seas. 

A section is figurative w^hen one or more words in it 
convey a different meaning from what the words literally 
import. 

The principal figures of speech are personifi- 
cation, SIMILE, METAPHOR, ALLEGORY, HYPERBOLE, 
IRONY, METONOMY, SYNECDOCHE, ANTITHESIS, CLIMAX 
and APOSTROPHE. 

Personification is a figure of speech by which we 
attribute life and action to inanimate objects ] as, The 
midnight moon serenely smiles. 

A SIMILE is a comparison, by which one object is made 
to resemble another; as, He is like a giant; she is as a 
modest lily. 

A METAPHOR is a simiU without the sign of compari- 
son {like as, etc.) He is a giant ! She is a modest lily. 

An allegory, parable or fable is a figure by which 
speech and intelligence are attributed to animals and 
even inanimate objects ; as, 

A hog, beholding the horse of a warrior, rushing into 
battle, says : " Fool, w^hither dost thou hasten ? Per- 
haps thou mayst die in' the fight;" to whom the horse 
replied : " A knife shall take life from thee, fatted 
amongst mud and filth, but glory shall accompany my 
death." 

A HYPERBOLE is a figure that represents things much 
better or worse, greater or less than they really are ; as, 
" They are swifter than eagles; they w^ere stronger than 
lions." This exaggeration is often improperly em- 



FIGURES. 109 

ployed ; as, *' Ho told mo so moro than a thousand 
tiiiics." " Thcro were a million people there." 

Irony is used to exj)ress quite the contrary to that 
which our words would imi)ort; as, " O, yes; 1 dare 
say, you arc a philosoi)her, forsooth ; a poet, and an 
unrivaled genius. You will some day be made a 
kincr!" 

Metonomy is a figure by which wo put the cause for 
the effect, or the effect for tlie cause; as, "He reads Mil- 
ton," {i. e., Milton's works.) "Gray hairs should be re- 
spected," (i. e., old age.) " The kettle boils," (l e., the 
water in the kettle,) etc. 

Synecdoche is the j^ntting of a part for the icliole, or 
the whole for a part; a delinito number for an indetinite, 
etc.; as, "Eye hath not seen, nor car hath heard," (J., c, 
no person hath seen or heard.) " Tho waves have borno 
him safely homo," (i. e., the ocean.) 

[Metonomy and Synecdoche aro very similar; yd 
there is this ditference — any one thing may be put for 
another by 3Ietonomy, when the resemblance is sulli- 
cient to render the meaning intelligible; as. He keeps a 
good tabic, (i. o., good fare.) He has a clear head, (i. o,, 
understanding.) A ship sails o'er the salt or deep, (i. e., 
the sea.) But Synecdoche only allows part of any one 
thing to be put for whole of that same thing, and vice 
versa.'] 

Antithesis is a figure by which things arc contrasted, 
in order to make them appear better or worse, larger or 
smaller, etc.; thus, "I, indeed, baptize Avith Avator, but 
one Cometh after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am 
unworthy to unloose." 

Climax is the gradual ascension of a figure, step by 
stop, as one would climb a ladder, until the hight is 
reached; thus, "For I am persuaded that neither death 
nor life, nor angels nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present nor things to come, nor hight nor depth, 
nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from 
the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." 

Apostrophe is an address, genei-nlly to some inani- 
mate object or animal ; as, " O, grave, where "is thy 
victory! 0, death, where is thy sting!" 

"O, factious viper! whose envenomed tooth 
Would nmngle still the dead, perverting truth." 




200 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



[Persons, countries, cities, oceans, skies, etc., arc often 
apostrophized by the poets.] 

EXERCISES IN CLASSIFYING THE FIGURES. 

'' Woe unto you lawyers! for ye have taken away the 
key of knowledge.'" 

" The ground of a certain rich man "broup^ht forth 
plentifully: and he thought within himself, What shall 
I do because I have no room where to bestow my fruits? 
And he said this will I do: I will pull down my barns 
and build greater; and there will 1 bestow all my fruits 
and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou 
hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine 
ease, eat, drink, and be merry. But God said unto him, 
Thou fool! this night thy soul shall be required of 
thee." 

" I have come to send fire on the earth, and what will 
I if it be already kindled?" 

" O, Jerusalem ! Jerusalem ! which killest prophets, 
and stonest them that are sent unto thee." 

" Sit thou on my right hand till I make thine enemies 
my footstool." 

"1 am the living bread which came down from heaven." 

"Ye are from, beneath; I am from above: ye are of 
this world; I am not of this world." 



ORDER OF PARSING THE SECTIONS. 
1st. A section. 



2. Order ^ 



{ Primary. 
( Secondary. 

r Adjective. 
3. Melation^ I Adverbial. 
(^Conjunctive. 



5. Course J 



6, State, 



4. jPorm, 



7. Class^ 



jSentensic 
(Insentensic. 
'^ p f Affirmative. 
' j Interrogative. 
Affirmative. 



f Direct. 

( Circumflex. 

J Plenary. 
I Implenary. 
j Broken. 
I Unbroken. 

J Literal. 
\ Figurative. 



Neg. 



{ 



Interrogative. 



ANALYSIS. 201 

EXERCISES FOR ANALYSIS. 

" The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaniiiig witli purple and i^^jld; 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
When the blue waves roll nightly on deep Galilee." 

" TJie Assyrian came down:'' 
A section; primary order; no relation; sentcnsic and 
positive affirmative form; direct course; plenary and 
unbroken state; literal class. 

"X/A-6'^i^ the ivol/r 

A section ; secondary order ; adverbial relation to 
came; insentensic and j^ositive affirmative form ; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ; figurative class. — 
Simile, 

''On the fold:'' 

A section; secondary order; adverbial relation to 
came; insentensic and ])ositive affirmative form; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ; figurative class. — 
Siniile.f 

"And his cohorts were gleaming:" 
A section; secondary order; conjunctive relation to 
came;'l sentcnsic and positive afiirmative form; direct 
course; plenary and unbroken state; literal class. 
"AYith purple | and (with) gold:" 

Sections; secondary order : adverbial relation to r/Zcrmi- 
ing; insentensic ;§ direct course; implenary and unbroken 
state; literal class. || 

*' And the sheen was :" 

A section ; primary order; no relation ; sentcnsic and 
positive affirmative form ; direct course ; plenary state, 
broken by " of their spears ;" figurative.^ — Simile. 

" Of their spears :" 
Section; sec. ord.; adj. rel. to sheen; insen.; direct 
course; plenary, unbroken state; literal, class. 

* Like, a preposition. f Continuation of the figure. 

t Or prhnan/ order; no rel.; since the noun is expressed. 

2 Pos. and neg. distiction may be omitted after the first primary sec. 

II There is an appearance of Hyperbole here. 

H The simile commences with this section. 




202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

'^ Like stars," " on the sea :'* 

Sections; sec. ord. ; adv. rel. to was; insen.; direct 
course ; plenary and unbroken state ] figurative class. — 
Simile. 

" When the blue waves roll nightly :" 

Section; sec. ord.; adv. rel. to icas; scntensic; direct 
course ; plenary, unbroken state ; literal class. 

'' On deep Galilee :" 
A section; sec. ord.; adv. rel. to roll; insen.; dir. co.; 
pi., unb. St.; lit. 

" Adieu, thou hill ! where early joy 

Spread roses o'er my brow ; 
"Where Science seeks each loitering boy 

With knowledge to endow. 
Adieu, my youthful friends or foes, 
Partners of former bliss or woes; 

No more through Ida's paths we stray — 
Soon must I share the gloomy cell, 
Whose ever-slumbering inmates dwell 

Unconscious of the day." 

" Adieu, thou Hill," 
Sec; prim, ord.; no rel.; sent., pos. aff. form; direct 
course; plen., unbroken st. ; figurative class — apostrophe. 
" Where early Jo?/ spread roses :" 
Sec; second, ord.; adj. rel. to Hill; sent.; dir. co. ; 
pL, unbr. st. ; figurative — personification. 

'' O'er my brow :" 
Sec; second, ord.; adv. to spread; insent. ; dir., pi. 
unb. ; fig. — personification. 

*' Where Science seeks each loitering boy, to endow (Jiimy 
Sec; second, ord.; adj. rel. to Hill; sent.; dir.; plcn. 
unb.; fig. — personification. 

" With knowledge :" 
Sec; second, ord.; adv. rel. to endow; insen.; dir. 
plen. unb. ; literal. 

"Adieu my youthful friends or foes, partners" 
Sec; prim, ord.; no rel.; sent. pos. aff.; dir.; plen. 
unb.; literal. 

"Of former bliss or woes :" 
Sec; second, ord.; adj. rel. io partners; insent.; dir.; 
plen. unb. J literal. 



ANALYSIS. 203 

'' 1^0 more wc stray :" 
Sec. ; prim. ; no rcl. ; sent. pos. aff. ; dir. ; pi. bro. ; 
literal. 

'' Tliroun;h Ida's paths :" 
Sec. second.; adv. rcl. to straij ; iiisent. ; circumflex 
course; pi. unb. ; literal. 

" Soon must I share the gloomy ce?Z;" 
Sec; prim.; no rcl.; sent. pos. aff.; circ. ; plcn. unb.; 
fig . — Metonomy:-^ 

" Whose ever slumbering inmates dwell, unconscious :" 
Sec. ; prim. ; sent. pos. aff. ; dir. ; pi. unb. ; fig. — 2Ie- 
tonomy. 

"Of the day:" 
Sec. second.; aux. adj. rel. to unconscious; insen. ; 
dir. J pi. unb. ; literal. 

As two 5'oung bears in wanton mood, 
Forth issuing from a neighboring wood, 
Came where the industrious bees had stor'd, 
In artful cells, their luscious hoard ; 
O'crjoyed, they seized, with eager haste, 
Luxurious on + the rich repast. 
Alarmed at this, the little crew 
About their ears, vindictiv^e flew. 
The beasts, unable to sustain 
The unequal combat, quit the plain : 
Half-blind with rage§ and mad with pain,§ 
Their native shelter they regain ; 
There sit, and now discreeter grown, 
Too late their rashness they bemoan; 
And this by dear experience gain. 
That pleasure's ever bought with pain. 
So,t when the gilded baits of vice 
Are placed before our longing eyes, 
With greedy haste, we snatcli our fill, 
And swallow-down t the latent ill: 
But when experience opes our eyes, 
Away the fancied pleasure flies. 

* The word cell is used for grave. 
tSee relation of as and so, as given on page 138. 
X Seized-on and swalloxv-down are compound transitive verbs. 
§ The phrases, with rage and with pain, have an auxiliary adjective 
relation to blind and viad. 




204 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

It flics, but oh I too late wc find, 

It leaves a real sting behind (it.) Merrick. 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN SECTIONS. 

[The parallel lines divide the sections: the single lines divide broken 
sections, and separate the intervening phrases.] 

*' A change came|| o'er the epirit|| of my dream. || 
The boy was sprung] | to manhood :|| in the wilds|| 
Of fiery climes|| he made I himself*] a home.|| 
And his soul drank their sunbeams :|| he was girt|| 
With strange and dusky aspects ;|| he was not 
Himself II like what|| he had been ;|| on the sea|| 
And on the shore|| he was a wanderer,|| 
There was a mass|| of many images|| 
Crowdedfll like waves] | upon me,|| but he was 
Apart]] of all :J|| and in the last§]] he lay 
Reposing]] from the noontide sultriness,]] 
Couched^f]] among fallen columns] | in the shade[| 
Of ruined walls]] that had survived the names] | 
Of those]] who reared them.]] By his sleeping sidejl 
Stood camels]] grazing,]] and some goodly steeds 
Were fastened]] near a fountain ;]] and a man 
Clad 1 in a flowing garb] did watchj] the while,'^*]! 
While many I of his tribe | slumbered around,]! 
And they were canopied]] by the blue sky 
So cloudless, clear, and purely beautiful, || 
That God alone was to be seen in heaven. "|| 

" Who shall attempt | with wandering feet | 

The dark, unfathomed, infinite abyss, ftll 
And through the palpable obscure tt\\ find out 
His uncouth way,]] or spread his airy flight 
Upborne]] with indefatigable wings,]] 
Over the vast abrupt §§ ]] e'er he arrive|| 
The happy isle ?"^<iy] I 
\ _ 

•:;:- Ji'or himself. t ^hat crowded. 

X Of, in the sense of from: "from all personsP 
§ Last image, (i. e., representation — dream — vision. 
^ Couched is an adj. and belongs to "Ag" in the section. ^^He lay," 
etc. Or supply the words, " and he was couched," making a new sec. 
'^^"^ During the while. tt Attempt to explore the dark, etc. 

XX " Obscure,'" for " obscurity ^ g^ Abrupt, in the sense of " abruptnessJ^ 
^^Ai the happy isle. 



RHETORICAL RULES, 

FOR THE FORMATION OF SECTIONS AND SENTENCES. 



Note. — No errors are of more frequent occurrence than those of 
arranf>;eraent, by p;iving the coinpleinentixry sections a wrong relation 
or posilioH ; and this is an evil the more necessary to be considered in 
this work, as all other authors have touched so lightly upon it that 
scholars generally have but a meager idea of the subject. The rela- 
tion of the cot/ij)lemeiU to the subject or predicate is little understood, 
even by professed graiiunarians, and the complement and section are not 
described in any of the gramtnars extant. In the following exercises 
the sections which should follow each other are desiynated by the 
letters. Bring the two a\<f, 6'.v, c's, etc., together, and place the inter- 
vening section in its proper place. 

Rule I. — Every secondary section must be 
placed near its primary, and, if possible, should 
follow that word in its primary section to which 
it holds a relation ; thus, it is better to say, " All 
things in this world must eventually perish," 
than "All things must eventually perish in this 
world ; " because the section, " in this world,'' 
holds an adjective relation to the noun tlcuKjSy 
rather than an adverbial relation io perish. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 
Noah^'^ for his godliness, "and his family^ were the only 
persons preserved from the flood. A great stone that I 
happened to find ^^ after a long search, ^'by the seashore^'^ 
served for an anchor. And how can brethren'' hope to 
partake of their parent's blessing, ''that curse each other.j 
It is your light fantastic /oo/^'' who have neither heads 
nor heiU'ts, "^of both sexes,X who, by dressing their bodies 
out of all shape,§ render themselves ridiculous. Aure- 

^ Adv. rel. to fvd: or, if this section has an adj. rel. to search, the 
sentence is correct as it stands. 

t Adj. rel. to brethren. J Adj. rel. to fools. 

§ Adv. rel. to render; and may stand as it is. 

(205) 




206 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

lian defeated^ the Marcomanni, a fierce and terrible na- 
tion of Germany, that had invaded Italy, 'in three several 
engagements.^-^ They slew-^ both him and his son, whom 
he had made his partner in the empire, ^without any op- 
position.'f The senate of Home ordered that no pa?^t 
should be rebuilt of it ; it was demolished to the ground, 
so that travelers are unable to say^ where Carthage 
stood, ^at this day.X Upon the death of Claudius, the 
young emperor, Nero, pronounced his funeral oration, 
and he^ was canonized among the gods ^who scarcely de- 
served the name of man, 

Obs. 1. It must be observed that, in many cases, a 
secondary section is separated from its primary section 
by an intervening secondary section^ which has a closer 
union or relation thereto. It has already been shown 
that, in some instances, several secondary sections follow 
one another in succession, each having a relation to the 
same primary ; as, " God, who spake, at sundry times, in 
divers manners in times -past, unto the fathers ^ by the pro- 
phetsy Here, each of these sections holds a separate 
adverbial relation to the verb spake. In such cases 
there is no particular order to be observed, as it is 
equally correct Xo say, " who spake in times past, unto 
the fathers, in divers manners, at sundry times, by 
the prophets," or "who spake by the prophets, in divers 
manners, at sundry times, in times past, unto the fathers." 

Secondary sections, of a conjunctive relation, are some- 
times placed at a great distance from their primary, in- 
asmuch as the intervening sections do not give a false 
construction to the sentence, since they are, generally, 
sections of an adjective or adverbial relation, tind as such, 
naturally hold a place nearer their primary than sections 
of merely a conjunctive relation. It should be the aim 
of the student, when writing, to express his thoughts 
with all possible perspicuity; hence, long sentences 

* Adv. rel. to defeated. t Adv. rel. to slew. 

% Adv. rel. to say. § Adj. rel. to he. He, "who scarcely, etc. 



RHETORICAL RULES. 207 

Bhoiild be avoided; for, unless one be gifted with an un- 
usual memory, he Avill lose the connection between tho 
different members of the sentence, especially if the in- 
tervening sections do not follow in the natural order 
which their relation would indicate ; and thus the sense 
becomes obscured, if not totally lost. In all long sen- 
tences, the student should not only observe the proper 
position of every section, but of every word in the sec- 
tion ; and great care should, bo taken to use pronouns 
and verbs of the same person and number as their ante- 
cedents or subjects/-^ Nouns in apposition should, if 
possible, bo not only of tho same case, but of the same 
number, in order that tho t^rb to which they are both 
nominative may not sound harsh, which it always does 
when one is singular and the other plural. Conjunc- 
tions should also connect the same moods and tenses of 
verbs, etc., according to Eule XV", on p. 172. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Let every one treasure up these lessons of charity and 
benevolence, which never fail to add happiness to tho 
bestower ; and honesty and integrity also.f To be mod- 
crate in our views, and proceeding temperately in tho 
pursuit of them, is the best way to insure success. By 
forming themselves on fantastic models, and ready io vie 
with one another in the reigning follies, the young be- 
gin with being ridiculous, and ending in vice and immor- 
ality. No person could speak stronger on this subject, 
nor behave nobler than our young advocate, for the 
cause of toleration.! But Thomas, one of the twelve, 



* See Rule VIII, page 156, and Rule IX, page IGO. 

tThls implenary section, commcncinir with tlic conjunction and. is 
entirely out of place, unless we use after it a qualifyiiic:: phrase, in 
contrast to that wliich precedes. Correct by sayinfj, " Lessons of cli;ir- 
ily, benevolence, honesty, and intep:rity, which never fail,' etc. The 
sentence may also be corrected in various other ways. 

X Various errors in this sentence. Adjectives arc used for adverbs, 
and the sections at the close of the sentence arc out of their place. 



208 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

called Didymns * was not with them. Truth and sober- 
ness are the test of honesty. The evidence of his guilt 
were his dogged silence and his defiant attitude. Such 
misdemeanors are a vice which all should avoid. 

Obs. 2. By the improper construction of sentences, 
an ambiguity sometime arises, against which the student 
should carefully guard. Avoid also the repetition of the 
same word in the same or consecutive sentences, unless 
for the sake of emphasis, or contrast. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

You suppose him younger than I.f Belisarius was 
general of all the forces under the Emperor Justinian 
the first, a man of rare valor.J Lisias promised his 
father that he would never abandon his friends.§ In- 
temperance is a growing vice, and intemjierance should 
be shunned. I visited the community once, and found 
it a very industrious community ; in fact I know of no 
community more industrious, or more deserving of our 
high esteem than that community. 

Obs. 3. Tautology, or the repetition of a word or idea 
under a new form of expression, should also be avoided. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

It should ever be your constant study to do good. He 
plunged down\\ into the water. After he sat doicii^^^ he 
rose up and departed. You must return hack again soon. 



*■ Didymus is in apposition to Thomas, and should immediately fol- 
low that word. 

t The ambiguity arises from an ellipsis of the verb after the pro- 
noun, / — "younger than /am," or "than I do suppose," etc. 

{Belisarius was the "man of rare valor;" hence this qualifying 
phrase should follow Belisarius — "Belisarius, a man of rare," etc. 

? " Lysias said I will never abandon ^/OMr friends " — or — " mi/ 
friendsr 

II Such tautological expressions are often used, especially in poetry — 
they can always be parsed, but are, nevertheless, contrary to the 
genius of the English language. 

^ "To sit down" and " to rise up," may not be considered as very 
improper. Custom has sanctioned the use of the superfluous ad- 
verbs. 



RHETORICAL RULES. 209 

lie repeated the words again.-^^ ^Ve descended doicn 
from the mountain. We lound nobody cUc but him in 
the room, lie raised z/^ his arm. 

EuLE II. — Every complete sentence or para- 
graphf must contain a sentensic section. 

[Note. — There is little possibility of the student's falling into the 
error of constructing sent(Mices composed of insentcnsic sections only, 
inasmuch as they could not be made to express any dehuite idea.] 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

In the room.J Upon the table.J When I have fin- 
ishctl my lesson. ;{; Then he sat down.+ Being unable 
to reply. :{: To die, to sleep no more.§ 

Obs. 1. The replies to questions arc generally insen- 
tensic sections, but in such cases the primary and sen- 
tensic sections to which they relate arc implied, having 
been expressed in the question. 

EXAMPLES. 
[Supply the ellipses in the secondary sections.] 
AVhcro did you lay the book? On the table ?|| Whom 
did you see? Your uncle. What are you studying 
now? Grammar, arithmetic, and geography. 

Rule III. — A negative sentence or section 
should employ but one word of negation. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

I have looked for the book, and I can't find it nowhere. 
There wasn't 7iobody present when 1 entered. It was 



*The prefix " re" signifies ar/a'm ; "f/^"' signifies doxcn ; asccml should 
not be used with iip ; ^'pre' signifies hrforc. 

t A paragraph is a collection of sontcMiccs, describing any one par- 
ticular subject, or branch of a subject. A paragraph should comprise 
all the descriptions of a subject that are closely allied, or that have, as 
it were, a tendency to one and the same end. 

» t Siipply any sentensic section agreeable to the general sense; as, 
" John is in the room," etc. 

^This is not an insentcnsic section; as the omission of cither the 
noun or verb docs not constitute an inson. <oc. 

II A secondary section, adverbial relation to lay. 

18 



210 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

SO dark I couldn't see nothing at all. "Won't nohodv 
come to my assistance? He could not solve the riddle 
hy no means, lie would n't never return. 

Obs. 1. There are many words, not absolutely ne^a^ 
tivc, but which denote possibility or impossibility, prob- 
ability or improbability, that require no other negative. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

I do not think the Avatcr is hardly warm enough yct.-''^ 
He can not^ in strict justice, be scarcely called a man of 
integrity. There were not hut five men present. f The 
poor man was not scarcely able to move. 

Obs. 2. When not signifies neither^ we should use nor 

after it; thus, "It is not very cold, nor very warm." 

But when either is implied after nof, we should make use 

of or instead of iior ; thus, "He could not be induced 

(either') to remain where he was or (not nor) to go 

home.":]: 

EXAMPLE^ FOR CORRECTION. 

He told me he could not go to-day or to-morrow. I 
could not find him in this room or that. I was unable 
to find him in this room nor that.§ I will not tell you, 
or give you the slightest clue to the desired information. 
He assured me he would not be able to visit my aunt 
nor uncle during vacation. He did not call my attention 
to the fact that we were falling nor sliding down into 
the pit. . She was never || known to smile from that 
moment, or to mingle again in society. He is not so 
eminent or so much esteemed as he thinks himself. She 
was seldom || found at home, or was she ever known to 
keep her house in order. 

* This form of expression is very common, and yet it is obviously 
incorrect, for the use of the jieg.ative denies the possibility of the fact, 
when the intention is to establish that possibility or probability. 

t ^'■Not but^^ forms an affirmation; thus, "He could not hut see it" — 
t. «., "He could not fail to see it," or, " He certainly must have seen it." 
A strong affirmation. ^ 

J We should always endeavor to express ourselves in plain and un- 
mistakable language. In such cases as the above, the word either 
should be expressed, not implied. 

§ The word either is understood before in. 

II Other negatives beside not follow the rule. 



RHETORICAL RULES. 211 

Obs. 3. There are various forms of expression in which 
wo are apt unconsciously to employ double negatives, or 
a negative and some word of possibility, as scarcely ^ seldom^ 
etc. ; which modes of speech it should be the constant 
study of the student to avoid, using his judgment and 
taste in determining whether the negative form should 
bo used or not. 

ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES. 

Ho could scarcely read Jior write. There was little of 
the scholar nor gentleman about him. I have not been 
able to find the word in Virgil or Caesar* There is 
nothing genial or nothing attractive in the place. f There 
Avas no more bread or provision. There was nothing 
more that we could do nor say to relieve the unfortunate 
man. J 

Rule IY. — Avoid the too frequent use of the 



* It seems very often a matter of indifference whether we employ 
the negative or positive conjunction. If we supply rilher, and retain 
the first negative, we slionld use or; ^^ cither in Virgil or C;T3sar.'' 15ut 
if we iise neither in the place of the first negative, we should use nor ; 
^hieifher in Virgil 7ior Ciesar.' We may say, *'She was seldom found 
at home, or was she ever known to keep,'' etc.; or we may say, "She 
was seldom found at home, 7ior,'^ etc. The meaning of the expression 
will be the same in either case. 

t It is well to observe that or generally indicates the possibility or 
probability of the truth of the assertion contained in one of the sec- 
tions whicli it connects; thus, the above sentence would seem to indi- 
cate that (here teas nothing geniril^ OR there xcax nothing attractive; i. e., if 
there was nothing genial, still there might have existed something 
attractive, and vice versa; but this is not the probable intention of the 
sentence: hence, it would be better to say, "There was nothing genial 
nor attractive;'' or, '• there was neither any thing genial nor attractive;"' 
or, " there was nothing that was either genial or attractive." Either 
of these forms of expression would immediately convey the idea that 
neither of these attributes existed at the place, though the preference 
should be given to the first two. 

t When the first negative occurs in one section, and a sooond nega- 
tive is used in the following section, the expression is wm ig; for the 
word either is then understood, and should be followed by or; as, 
"there was nothing that was either genial or attractive;"' "there was 
nothing more that we could do or say.' " He assured me that he 
would be unable to visit cither my uncle or aunt during the vacation." 



212 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

circumflex course, particularly in narrative, descrip- 
tive, or simple discourse. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

Him I have just sent to the grocery for provisions, and 
her I have sent into the country. Them he endeavored 
to conciliate, by large rewards promising to them, and 
by granting that they their own fields might cultivate. 
A fresh wind arising, my hack I turned upon the desolate 
beach, and springing into my bark, the unhappy island 1 
left forever. 

Obs. 1. Nevertheless, in poetry and in animated dis- 
course, the circumflex course is used with much beauty 
of effect. There are also many forms of expression, 
even in the most common-place language, in which we 
should always use the circumflex course ; such as, when 
the relative pronoun is emploj^ed in the accusative, or 
when, in reply to a question, the accusative is first men- 
tioned for the sake of emphasis, etc., etc. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

This is the very man I met whom at Paris. This is 
the field I have sold which to your father. Where is our 
dog? I have just killed the <^o^.^ And how about your 
obligations? I have cancelled my obligations. -\ Several 
men there were who entered the room with us.J 

Rule V. — An implenarj section is allowable 
when it requires the repetition of a word to make 
it plenarj^, or when the sense is not obscured by 
the ellipsis. § 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

By presumption and by vanity we provoke enmity and 
we incur contempt. Th'ey must be punished and they shall 

* It is of little consequence "whether we use the direct course or the 
circumflex in this case. 

t It will give greater force to the reply to place the object before 
the verb. "J/y oblifjations I have cancelled." ' 

X Impersonal verbs always require the principal nominative after 
them. I See Rule XIX, page lid. 



RHETORICAL RULES. 213 

"be punished. We succeeded, but tliey did not succeed. 
These counsels were the dictates oi' virtue and the dic- 
tates of true honor. Genuine virtue supposes our benevo- 
lence to be strengthened and to be confirmed by principle. 

Obs. 1. But when an omission of any word or words 
would obscure the sense or render the expression inele- 
gant, we should make the section plenary. 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

That is a property most men have or may attain.-S' 
Then stood there up one in the council, a Pliarisee, 
named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, had in reputation 
among all the people, and commanded to put the apostles 
Ibrlh a little space. Neither has he nor any other ])er- 
sons suspected this deceit. f They now smiled at that 
which they were alarmed before.^ There is nothing we 
are so much deficient tn as knowledi^e of ourselves. 



'&' 



Rule VI. — Whenever figurative expre.^sions are 
employed, care should be taken to introduce them 
at the proper time and in an appropriate manner : 
all the parts of a figure should accord, and in no 
case should we introduce a figure, and immedi- 
ately abandon it for the literal expression; thus, 
it would be improper to say, '' The Leviathan hdt- 
tied long against the waves, and eventually sailed 
safely into port," because we first introduce a 
figure by representing the vessel as a combatant 
warring against the waves, and then dropping the 
figure, we represent the vessel in the light of any 
other boat, scdUng into port. We should say, 
'' The Leviathan battled long (or a long time) 

* Attain is an intransitive verb, nnd requires no object. We should 
say, "a propcrt}' most men have, or to u-Iuch tliey may attain."' 

t '*Nor have any other persons;"' verbs must agree with their nomi- 
natives, etc. 

t '* At that about which," etc., as alarmed is intransitive and can not 
govern an object. 



214 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

against the waves, but eventually conquered and 
marched into (or entered) the port in safety and 
triumj^li^ 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

" And on his knees, 

That shook like tempest-stricken mountain trees, 

His heavy head descended sad and low 

Like a liicjli city^ smitten by the blow 

Which secret earthquake strikes, and toppling, falls 

With all its arches, towers and cathedrals 

In swift and unconjectured overthrow.* 

*' To take up arms against a sea of troubles." f 

— " As glorious 

As is a messenger from heaven. 
Unto the white, upturned, wond'ring eyes 
Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him, 
When he bestrides the lazy ^«an^ clouds^ 
And sails upon the hosom of the air.'' . 

Rule VII. — In using hyperboles, care' should 
be taken not to introduce improbable exaggera- 
tion ; nor to employ them in simple or common 
descriptions. , . 

EXAMPLES FOR CORRECTION. 

He moves slower than a snail. We rode quicker than 
lightning. His muscles were harder than a rock, more 
vigorous than steel, and more powerful than an engine. 

"I found her on the floor, 

In all the storm of grief, yet beautiful ! 

Pouring forth tears at such a lavish rate. 

That, was the world on Are, they might have drowned 

The wrath of heaven and quenched the mighty rwm." J 

* This figure is badly introduced. We can not. conceive any resem- 
blance between a man's " descending head " and the " sw)/t and uncon- 
jectured overthrow " of some high city^ with all its towers, arches^ and 
cathedrals, hy a secret earthquake. 

t This is called mixed metaphor, in which two metaphors are made 
to meet on one subject. 

X To drown the wrath of heaven or to quench a mighty ruin would 
require a greater efi'ort than is possessed, we fear, by any modern poet. 



RHETOllTCAL RULES. 215 

Rule VIII. — Care should be taken in construct- 
ing a climax to preserve the natural order of gra- 
dation, placing the more insignificant ideas first, 
and closing with the grander and higher concep- 
tions. 

The following, from INIilton's Paradise Lost, is a fine example of the 
construction of a climax : 

*• Now crlowccl the firmament 



With living sapphires : Hesperus, that led 
The starry host, rode brightest, till the moon, 
Eising in clouded majesty, at length, 
Apparent queen, unvailed her peerless light, 
And, o'er the dark, her silver mantle threw." 

First, the stars (sapphires) are seen shedding an equal light; then 
Hesperus (the evening star) ^^roile brif/hiest," and lield brief sway; 
"till tlie moon, rising in clouded majesty," appeared, queen of the 
night, *' unvailed lier peerless light, and o'er the dark her silver man- 
tle threw." This is one of the prettiest figures in the language; and, 
besides being a climax, is a mctapiior, in which the stars represent 
the people or coniniontility. Hesperus then appears as a ruler, like a 
duke or governor; while the moou is made to represent the queen, 
majestic ruler over all. 



METHOD OF PARSING A PROPER NAME. 
Sentence : — " George studies his lesson." 

Belation ; George studies. 

2. George — is a noun, name of a person; 
proper, an appropriated name ; 
masculine gender, denotes a male; 
third person spoken of; 
singular number, denotes but one; 
nominative case to the verb studies. 

(Rule 2.) 



I 



PROSODY. 



Prosody, from the Greek n;p6f, about, -and uj^yj, songs ^ or 
poetry, establishes laws which govern the quality, length, 
accent, and emphasis of poetical lines ; it also embraces 
the rules for punctuation. 

OF POETRY OR VERSIFICATION. 

Poetry or Verse is the arrangement of words into a 
regular succession of short and long, or of accented or 
unaccented syllables, like the measured beat of a clock, 
or the tread of disciplined troops. 

This resemblance to the motion of a person in walking, has given 
to syllables when they form poetical lines, the name o^ feet. 

Feet are either of two or three syllables : there are 
eight kinds of feet, four of two syllables, and four of 

three, as follows : 

Dissyllable. Trissyllable. 

1. A Trochee, 5. A Dact3^1, 

2. An Iambus, 6. An Amphibrach, - - - 

3. A Spondee, - - 7. An Anapaest, 

4. A Pyrrhic, 8. A Tribrach, 

The dash (- ) indicates the long or accented syllables, 
and the breve ( ~ ) the short, or unaccented. 

A Trochee is composed of words containing syllables 
accented on the y^rs^, and every alternate syllable there- 
after, as, grdte£ii\, tunefiii, 77idliidlct\on, vrntvui'ibn, etc. 

An Iambic consists of words of two, four, or six syl- 
lables, in which the accent falls on the second, fourth, 
sixth, etc., as, ^acouyit^ restrain, Viivei^h^rdte, dislntevestiid- 
ness, etc. 

A Spondee contains a succession of two long syllables, 
as, vdi7i, hope, gdinsdy, etc. 

A Pyrrhic contains two short syllables, as, ever, 
Wither', etc. 

A Dactyl contains a long and two short syllables, as, 
^ofernment, idleness, etc. 

(216) 



PROSODY. 21 7 

An Ampiiibracii has first a short, then a long, then 
another short sylhible, as, (.lo?/je6tie, cosincfic, etc. 

An ANAPiESTic foot contains three sylhibles, the two 
first of which are short, or unaccented, and tlie hist ac- 
cented or long, as, oyCvtlice, uudiivstOod, oviivhcad, in the 
room, by restraint, on tommdnd, etc. 

A Tribrach has a succession of three short S3dlables, 
(generally preceded by a long syllable,) as, (coin)-fort- 
able, (disprop6>/-)-tionately, (con6'I^)-erately, etc. 

Four of the above, viz.: 2'rochee, Iambus, Dactyl and 
Anapaest, are called primary, because whole compositions 
can be written in them without introducing other feet. 
The others are called secondary, being used occasionally 
to vary the monotony of regular composition. 

EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS MEASURES. 
TROCHAIC MEASURE. 
A TROCHEE AND 0\E LONG SYLLABLE. TWO TROCHEES 

Tumult I cease; ^-^*' | On a mountuin | 

Sink to I peace. ^^* By a fountain. | 

TWO TROCHEES AND LONG SYLLABLE. THREE TROCHEES. 

lU^h a I bove the | sun, ^^-^ Task a | gain re | suming, | 

See his | clu'iriot | run. ^^* Midnight | oil con | suming, | 

LINES OF THREE TROCHEE FEET AND A LONG SYLLABLE. 

Lovely, | lasting | peace of | mind, ^"•■- | 
Sweet de | light of | hiiraan | kind. ^-'"*" 

LINES OF FOUR TROCHEE FEET. 
Now the I fearful | lightning | flashes, j 
And the [ dreadful | thunder's | roaring ; | 
Kow the I breaking | timber | crashes — | 
Through th6 | seams the ( waters | pouring — j 

LINES OF SIX TROCHEES. 



On a I mountain, 
Lay a | shepherd 



stretched be | nt'ath a | hoary | willow, | 
swain and | gazed up | on the | billow. | 

LINES OF THREE TROCHEE FEET, AND OF TWO TROCHEE FEET AND A 
LONG SYLLABLE IN ALTERNATE SUCCESSION. 
On a I distant | prairie 

Where the | heatlier | wild ^ j 
In its I qiiiet | beauty | 
Livedf I andt | smiled. | 

* The slur indicates the absence of a syllable. 

t It is frequently the case that one long syllable, like a prolonged 
note in music, occupies the space of a long and short one also. In 
the above we find a succession of three long syllables, the first two of 

19 



218 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

LINES OF FOUR TROCHEE FEET, AND OP THREE AND AN ADDITIONAL 
LONG SYLLABLE IN ALTERNATE SUCCESSION. 
Summer's | breath is | lightly | fulling [ 

On the I silent | waters [ blue, ^-^ | 
And the | moonbeams j bright are | sporting | 
With the I drops of | glitt'ring * | dew.-^- j 

IAMBIC MEASURE. 

LINES OF TWO IAMBIC FEET. 

We passed | the hours, | 
In sha I dy bow'rs.f | 

TWO IA3IBI0 FEET, AND AN ADDITIONAL SHORT SYLLABLE. 
And near | the moun- | tain, 
There gushed j a foun- ( tain. 

LINES OF THREE IAjVIBIC FEET. 

Isles of I the south, | awake 1 | 
I; The song | of tri- | umph sing, | 

Let mount j and hill j and vale \ 
With hal 1 lelu | jas ring. 

LINES OF FOUR IAJVIBIC FEET. 

Thy pres | ence, ev | erlast | ing God, [ 
Wide o'er | all na | ture spreads | abroad. | 

LINES OF FIVE FEET, CALLED PENTAJVIETER TERSE. 
There was | a sound | of rev | elry | by night, 
And Bel | gium's cap | ital | had gath | ered there, J etc. 

When the last line of a couplet is prolonged to twelve 
syllables, it is called Alexandrine verse. 

While thronged | the cit | izens | with ter [ ror dumb, | 
Or whisp 1 'ring with | white lips, | 'The foe, ] they come! | 
they come !' | 

Many Iambic verses terminate in a short, or unac- 
cented syllable. 

'Twas now | the hour | when night | had driv [ en, 
Her car [ half round | yon sa | ble heav | en. 

Christians! | have burn'd | each oth | er, quite f persua | ded 
That all | th' apos | ties would | have done | as they | did. 

which may be regarded either as a single Spondee foot, or as two Tro- 
chees, the second syllable oreach being represented by the prolonga- 
tion of the first, 

* Two syllables are frequently contracted into one, by the elision of 
a vowel, when the second forms a Pyrrhic or Tribrach. 

tit is highly improper to introduce a word in which the accent nat- 
urally falls on the first syllable, while the nature of the verse requires 
it on the second: this, at once, changes the metrical measurement into 
prose, and yet the most distinguished poets frequently fall into this 
error. 



PROSODY. 219 

TARIOUS FORMS OP IAMBIC VERSE. 

The day | is past | and gone, | [three feet.) 
The eve | ning shades I appear, | {three feet. 
0, may | we all | remein ] ber well, j [four feet.) 
The night J of death | draws near. | [three feet.) 

Come ho [ ly spir | it heav | 'nly- dove | [four feet.) 
With all I thy quick | nlng pow'rs, j [three feet.) 
Kindle-'- | a tlfime | of sa | cred love, | 
I In this I cold heart | of ours. | 

Ycrscs like tho above, containing lines of four and 
three feet, alternately, were formerly written in two lines 
of seven feet each. 

ANAPiESTIC MEASURE. 

LINES OF TWO ANAPJSSTIO FEET. 

On the beach I by the sea, | 
'Neath the ev ] ergreen tree. | 

LINES OP THREE ANAPiESTIC FEET. 
O, ye Avoods, | spread your branch | es apace, | 

To your deep | est recess | es I fly; | 
I wouUI hide I with the beasts | of the chase, | 

I would van | isli from ev j ery eye. | 

LINES OF FOUR ANAP^STIC FEET. 

At the close | of the day, [ when (he ham | let is stfll, | 
Andt mor | tills the sweets | of forget | fulness | prove, j 
When nought | but the tor | rent is heard | on the hill, | 
And nought | but the night | ingale's song | in the grove. J 

Some lines take an additional short syllable. 

At the liead | of the dan | cers^ 
Stood the val | orous Ian | cers. 

But in such cases the second, and every succeeding 

alternate line generally lacks a short syllable. 

'Tis the voice | of the slug | gard^X 
I heard I him complain I 



* It is highly improper to introduce a word in which the accent 
naturally falls on the fimt syllable, while the nature of the verse re- 
quires it on the second: this, at once changes the metrical measure- 
ment into prose, and yet the most distinguished poets frequently fall 
into this error. 

t The second short syllable is wanting. Sec Rule at top of next page. 

tThis syllable, in reality, constitutes the first short syllable in the 
next foot. If the verse were written in two lines instead of four these 
syllables would occupy their proper places. 



220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

You have waked | me too soon, | (/) 
I must slum j ber again. | 

Sometimes a syllable is omitted from the first foot of 
each line. 

Ye shep | herds, so cheer j ful and gay, [ 
Whose flocks j ever care | lessly roam, | 

And mem' | ry still hoards | 

As her rich j est of treas | Mre«,* 

Some few j blissful mo [ ments, 
S5me soul | thrilling pleas j ures. 

DACTYLIC MEASURE. 

LINES OP TWO DACTYLS. 

Take her up [ tenderly, ) 
Fashioned so j slenderly, | 

The last measure in Dactylic verse is not always full, 
but generally ends on the accented syllable. 

O, the deep | truth that looks J 

From those dark | eyes,t -^ "^ j 
Soul-lit with j radiance, | 

Caught from the | skies t ^—^ ''-^' | 

Sometimes an unaccented syllable opens or closes a 
line. 

Robed like an | abbess, ^— ^ 

TheJ I snowy earth [ lies,-}- -— ■ --^ j 

While the red | sundown ^— ^ 

Fadesj | out of the | skies.f --^ ^-^ | 

Dactyl verse sometimes glides impercej)tibly into ana- 
paestic measure. 

*This syllable, in reality, constitutes the first short syllable in the 
next foot. See note bottom of page 219. 

t The two other syllables that compose the foot are wanting, and if 
the poetry be set to music the absence of these syllables must be de- 
noted by appropriate rests ; or the accented syllable must be prolonged 
to the full value of the foot or measure. 

X If this word had been placed at the conclusion of the preceding 
line, (where the measure requires it, though the sense does not,) we 
should have a pure Dactyl verse, thus : 

Robed like an | abbess, the 

Snowy earth | lies •--' ^-- 
While the red | siindown fades 

Olit of the 1 skies ^^ ^ 



PROSODY. 221 

WhirlTnpf and | gliding, like | sfimmer clouds, | fleet,* 
Tliey flash | the white ll«>;lit | niuj; from gilt | tering feet; 
The streams | hang congealed | on the face | of the falls, 
Like mutef horns | of bright sll | ver hung ov | er dark walls. | 

The first line is sometimes in Dactyl, and each subse- 
quent line in Anapicst, thus: 

Nigh to a I grave that was | newly| [ made ^^ n-' | || 
Leaned ajJ sex | ton old !| | on his earth | worn spade|| | 
His work I was done,^ | and he paused | to wait|| | 
The fun^ | eral train | through the o | pen gate.]] | 

It is very improper to brini:; unimportant words into 
the unaccented parts of a measure : tins is similar to the 
introduction of words where the accent Avill fall on the 
unaccented syllables. This is called impossible accent^ 
and is liable to occur in all kinds of verse. The follow- 
ing extracts are erroneous : 

"Of every tree tlint in the garden grows 
Thou mayst | freely | eat; but | of the \ tree** 
That knowledge hath of good and ill, eat not." 

■^' See note (f) on page 220. 

t If these words had been placed at the end of the preceding line, 
the verse would have been Dactyl. It is this running over of words 
from one line to another that causes the change from Dactyl to Ana- 
paest. The above may be changed to Dactyl, thus: 

Whirling and | gliding like | summer clouds | fleet, see they ( 
Flash the white | lightning from | glittering feet, [ and the | 
Streams hang con I gealed on the | face of the I falls like mute | 
Horns of bright | silver hung | over dark | walls, ■— ' ^— '. | 

This, of course, destroys the rhyme, and closes the linc^ with unim- 
portant words, which is highly improper. 

X This is a Trochee foot, but when set to music it must be made to 
fill the same measure as a Dactyl. 

^ These two words belong to the last measure in the preceding line, 
and are so treated in the air to which they are sung, making the word 
'■^sexton" the first in a ncAv Dactylic foot. 

II These are Iambic feet, but fall into Dactylic divisions in the air. 
^ This foot may be considered a Dactjd, commencing with an unac- 
cented syllable, or as an Anapaest, having a syllable retrenched. The 
above verse, when set to music, is divided thus: 

Nigh to a I grave that was | newly | made. Leaned a | 
Sexton I old on his | earth worn | spade, His | 
Work was j done and he | paused to j wait The | 
Funeral | train through the j open j gate, j 
Making each line wholly composed of Dactyls or Trochees; though 
each Trochee measure has the full value of a Dactylic foot. 

**This line may be properly accented by making two syllables of 
the word ''Mayst," thus: 

Thou may | est free | ly eat; | but of | the tree J 



222 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

"But the unfaithful priest, what tongue enough shall exe- 
crate ?" Pollok. 

-" Yet to I say truth, [ too late 



I thus contest." 

"0, thought, 

Horrid ( if true !" 

"All of ] me then, shall die: let this appear." Milton. 

" Age should \ fly concourse, cover in retreat 
Defects of judgment and the will subdue." 

"Piiff'd off I by the \ first blast | and lost ) forev [ er." 

Young. 
"Mix'd with j ohdu \ rate pride and steadfast hate." 

Milton. 
" kneels I and mm | isters [ of grace | defend | W5, | 
"Thou hast j but power | over | his mor j tal bo [ dyT 

ShaJcspeare. 

OF MIXED VERSE. 

1^0 verse can be composed entirely of Spondee, Pyrrhic, 
Amphibrach, or Tribrach feet, but an}-, or all of these 
may be introduced in other measures, to prevent monot- 
ony. Verses maj^ also be composed of a mixture of 
Trochee, Iambic, Dactyl, and Anapaest, some examples 
of which are subjoined the figures designate the various 
feet, thus, 1 Trochee, 2 Iambus, 5 Dactyl, 7 Anapasst, etc., 
according to the figured arrangement on page 216. 

Not a drum? | was heard,2 [ nor a fun'' | ral n6te,2 | 
As his corse? | to the ram? | part we hur? | ried,^ 

Not a,s61? j dier discharged? | his fare2 | well shot^ 
O'er the grave? | where our he? | ro we bur? j ried.^ 

God of thes [ fair and' | open' j sky ^' j 

How I glorious^ ] ly a' | bove us' j springs ^— 'i j 

The I tented' [ dome of | heavenly* | blue, ^? | 
Suspend I ded In2 j the rainz [ bow's rlngs.2 | 

Make me nos | gaudy' | chaplet;^ [ weave it 6f^ | simple' | flowers,^ [ 
Seek them in^ | lowfy' | vallles,^ | after the^ | gentle' j showers ;3 
Bring me no^ | dark-eyed' | roses,3 | gay in the^ | sunshine' | glowing.a j 
Bring me the' | pale moss' | rose bud,3 | beneath the | fresh leaves' | 
I growing.^ | 
I say,2 I methinks,2 | that Phi2 | lo-gen^ ] itiveness^ | 

Might meet^ | from men^ | a lit'^ | tie morc'^ | forgive^ | ness. 



* Hurried and buried, and all similar terminations, should be con- 
tracted to the space or value of a single syllable. This verse would be 
purely Anapaestic throughout, if we give to each measure its true value. 



PUNCTUATION. 223 

RULES FOR THE COMPOSITION OF POETRY. 

EuLE I. — Coninicncc every line with ii capital letter. 

Rule II. — llavin<^ estaulibhed a measure, continue the 
same throughout; though, as has been already seen, 
Dactylic verse may sometimes run into Anapaest, or 
Trochee into Iambic, and vice versa. 

EuLE III. — Corresponding lines should be of an even 
length ; i. e., should bo composed of an even number of 
feet. In blank verse, all the lines should be even in 
length.* In all other poetical compositions, those lines 
which rhyme should generally bo even."}* 

Rule IY. — It is improper to introduce an Alexandrine 
into the middle of a stanza ; and, in general, it is wrong 
to introduce a lino containing an additional foot, into 
any verse, unless the accompanying verses have lines 
corresponding. 

Rule Y. — Avoid the use of Spondee, Pyrrhic, Amphi- 
brach and Tribrach feet, ^particularly in pieces intended 
for music. 

Rule YI. — Do not close a line in Iambic (or Trochee) 
with a short syllable, nor a line in AnapiDst (or Dactyl) 
with two short syllables, and commence the following 
line also with a short syllable, for this would miiko, in 
the former case, a Pyrrhic, and, in the latter, a Tribrach. 



PUNCTUATION. 

The principal divisions of a sentence, as considered 
by rhetoricians, arc the Comma, Semicolon, Colon and 
Period. 

The Period is the whole sentence, complete in itself, 
wanting nothing to make full and perfect sense, and not 
connected in any way with a subsequent sentence. 

* If a paragraph, in blank verse, breaks off with a short line, the 
line that follows should commence whore the other ends; thus: 

Judge. — Therefore lay bare your bosom. 

Shylock. — Ay, his breast : 

So says tiie bond; does it not, noble judge? — Shakspkare. 

t Ihere are some exceptions to this, particularly in Alo«andrine 
verse, and in stanzas where the lines are nearly all of irregular 
lengtli. 



224 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

The Colon is a secondary sentence, containing some- 
thing explanatory to that which precedes, and which is 
already complete in grammatical construction. The 
Colon may sometimes contain a personal pronoun, the 
antecedent to which is in the preceding sentence. 

The Semicolon contains that part of a sentence which 
commences with a conjunction or personal pronoun; and 
is a minor division of a sentence, in which the gram- 
matical construction is not fully complete. 

The Comma includes the principal secondary sections, 
which comprise the subdivision of the sentence. ' 

Grammarians have followed this division of the rheto- 
ricians, and have appropriated to each of these divisions 
its mark or point. 

RULES FOR PUNCTUATION. 

OF THE COMMA. 

EuLE I. — Use a Comma to separate the principal sec- 
tions of a sentence. 

Example. — By skill and resolution, by caution and circumspection, 
by foresight and by penetration, I brought the enterprize to a fortu- 
nate conclusion. 

Rule II. — A nominative should never be separated 
from the verb to which it belongs by a comma, unless a 
secondary section intervenes, and breaks the connection. 

Examples. — God is love. Heaven hides the book of fate. Heavex, 
from all creatures^ hides the book of fate. 

EuLE III. — When, however, several nominatives fol- 
low in succession, or are used in apposition, they should 
be separated from each other, but not from the verb, by 
commas ; thus : 

" Self-conceit, presumption, and obstinacy blast the prospect of many 
a youth." 

" Discomposed thoughts, agitated passions, and a ruffled temper 
poison every pleasure of life^' 

[Note. — The use of the comma, in this case, is to represent the 
omission of the verb; thus, "Birds, bats, and beetles fly," i e., "Birds 
(fly), bats (fly), and beetles fly." "Discomposed thoughts (poison, 
etc.,) agitated passions [poison, etc.,) and a ruffled temper poison," 
etc.] 

EuLE IV. — When several words, all being the same 
part of speech, and each holding, separately, a relation 



PUNCTUATION. 225 

to the same word, follow ono another in succession, they 
Hhoiild bo separated trom each other (but not from the word 
to which they belong) by commas.* 

Examples.— ''To live soberly, righteously, and piously, comprehend? 
"^tho wliole of our duty." 

" Man fearing, serving, knowing and loving his Creator." 

" Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind." 

" The sun, earth's sun, and moon and stars had ceased 

To niunbor seasons, days, and months, and years." 

" When first on this delightful land he spreads 

His orient beams on herb, tree, fruit, and flower." 

" To relieve the indigent, to comfort the afflicted, to protect the inno- 
cent, are noble employments." 

" Plain, honest truth requires no coloring." 

"A good, wise, and just king will endeavor to redress the griev- 
ances, wrongs, and troubles of his people." 

Rule V. — When a secondary section of an adjective 
relation immediately follows the noun to which it be- 
lono-s, it is considered as part of the logical subject, and 
should not be separated from it, as this would virtually 
separate the noun from its verb.f 

Example. — " The great end of a good education is to form a reason- 
able man." 

EiTLE YI. — When a section of an adverbial relation 
immediately follows the verb to which it belongs, no 
point is required ; as, 

" With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation.'' 

Rule YII. — But when a section, not having an adjec- 
tive relation, follows a noun, or when any other than an 
adverbial section follows a verb, it shoukl be sej^arated 
Irom the main section by commas before and after it. 
And, in general, when a secondary section is out of its 
phice, producing a broken section or a circumflex course, 
that section should bo separated from the others by 
commas. 

Examples. — " Epicurus, we are toldj left behind him three hundred 
volumes of his works." 

* Because each Comma is used to denote the ellipsis of the verb, 
noun, pronoun, proposition, etc., to which the word belongs, as in the 
previous Rule; tiuis. "A true, [man) honest, {man) and sober man will 
try at all times to fulfill his duty, (to /uljill) his obligations, and (to 
/ulfill) his promises." 

t The relative pronoun and participle form exceptions, which will 
be treated of in separate rules. 



226 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

" She let concealment, like a worm V Ih' bud. 

Feed on her damask cheek." 
" In arts, long since, has Britain been renown'd; 
Li arms, high honored, and in letters, crown'd." 
" Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you," (circumflex 
course.) 

Rule YIII. — When two or more secondary adjective 
sections follow a noun, or when two or more secondary 
adverbial sections follow a verb, they should be se2:)arated 
f?'om each other by commas, unless connected by a con- 
junction. 

Examples. — " His hopes for saving his credit, for redeeming his 
character, for obtaining redress, were blasted." 

" The man of virtue and of honor will be respected and esteemed." 
" The Christian religion is full of beauty, of purity and love." 
"He was sunk deep in sin, degradation and crime."-'' 
" He paced over the floor, in silence."t 

EuLE IX. — When conjunctions connect words only, no 
point is required between them. 

Examples. — "Truth is fair and artless." "We must be wise or 
foolish." 

Rule X.- — When the conjunction connects sections, it 
should be preceded by a comma. 

Examples. — "Romances may be said to be miserable rhapsodies, or J 
dangerous incentives to evil." 

" Virtue is not rest, but action." % 

"Some people are impolite, because they do not know the world." 

"A man of sense soon perceives, whether his company be acceptable 
or not." g 

" Virtue is so amiable, that even the vicious admire it." § 

Rule XI.— The comma frequently indicates the ellipses 
of a verb or noun.|| 

Examples. — " The aim of orators is victory ; of historians, truth j 
of poets, admiration." 

" He lives at the corner of Main,^ and Center st." 

* This rule also applies to secondary adjective sections.. 

t But we may omit the comma when each secondary section has a 
relation to that word which immediately precedes it, thus : " He was 
famed for the observance of small things in his intercourse with 
mankind." 

X The principal part of the section is elliptical, having been already 
given. 

^ The comma may be frequently omitted before whether, if, that, and 
some other conjunctions, which seem to bind the sense too closely to 
admit, a pause. 

II See Rule III and IV. ^ That is, "Main street. 



PUNCTUATION. 227 

HuLE XTIv-AYhcn a secondary section, commencing 
with a relative pronoun or a ])ai"ticiple, intervenes be- 
tween the nominative and verb (thus making a broken 
section), it must be included in commas. 

"A man, who is of a detracting and malicious spirit, will miscon- 
strue the most innocent words.'* 

" His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail to render 
him conspicuous." 

"What can be said of those, who, intoxicated with pleasures, become 
giddy and insolent?" 

EuLE XIII. — AYhcn the relative immediately follows 
its antecedent, and docs not intervene in a broken sec- 
tion, no comma is required. 

Examples. — " Tliis was the man who betrayed him." "You have 
brought me every thing that I can wish." 

iluLE XIY. — Nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc., joined in 
pairs by a conjunction, are separated in pairs by commas. 

Examples. — "Interest and ambition, honor and shame, friendship 
and enmity, gratitude and revenge,! are the prime movers of all pub- 
lic transactions." 

"Vicissitudes! of good and evil, of trials and consolations,! fill up 
the life of man." 

"Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and con- 
sistent." 

"Whether he moves or stands, speaks or holds his peace, eats or 
drinks, laughs or weeps, sleeps or wakes, he is watched with admi- 
ration." 

Rule XV. — Nouns in apposition, that denote the namo 
of but one person, should not be separated by a comma. 

Exainples. — " The emperor Antonius wrote an excellent book." 
"John Quincy Adams was the President." 

EuLE XVI. — The case independent should, generally, 
be separated from the section by a comma. § 

Examples. — " My son, give me th}' heart." 

"I am obliged to you, my friends,|| for j'our many favors." 

, Rule XYII. — The absolute case, together with the 
section in which it occurs, should be marked by the 
comma. 



* See examples under Rule YII. 

t See Rule II. The nominative must not be separated from its verb. 
X See Rule V, and VIII. g See Rule I, and XLV. 

l) See Rule I, and also page 184. The clause containing the case in- 
dependent forms a separate section. 



228 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Examples. — " The general being killed, the army wjc routed." "Hig 
father dying, he succeeded to the estate." "At lengtli, their ministry 
performed, their race well run, they left the world in peace." 

" This is the true version of the affair, Mr. Williamson to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

KuLE XVIII. — When the infinitive immediately fol- 
lows the word to which it holds a relation, no point 
should be used ; but if a clause or section intervenes, tho 
infinitive should be preceded by a comma. 

Example. — " He was seen to enter the house." 

Rule XIX. — When a quotation, or other phrase, sec- 
tion, clause or sentence is the object (accusative) of a 
verb, such clause, section, etc., should be separated from 
the verb by a comma. 

" God said, Let there be light." 

" No, no," replied the doctor. 

*' The wages of sin is death," was the subject of his discourse.! 

EuLE XX. — When two prepositions, separated by a 
clause or section, govern the same noun or pronoun, a 
comma should be placed after the first. 

Examples. — " Men are often found, not only in union with, but in op- 
position to the views and conduct of one another." 

EuLE XXI. — Words that stand in opposition to, or 
contrast with one another, should be distinguished by 
the insertion of commas. 

Examples. — " Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull; 
Strong, without rage ; without o'erflowing, full." % 
"Her strength, an idiot's boast; her wisdom, blind; 
Her gain, eternal loss; her hope, a dream." g 

EuLE XXII. — Compound adverbs, adverbial phrases, 
and the words nay, so, hence, again, first, secondly, form- 
erly, now, lastly, etc., should be separated from the section, 
in which they occur, by commas. 

Examples. — '■^Ilere, all is bustle and tumult; there, all is peace and 
order." 



* Notwithstanding is a participle compounded f^i not, with and standing, 
Williamson, by metonomy for Williamson's account or relation, is ab- 
solute. 

t The rule also applies when the section or clause is nominative. 

X These are all implenary sections, and may be considered as 
pointed, according to Kule I, and X. § See Rule XI. 



PUNCTUATION. 229 

" I proceed, secondly, to state that modesty is one of the chief orna- 
ments of youth." 

"■iHnalhj, in short, in your most secret actions, imagine you have all 
the world lor witnesses,' 

'■ It is, never I he I ess, only from the actions of men that the public can 
judp^e of their probity." 

" He is obstinate, iioj/, willful, if he persists," 

" Hence it is,* we can not discover the error." 

EuLE XXIII. — When, however, one of these adverbs 
heiuls a chiiuse, and docs not intervene in a broken see- 
tion, or interrupt the natural relation of a noun or verb, 
the oomma is omitted. 

Examples. — " You are altogether at fault." 
" We shall all meet again, hereafter." t 

" The narrative, however intemperate in point of rehgious zeal,t is 
accurate in point of fact." 

Rule XXIV. — AVhen one or more sections intervene 
between a conjunction and the section which it connects, 
such intervening sections should be included in commas. 

Example. — " We may rest assured that, by the steady pursuit of 
knowledge, we shall be benefited." 

Rule XXY. — No point should separate the nomina- 
tive from its verb, the adjective Ironi its noun, the verb 
from its object, etc., when no word or section intervenes; 
and, in general, when any two words, that hold a relation 
to one another, are found together, in their natural order, 
no point should be used. 

Rule XXYI. — The comma is frequently omitted (con- 
trary to strict rule) before conjunctions that connect 
brief or implenary sections, or between other sections, 
when the sentences are short, and the connection of tho 
sections close. 

Examples. — " The righteous shall shine as the stars." 
" Wisdom is more precious tlian rubies." 
"The righteous shall flourish like a palm tree." 
" I am now convinced that I was in error." 
" Blest is the man who dares approach the bow'r 
Where dwelt the muses at their natal hour." 



* See Rule XXIII. 

t The comma is used here because the "word hcrcaficT is separated 
from its verb meet by again. 

X The commas before however and is are in accordance with Rule YII. 



I 



230 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

The comma is often used to denote an omission of one 
or more letters: it is then called an apostrophe, and is 
thus used : liv'd^ flatfring, glisfning, wont, (for icill not,) 
can't, (for can not,) etc. The apostrophe is also used to 
denote the possessive case of nouns. 

Double commas, and inverted commas are used for 
quotations; thus, "Let there be light." Double quota- 
tions are marked thus, "He said, 'Let there be light.' " 
Double commas are sometimes used f Six pounds per da}^. 
to denote a repetition above; thus: I Five " " " 

OE THE SEMICOLON. 

KuLE XXYII. — When conjunctions connect sections 
of considerable length, the semicolon should be used.^ 

Example. — " The conveniences of fraud are short, but the inconveni- 
ences are lasting; /or, if a person be once detected in uttering a false- 
hood, he will not be believed again." 

EuLE XXYIII. — When a personal pronoun commences 
a secondary section, it' should be preceded by a semi- 
colon.f 

Examples. — "Send, therefore, to .Toppa, and call hither Simon, "whose 
Burname is Peter; he is lodged in the house of one Simon, a tanner." 

" But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up ; /, myself, also, am a 
man." 

EuLE XXIX. — When, however, the personal pronoun 
is preceded by a conjunction or other connective word, 
the section in which it occurs should be separated from 
that which precedes it by a comma, in accordance with 
Eule I, X, and XI ; or by a semicolon, in accordance 
with Eule XXYII. 

Examples. — "Am I, therefore, become your enemy, because I tell you 
the truth?" 

" I foresaw the Lord always before my face ; for he- is on my right 
hand, that I should not be moved." 

Eule XXX. — Brief, simple sentences, in which the 
verb is understood, and represented by a comma, accord- 



* In many cases it is difficult to decide whether we should use a 
comma or semicolon; and, perhaps, it is of little consequence which 
"we employ : let the sense decide. 

t But should not be headed by a capital letter. 



il 



PUNCTUATION. 231 

ing to Rule XI, arc separated from each other by Bemi- 
colons. 

Examples. — " Earth's cup 

Is poison'd; her renown, most iiifiuiious; 

Her goUl, seem as it may, is really dust; 

Her titles, sland'rous names; her praise, reproach; 

Ilcr strength, an idiot's boast; her wisdom, blind; 

Her gain, eternal loss; her hope, a dream; 

Her love, her friendship, enmity with (Jod." 
"Honor gives us liappiness; virtue, delight; contentment, peace; 
and religion, tranquility." 

^ EuLE XXXI. — Short sentences, in which the verbs aro 
expressed, are sometimes joined by semicolons, when 
they rehite to one subject. 

Examples. — " At thirty, man suspects himself a fool; 
Knows it at forty, and reforms liis plan ; 
At fifty, chides his infamous delay; 
Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve; 
In all the magnanimity of thought 
Ilesolves; and re-resolves; then dies the same." 

Rule XXXII. — Secondary, imj)lenary sections aro 
often preceded by the semicolon. 

Examples. — " His mind seemed utterly unbalanced, teeming with 
rich thougiits, and overbearing impulses; the sport of the strangest 
fancies and the strongest passions ; bound down by no habit, re- 
strained by no principle; a singular combination of great conceptions 
and fantastic caprices; of manly dignity and childish folly; of noble 
feeling, and of babyish "weakness." 

OF THE COLON. 

EuLE XXXIII. — The colon may be placed after a sen- 
tence, when a second sentence immediately follows, by 
way of illustration. 

Example. — Suspect a tale-bearer, and never trust him with thy se- 
crets who is fond of entertaining thee with those of another: no wise 
man will put good liquor in a leaky vessel." 

EuLE XXXIY. — The colon is often used instead of tho 
semicolon to connect consecutive simple sentences.* 

* Some writers use the colon almost indiscriminately for the semi- 
colon, before conjunctions, relative pronouns, participles, etc. It is a 
good rule, never to use a colon when a semicolon makes clear the dis- 
tinction; and, above all, never let a colon intervene between the sec- 
tions of a sentence. 



232 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

Examples. — " And Luxury, within, 

Poured out her glitt'ring stores : the canvas smooth, 
With glowing life protuberant, to the view 
Embodied rose: the statue seemed to breathe, 
And soften into flesh: beneath the touch 
Of forming art, imagination flush'd." 

Be wise^ 



Ye fools ! be of an understanding heart : 
Forsake the wicked: come not near his house: 
Pass by : Make haste : depart, and turn away :" 

Rule XXXY. — The propriety of using a colon or 
semicolon is sometimes determined by a conjunction's 
being expressed or understood ; if expressed, we use the 
semicolon ; if understood, the colon. 

Examples. — " Do not, flatter yourself with the hope of perfect happi- 
ness : there is no such thing in the world. [ — of perfect happiness ; 
for there is no, etc.] 

" Insult not another, because he lacks a talent which you possess : 
he may have others which you lack. [ — which you possess ; since he 
may, etc.] 

XXXYI. — The colon is often used between long sec- 
tions, when, according to Eule XXVII. we would use a 
semicolon, if the sections were shorter. 

Examples. — " In misfortunes we often mistake dejection for con- 
stancy : we bear them without daring to look on them." 

" Visits made and received are usually an intolerable consumption 
of time: unless prudently ordered, they^^ are, for the most part, spent 
in vain and unprofitable discourses." 

Rule XXXYII. — A colon is sometimes used before a 
quotation, instead of a comma, particularly if the quota- 
tion be adduced as an example. Sometimes, also, the 
dash accompanies the colon. 

Examjyles. — "Milton, in his beautiful description of Eve, says: 
'Grace was in all hec- steps, heaven in her eyesj 
In all her gestures, dignity and love.' " 

"Pollok begins his 'Course of Time' thus: 
'Eternal Spirit! God of truth! to whom 
All things seem as they are.' " 



* Circumflex course ; if made direct, they would immediately follow 
the colon. 



i 



PUNCTUATIOX. 233 

OF THE PERIOD. 

Rule XXXVfll. — Uso a period at the close of a full 
and perfect sentence. 

Example. — " It is the part of a -wise man <o sec misfortunes, and to 
prevent them before they conie ; "=• of a valiant man, to struggle well 
against them when they do come." 

Rule XXXIX. — ^lany writers use the period, instead 
of tlic colon or semicolon, between short, simple sen- 
tences. f 

Fxaniplcs. — " Children, obey your parents. ITonor your father and 
your mother. A -wise son hcareth his father's instruction." 
" Do not forgot. This visitation 
Is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose. 
But X look! aniazcnieut on thy mother sits. 
O, step between her and her fighting soul. 
Conceit in weakest bodies, strongest works. 
Speak to her, Hamlet." 

Rule XL. — Periods arc placed after abbreviations. 
In such cases they arc not considered as marks of punc- 
tuation, and the usual points should be phiced after all 
abhreviated words, unless they occur at the close of a 
sentence. 

Examples. — " On the fifth of Aug., 1842,? he commenced the attack." 
"He arrived on the lOih of Doc; but returned almost innncdiatcly." 
"The soldiers, othcers, privates, etc., all united iu the attack." "lie 
purchased the sugar per cwt. 

OF THE INTERROGATION POINT. 

Rule XLI. — The note of interrogation marks a ques- 
tion, and should bo placed only at the close of a com- 
plete sentence. 

Example. — " And which of you, by taking thought, can add to his 
stature, one cubit? 

* See Rule XX XI. 

t And some use the comma, as in the following, from Pollok's 
"Course of Time:" — 

" Satan raged loose, Sin had her will, and Death 
Enough. Dlood tiode upon tlie heels of blood, \ 

Revenge, in desp'rate mooil, at midnight met 
Revenge, AVar brayed to War, Deceit deceived 
Deceit, Lie cheated Lie." 
But this use of the comma should be avoided: use the semicolon. 

1 Many sentences commence with the conjunctions but, and, etc. 
See page 140 and 141. 

2 Figures should be punctuated as well as words. 

20 



234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

EuLE XLII. — When two or three questions, connected 
by conjunctions, follow one another in •succession, tliey 
may be separated from each other by a semicolon, tho 
interrogation point being placed after the last. 

Examples. — "Hath a dog money; and is it possible 

A cur can lend three thousand ducats?" 

" Say, shall we wind 

Along the stream, or walk the smiling mead; * 
Or court the forest glade, or wander wild 
Among the waving harvest ? " 

EuLE XLIII. — Sometimes questions succeed in pairs^ 
the interrogation following each pair. 

Examples. — " Be thou a spirit blest, or goblin dam'd ? 

Bringst with thee sweet airs from heav'n, or blasts from hell? 
Be thy intents wicked, or charitable?" 
" Shall we yield to the occasion, or shall we struggle against mis^ 
fortune ? Shall we sit down in despair, or rise up with determina- 
tion ? Does victory come to the indolent, or to the brave ? " 

EuLE XLIV. — The interrogation should not be used 
when it is only said a question has been asked. 

Examples. — " They asked me why I wept." 

" He inquired what road he -should take to the town." 

"And they asked him, IWhat then? Art thou Elias?'"t 

OF THE EXCLAMATION POINT. 

Rule XLY. — The exclamation point should be placed 
after words denoting surjH'ise, admiration, etc. ; it should, 
also, be used after ironical expressions, w^hen they occur 
in the form of exclamations; and, sometimes, after names 
addressed, instead of the comma. X 

Examples. — " 0, void of faith ! ^ of all bad men, the worst \ 
Renowned for wisdom, by th' abuse accursed !" 

* The interrogation may be used here with equal propriety. 

t The interrogation is properly used here, since the questions are 
really asked. 

X The student should be cautioned against the too frequent use of 
the exclamation point, Avhich,, in prose, carries an air of pedantic 
bombast. It is better, even in animated poetical passages, to use the 
exclamation sparingly. 

^ The exclamation point may occur anywhere in a sentence, even 
where no other point could be placed; but when it comes where otlier 
rules require a comma, colon, semicolon or period, such comma, colon, 
etc., must be omitted. If the exclamation point occurs in the middle 
of a sentence, the next word should not commence with a capital 
letter. 



PUNCTUATION. 235 

"Good heavens! What goblin shape is this!'* 
"0, excellent guardian of the sheep 1 — a woUl" 

OF THE PARENTIIESIS.f 

EuLE XLYI. — The parentheses may bo used some- 
times instead of commas, to include the clause that in- 
tervenes in a broken section. 

Example, — " Did nature (lavish of her care) 

From her best pattern form you, fair?" 

EuLE XLYII. — In i^oncral, parenthetical marks de- 
mand every point which would be re(][iiired if the jiaren- 
theses were omitted. 

Examples. — " You will know by experience, (which is the best look- 
ing-glass of wisdom, t) that a private life is more pleasant and happy 
than public office." 

" The harmony, 

(What could it less, when spirits immortal sing?) 
Suspended hell." 
"And was the ransom paid? It was; and paid 
(What can exalt his bounty more!) for thee." 

EuLE XLYIII. — Parentheses are often used instead 
of brackets,§ to inclose a phrase or word of explanation. 

Examples. — "The two met; and he, (Johnson,) repeated the question 
again." 

" Death-bed charities (says Bishop Sherlock) are too much like 
deatli-bed repentance." 

" Let every one exert himself (or herself) to acquire a thorough 
knowledge of English language." 

OF THE DASn. 

EuLE XLIX. — The dash should be used when a sen- 
tence is unfinished, and terminates abruptly; also, before 

* When a question is asked to which there is no reply, we usually 
employ the exclamation in place of the interrogation. 

t Be cautious about introducing too many parenthetical clauses, 
which are like wheels within wheels, and, wiien of consuloraMc 
k'ugth, interrupt the connection of the sense, besides sliowing at once 
that the writer has not the art to introduce them in tlieir proper 
places. 

X Place tlie proper points before {no( after) each parenthesis. 

§ Brackets or Crochets [ ] are falling greatly into disuse. They 
may be employed, however, to inclose a long note or paragraph of 
explanation; to precede a word that rvm^ ovrr, in a lino of poetry, and 
is placed above; and to enclose any word, figure or clause tliut u en- 
tirely separate by itiielf. 



236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

a word or phrase that forms the point of an expression ; 
and it is sometimes employed to denote an omission of 
the letters in a word. 

Examples. — " I own it is in jour favor, and I submit j but — " 
"lie said; then full before their sight 
Produced the beast, and lo! — H was white f'^ 

"He shook the fragment of his blade, 
And shouted — ' Victory.' " 

" The brightest youth in all the town, 
By far, was this same Master B — n." 

[Note. — The immoderate use of the dash is highly censurable: 
some writers use it almost constantly m the place of points that 
should, properly, be employed.] 

" The secret enemy, whose secret eye 
Stands sentinel — accuser — -judge — and spy, 
The foe — the fool — the jealous and the vain — 
The envious, who but breathe in other's pain — 
Watch every fault." 

If the above were properly punctuated, a comma would 
take the place of each dash; and if we inclose the words, 

" whose secret eye 

Stands sentinel, accuser, judge and spy," 

in parentheses, or separate them from the rest of the 
sentence by dashes, the grammatical construction would 
be more plainly apparent. 

OF OTHER MARKS USED IN WRITING, ETC. 

The hyphen (-) is used to divide words into syllables, 
and to connect compound words ; it is also employed at 
the end of a line when a word is broken, to show that 
the rest of it is at the commencement of the next line. 
A hyphen can never divide a syllable^ but should be placed 
between the syllables of a broken word, etc. 

The caret (a) is used to show that some word or 
letter has been omitted or interlined. 

The section (§) is used to divide a discourse into 
parts ; it is a4so used as a mark of reference. 

The paragraph (^) is used to mark the commence- 
ment of a new paragraph, when the division has not 
been otherwise made: the paragraioh is used sometimes 
for reference. 

The accents are (^) acute, (^) grave, and ('^) cir- 
cumflex. 



BARRETT'S 

SERIES OF GRAMMARS, 

ENGLISH, LATIN, GREEK, GERMAN, SPANISH, 
AND FRENCH; 

In one Volume, Octavo, 572 pages ; 

With a Polyglot An-angcmcnt of a pari of the Gospel of 

iSt. Matthew; and 

An International and Commercial Dictionary of the 
English^ German, Spanish, and French, 

Designed especially for the use of Families, Teachers, Clergymen, 
Business Men, and Private Learners generally. 



The above valuable work ■will be forwarded, post paid, to any 
part of the United States, on the receipt of §2.2") at the office of 
lliiri^ins, IJradley & Dayton, pablishern. No. 20 Wa.sliin^ton street, 
IJoston, Mass. Tostage stamps may bo sent for the odd change. 



RccoiuinciidationH nn<l NoticcH from the Prrs.s. 

From ike Albany Academy. 

The system adopted by Mr. Barrett, for teaching the principles of Grnm- 
mar, is, in our opinion, well calculated to promote au acquaintauco with that 
important branch of education. 

T. KOMEYN BECK, A. M., M. D., 

Secretary of the Regents of the State of New York. 
P. BULLIONS, D. D., Prof. Lang., Albany Academy. 
S. CENTER, A. M., Prin. Albany Classical School. 
A. CRITTENTON, A. M., Prin. Brooklyn Fern. Acad. . 

Extract from a Report of the Committee on Literature of the Legislature 
of the State of New York. 

The undersigned, having examined Mr. Barrett's system of pn*animnr, are 
of opinion that it is an improvement upon all methods heretofore adopted, 
niul well calculated to facilitate the acquirement of a thorough knowledge 
of the languages on which it treats. We have also h:ul the advantage of at- 
tending a public examination of his pupils, who had been instructed ujion 
this plan. Their very creditable perforuuinces aflforded the most gratifying 
and conclusive evidences, not only of the excellence of Mr. Barrett's theory, 
but of it6 cmiucDce aud unrivalled success in practice. 

LUTHER BRADISir, 

C. IL CAR ROLL. 
PETER (iANSEVOORT, 

D. H. BISSELL. 
UENRY F. JONES. 



From the Boston Carpet Bag. 
Barrett's Grammar. — Reader, do not turn from this paragraph until yoa 
have read it. We wish to ask your attention to a book reci-ntly iasued by- 
Solomon Biirrett, which is calculated to overcome jitid simplify a tbonsand 
philological difficulties that have hitherto stood in the way of your children's 
progress. Their young heads and hearts have ached — as, doubtless, your 
own have — in conning over the complicated, and ot'ttimes hopelessly unintel- 
ligible formulas, old and new systems of grammar, and any new step taken 
toward making the path of learning easier should be hailed as a blessi\ig, 
and he who takes that step a benefactor. The grammar comes to us en- 
dorsed by names of the highest eminence, and we freely add our hutnblc tes- 
timonial to theirs, commending it as the simplest, and, consequently, tho 
best system of grammar we have ever seen. It has not yet got into tho 
schools, but we wish it might get there. 

From Professor Tenny^ of Vermont University. 

Having spent a large fraction of life in pouring over lexicons, grammar?, 
and other articles of etymological compost for fostering the growth of mind, 
we may assume to understand, to some extent, the merit of this class of 
■works. All grammars have been constructed on false principles, or ratter 
without reference to principle. Grammarians seem to have forgotten tho 
evident fact, that language was a perfect thing antecedent to book-uiaking, 
— A\hich, "having no law," was "a law unto itself," and as effective a me- 
dium of thought in the hands of Noah, as in the hands of a Gesenius, a 
Buttman, or a Bullion. Their office was to explain, not to make language — 
not to dig artificial channels, but to survey that which mind hath worn, dur- 
ing centuries, for its own utterance. Mr. Barrett seems to have { erceivcd 
this, and adopts a diS'erent course. Under his guidance the pupil forms 
his own grammar — having no rules except those lohi eh the imnudable and icell- 
defined relations of words and the universal laics of all lavyiiage impose upon 
hivii. His system is simplicity itself, and we are certain that it will save to 
all who use it, (as it might have done for us, had it appeared a few years 
sooner,) months of time which must otherwise be wasted in most irksome 
drudgery to no purpose. 

Mr. Barrett's method of analyzing the Greek and Latin verbs, is of tho 
highest value. With Thiersch's Tables and this work before him, a student 
must be stolid indeed, who can not master the Greek in a few months. This 
is no "Language without a Master," running wild among harmless children, 
—in short, no humbug : but a thing which we never expected to see — a new 
grammar which we could in conscience commend, 

BENJAMIN J. TENNY, A. M., 

of the University of Yermonfe. 

From the Boston Olive Branch. 

The author of these principles of grammar, has at length given to the 
public what it has long needed, a thorough simplified form of grammatical 
study, commended by teachers, classical students, and men who would not 
lightly, or without a thorough understanding, give their signatures to a sim- 
ply new thing. There are in the 'book nearly six hundred pages, <ind we 
do not hesitate to say that a student, by careful study, can acquire within the 
covers of this grammar, an essential knowledge of English, Greek, and 
Latin. It does not profess, like some modern improvements, that the lan- 
guages can be learned in five lessons, or eight lessons, or twenty lessons, but 
it does what they fail to do; it gives sound and permanent instruction, im- 
proving the memory, sharpening the reflective faculties, and by even a 
thorough reading only, enables one to acquire a more correct knowledge 
of Syntax, Etymology, and Prosody, than years of study by tho old method. 

Wo commend this work to heads of families, most especially to those 



whose children study at home; for both parents and children will becoino 
purer spt-akers aiul writers, from the use «)t so excellent a buuk of instruc- 
tion. IJesides these advantages, oliii-r lan<;uagea can bo learned ^\ilh a 
facility that will seem atilunisbing to iho student. 

From the Oliio Statesman. 

We wish briefly to call the attention of our readers to this important work, 
a copy of wliicli has just been shown us. It is a capital thing, and without 
entering ^it this time upon any detailed description of it, we would merely 
say that it has received the approval of some of tbo greatest scholars ia 
America, including the entire faculties of several colleges, among whom aro 
Dr. Nott, Alonzo Potter, Jared Sparks, Henry \\. Longfellow, etc. liayard 
Taylor and many other distinguished literary men have also added their 
names, in commendation of the book. Wo see also among the list;s of sub- 
scribers, the names of John Van Burcn, J, C. Calhoun, Wiulield Scott, Dan- 
iel Webster, Millard Fillmore, and other notables. 

A Dictionary has been addeil to the last edition, containing all words of 
commercial iniportance or ordinary use in the four iui2Jortant modera 
tongues, English, German, Spanish, and French. 

From the Cincinnati Commercial. 

The author has accomplished something considerable, in making order 
amid the discord of the co'ifusion of tongues. Jle has simplified the gram- 
mars of the languages named in the title page quoted above, and lia.s 
brought together the correspondencies of the language with marvellous in- 
genuity, and has Ci)nstructeil a system which is the key to the various lan- 
guages, lie has condensed and made available the grammar of grammars. 

From the Cincinnati Enquirer. 

This is one of the finest works of the day. Professor Barrett stands be- 
fore the public in the light of a true philanthropist, for he has labored most 
earnestly to divest the study of language of innumerable technicalities, bor- 
rowed from the rigid rhetorical schools of classic antiquitj'. Avoiding the 
extremes of the ultra schoolmen, he has not descended on the other hand 
into the vulgar sphere of those elementary writers who have deprived the 
Study of language of its dignity, without investing it with the characteristics 
of plainness and common sense. liis object is to point out ''the cnuxtrurtire 
relation which exists among the words in a sentence, and by virtue of which 
they become parts of speech, acquainting the student by a single effort, not 
only with the general principles of language, but leading him, by graceful 
and measured steps, into the characteristic idioms of each language. 

From the Boston Cultivator. 

Within the compass of about six hundred pages, the author presents the 
principles of six languages — the English, Latin. Greek, German, Spanish, 
and French. Instead of requiring the stiident, when ho commences the 
study of grammar, to learn scores of definitions and rules, as many philolo- 
gists do, Mr. Barrett's plan is to have the v<;cholar learn them only so fast as 
ho is tnught thoir application. He contends that every one of the eighty 
thousand words in the English language, when arranged in a sentence, will 
sustain one of the twenty-one relations, exhibited in a taMe prepared to nid the 
learner in determining the different parts of speech. The design of the au- 
thor ia to simplify the study of the languages, and thus facilitate their ac- 
quisition ; and he has received the most flattering testimonials from thn^Q 
best qualified to judge respecting the work, that he baa been highly success- 
ful in the accomplishment of his object. 



It 



From the Democratic Union, Watertoitm, iV. Y. 

This work is the result of yours of most patient toil and research, an^ 
mauilests igore learning and real ability than any or all the other grammar* 
yet printed. Fur instance, the idea tliat every letter in a Latin word, after 
the root, has a positive and delinito meaning, forming an iRdieation to all 
the cases, moods, or tenses into which the word can be wronght, is certainly 
a novel one, and a suggestion that has doulotless caused many a learned 
professor to prick up his ears in astonishment. 

After an unusually thorough examination, we pronounce Earreft's Gram- 
mar the most complete work of the kind ever presented to the world, and a 
work that should be in the hands of every student and scholar in the coun- 
try. And not only this, but it should be owned and stndied by all those 
who have once been scholars, but who are now immersed, no matter how 
deeply, in the every-day affairs of life. We are not alone in our warm en- 
comiums. The work is recommended in the most flattering manner by such 
men as Beck, Bullions, Johnson, Terry, and hundreds of others. 

From the Northern Sentinel. 

The author has given us the key to the grammar of all langnages that 
have ever been, or ever will be, by basing his work upon "the immutable 
principle of the relation which one word sustains to another;" and that all 
beyond this, in learning a language, is a mere effort at remembering the 
meaning of the words holding these relations. It is a philosophy upon 
which no quarrel can be successfully waged ; but whether Professor Barrett 
has succeeded in the happiest method of treating the subjeet, we will leave 
professional philologists to decide. Grammarians are generally an opin- 
ionated set of i>eople — (not entirely alone in this peculiarit}') — but Prof. 
Barrett has the merit of not asking us to believe any thing he says in his 
book, without a demonstration of its truth. The book is an excellent one to 
aid the student in his own study of the science — furnishing him with a key 
by means of which he may enter the wide domain of philology. If he do 
not prosecute bis work after entering. Prof. Barrett will not be to blame, for 
he furnishes in his own person an example of long, and patieat, and we hope 
profitable devotion to the science. 

From ike St. Lawrence Republican. 

Solomon Barrett has given many years of study and unremitting labor in 
getting up a good, intelligent, comprehensive grsimmar. It is a book that 
should be always at hand in our odd leisure moments; for open it where 
we will, we are sure to find something new, instructive, and engaging. 

From the Christian Amlassador, AuhMm, N. Y. 
Amid the diversities of grammars which have been published, none have 
yet been found suited to the public mind, until Mr. Barrett's appeared. It 
is a work calculated for the common people as well as for scholars. Any 
person, by close application a short time each day, may become conversant 
in a good degree, at least, with any of the above mentioned languages. Mr. 
Barrett starts with the axiom -that "one word belongs to another." True, 
this is nothing new. But we have never seen it practically applied in the 
formation of a grammar, until it appeared in Mr. Barrett's, flis table for 
the conjugation of the Greek verb, for briefness and conciseness of manner, 
is excellent. 

From the Boston Daily Times. 

The author of these elementary principles of language has succeeded in 
clearing the science of grammar and language of its obstruse mysteries, and 
presenting it to the learner in a new and attractive dress. We consider it 
a work of great practical utility and hope it may continue to receive a lib- 
eral support. 



PRINCIPLES 



OF THE 



ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX 



OF THE 



LATIN LANGUAGE: 

PPON THE ANALYTIC PLAN OF ROOT AND ADJUNCFO. 



INTRODUCTION. 

All will agree that he is a good Latin and Greek 
Bcholar, who has actjuired a knowledge of the roots of all 
the declinable words in those languages, together with the 
adjuncts, which can be associated with each radical, and 
understands their import and use, in giving to the noun, 
pronoun and adjective, gender, number, and case — and to 
the verb, voice, number, person, conjugation, mood, and 
♦ense — and has acquired a knowledge of the indeclinable 
parts of speech, with the ability to give every word its true 
syntax, or relation to the other word or words in the sen- 
tence, by which it is, in reality, " constituted a part of 
speech." 

In the following pages, we have endeavored to make 
such a disposition of some sixty lines of Virgil's iEneid, 
(and the second chapter of Matthew, from the Greek Test- 
ament,) as will combine and iUustrate all these principles 
under one general vieiv, and will guide the learner to a 
knowledge so desirable. 

The ingenious student will find the root (which is some- 
times a more remote one than is found in the text), placed 
in the first column ; the definition in the second ; while 
the syntax (showing by what word it is governed, or with 
what it agrees), occupies the third column ; leaving the 
terminations, pointing out the etymology, to close the line 
8 



86 INTRODUCTION. 

The root and termination of every declinable word, in the 
text, are clearl\' pointed out, by the 'prefixes and tiiffixei 
being printed in Italics^ while the root appears in Kox^ian 
Small Capitals.. 

Thus we have endeavored to make the rough path easy 
and inviting to the beginner, at the commencement of his 
journey; and to invite the man of letters again to revisit 
those literary fields, and to place in his hands something 
that shall recall those juvenile days in classic hall, free 
from religious intolerance, political villainy, and a cold and 
heartless world, and to fix the principles of this noble lan- 
guage indelibly uiion the mind. 

The plan of Latin forms, originated by Mr. Grosvenor, 
is a very happy method of disposing of the tedious and pro- 
lix declensions and conjugations, which hang like an incu- 
bus over the student, and no doubt will be welcomed by the 
learner. This Table was published by Mr. Grosvenor, at 
Salem, Massachusetts, in the year 1831. Parts of the Ta 
ble have been copied into other grammars. Clinton said, 
that he who made two blades of grass grow where only 
one was known to grow before, deserved the everlasting 
gratitude of his country. And if this be true, surely he 
who has condensed to a single page the long and cumbrous 
conjugations, of some sixt}'- or eighty pages, ought to have 
his memory perpetuated by a monument more lasting than 
brass or marble — he should live in the hearts of all friends 
of improvement in literature. We have, in this work, 
arranged this Table in an improved form, and pre- 
pared an original Table of the Greek Verb, which will be 
found in their proper places. From this arrangement, ihe 
student will be able to commence parsing at once, and will 
find on the same page — yea, i?i the same line — a Virgil, a 
Dictionary, and a Grammar, which will present to the 
eye of the scholar, all that Virgil, Cicero, Tacitus, or De- 
mosthenes could inform him about their mother tongue. 

That the person into wljose hands this work may faL, 
may, by a careful and critical examination of the princi- 
ples here laid down, (which are as immutable as the 
language itself, on which they are grounded,) speedily 
find himself able to read, write, and speak the language, 
with the facility and accuracy of a native Roman, or Gre 
cian, is the sincere wish of THE AUTHOR. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



A BRIEF VIEW OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH 

The Parts of Speech in Latin are eight: 

1. Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, and Verb — declined* 

2. Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection— 
4ndecli7ied. 

DEFINITIONS 

1. A Noun is the name of a person, place, or thing: as, 
vir. 

2. An Adjective expresses the quality or extension of 
the noun : as, vir bonus. 

3. A Pronoun stands for the noun: as, vir qui. 

4. A Verb expresses the existence or actioii of the noun . 
as, vir est. 

5. An Adverb expresses the manner in which the noun 
exists : as, vir ibi est. 

6. A Preposition governs some case of a noun: as, ad 
Yirum. 

7. A Conjunction connects words or sentences, as, nrma 
que virum. 

8. An Interjection is a virtual sentence: as, heu! 

REMARKS 

"Words are called parts of speech, because they are all re- 
ferred, either directly or indirectly, lo the noun ; and, as 
their existence as a part of speech depends on this relation 
to the noun, so the case of a noun is merely that correlative 
relation which the noun and pronoun have to other words 

• A declinaV)le word contains n root, and gcnwally one termination t 

as, ARM-a, CAV-U. 




S8 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

in the sentence; and alihoiifrh Latin nouns and pronouns 
are gcrierall}^ declinable, yet their case depends enlirtly 
u])on their syntax: as, nominati}\e^ arm-a; sunt; cocative, 
O arin-a; accusathe, cano arm-a. 

GENDER. 

The Genders are three: — Masculine, denoting males; 
feminine, denoting females ; and all others are neuter ; but 
in Latin, nouns are said to be in a certain gender by grain.' 
matic construction — that is, the gender is determined by 
the adjective annexed: as, masculine, ws; feminine, 2/ 
neuter, um. 

NUMBER. 

The Singular Number denotes but one ; the Plural more 
than one. 

CASE. 

The Cases are six: — Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Ac- 
cusative, Vocative, and Ablative. 

DECLENSION. 

Declension is the mode of changing the termination of 
nouns. There are five declensions, called first, second, 
third, fourth, fifth, distinguished- from each other by the 
termination of the genitive singular: as, first, cb ; second, 
i; third, is ; fourth, its; fifth, ei. 

(ji^R The Declension and Gender, on the Chart, are placed aftei 
every noun, adjective and pronoun; thus, (1/.)) fi^'st declension, 
feminine gender; (2 n.p.), second declension, neuter, piural; &cc, 

RULES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. 

L The Nominative precedes the verb : as, penn-a est ; 
arm-a sunt. 

2. The Genitive follows a noun, adjective, or verb; as, 
annus inundi, 

3. The Dative is governed by verbs and adjectives: as, 
similis, pe7m-cB. 

4. The Accusative is governed by transitive verbs and 
prepositions, th^ "time hoiv lo?ig,^^ and the "place to 
whizJi'^ ; and is placed before the infinitive; as, tenec 
^emi 2-'>?i, &c. 



LATIN GILABIMAR. 



89 



5. The Vocative is construed witli O : as, O Catalin-a. 

6. The Ablative is <rovcrried by the ])rcpositions hy, 
with, in, (^'c, and is used to express the " time ?^.7/e/i," the 

' place z^/i^re," the " cau'se, manner, means, and instru- 
ment," and is put absolute with a participle. 

TABLE OF DECLENSION. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

Singular, Plural. 

N. G. D. Ac. V. M. N. G, D. Ac. V. Ab. 
Root, f. — a, ae,3e,am, fl,* a. a, arum, is, as, ae, Lsf 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

Root, ra.&f. — iis,cr, i, o,um,e,er, o. i, oriim, is, os, i, is. 

Root, n. — mn, i, o, uiu, um, o. a,|orum, is, a,:}: a,|i3. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

-, is, i,cni,» — , e,i. es, um,ibns,es, es.ibus 



Root, 
Root, 



Root, 
Root, 



Root, 



-m.&f.— 
n. — 



IS, 



e,i. a. 



iimijibus, a, a,ibus 



fourth DECLENSION. 



-m. 



— us, (ls,ui, um, us, u. u.s,uum.ibns,§us,us,ibns§ 
n. — u, u, u, u, u, u. ua,uuiu,ibus,§ua,ua,ibus§ 

FIFTH DECLENSION. 

f. — es, ei,ci, em, es, e. es,erum,ebus,es,es,ebus. 



Exceptions in gender will bo learned from the Lexicon ; 
but the student should know nothing of them until he is 
familiar with the reirular forms. 



FORM OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 



Gender. 

Noiu. 

Gen. 

Gender. 

N'oiu. 

Gen. 



71. 


m. 


a, 


o. 


atis. 


onis. 



n 
c. 

ciis. 



n. 


m. 


7?. 


n. 


7n^n 


m. 


I. 


n. 


ar. 


ur. 


er. 


or. 


hs. 


1 ms. 


ans. 


uns 


ens. 


orib 



f. 7n. 


f 

J • 


m. 


n. 


71. 


71. 


f- 


es, 


IS, 


0, 


us. 


rpr 


ut, 


X, 


is, ctis, Its. 


IS. 


onis. 


oris. 


a)ns. 


ItlS. 


C B. 



/ 

as. 
aii.« 



Pr.Part. 
ns, 
mis. 



• The Vocative is always like the nominative, except in the mascu- 
line and feminine sin<^ular, of ths second doclensi'^n. 

t In a few words, abus. 

% All Naders have the Nominative, A:cusalive, and Vocative, a/i/c«, 
endiniT always in a, in the plural. 

§ In u few words, ubiu 




90 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



Nam. 


Gei. 


Dai. 


Ace. 


Fenn-a, 
Pen is. 


])er.r.-<E, 

pen of. 


penn-ffi, 
pe. to. 


penn-am, 
\ien hold. 



DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

FIRST DECLENSION — FEMININE. 

Voc. Ml. 

penn-ff, penn-4. 

pen 0, pen with. 

Penn-«, penn-aru7n,penn-w, penn-as, penn-<E, penn-ts. 

Pens are^ pens of, pens to, pens hold, pens 0, pens with* 

SECOND DECLENSION — MASCULINE. 

Domin-tts domin-i. domin-o, domin-z//M. domin-e, domin-o. 

Lord w, lord of, lord to, lord see, lord 0, lord with. 

Domin-i, domin-orMm,domin.i5, domin-os, domin-t, domin-i«. 

Lords are^ lords of, lords to, lords see, lords 0, lords with. 



SECOND DECLENSION — NEUTER. 



Fat-wwi, fat % 
Fate 25, fate of, 



fat-o, fat-w;n, 

fate /or, fate hold, 



Fat-a, fat-orM/M, fat-ts, fat-a, 
Fates are, fates o/, fates to, fates se^, 



fat-«;n, 
fate 0, 

fat-a, 
fate 0, 



fat-o. 
fate with. 

fat- to. 
fate with. 



THIRD DECLENSION — MASCULINE. 



Serm-0, serni-onis, serm-ont, serm-oneTn, serm-o, serm-on«. 
Word is, word o/, word /o. word s/jea/c, word 0, word w; if A - 

Serm-ones, serm-on?^m,serm-OMi6zis,serm-ones, serm-ones, serm-oni6?/« 
Words are, words oy, words fo, words Sj^ea/s, words 0, words a? i/ A. 



THIRD DECLENSION — NEUTER. 



Opus, oper-ts, 
Work is, work of, 

Oper-a, oper-wm, 
Works are, works of, 



op§r-i, opus, opus, oper-g. 

work to, work do, work 0, work with. 

oper-i6?«, oper-a, oper-a, oper-iius. 

works to, works (io, works 0, works with* 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



Singular. 

2 M. bon-us, i, o, um, e, o. 

1 F bon-a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

2 N bon-um, i o, mn, ijm, o. 



Plural. 



orurn 
arum 
orum 



IS, 
IS, 



OS, 

as, 



IS, a, 



1. 


18. 


ae 


is. 


a. 


is 



For the Other declensions, the student is referred to the Table of 
Def^lensions and the Ana'. /sis of Virgil's .^nead, where he will find 
»hree hundred j aridig'ns. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 91 

PRONOUNS. 

In Latin there aro oiirhtoon simple Pronouns, the prin- 
c'pal of vvliich are declined below. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

First Person — /. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. G. D. Jc. V. M. N. G. D. Ac. V. Jb. 

ego. mei, niih\, me, — , me. nos, nostrOmornostri, nobis, nos, — , nobis. 

Second Person — Thou. 
tu, tui, tlbi, tej tu, te. vos, vestrfimorvestri, vobis, vos,vos,vobis 

Third Person — Himself, Herself^ Itself. 
— , sui, sibi, S8, — , se. — , sni, sibi, se, — , se. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 
Third Person— T/h's, That, These, Those. 

N. G. D. Ac. V. M. N. G. D. Ac. V. Ah. 

M. bic, biijns, buic, bnnc, — , boc. bi, bnnim, bis, bos, — , bis. 

F. bcuc, buJMs, buic, lianc, — , b.ic. luc, bariini, bis, bas, — , bis. 

N. boc, buj lis, buic, boc, — , boc. bu^cjioium, bis, hacc, — , bis. 

jV. ille, iilius, illi, ilium, — , illo. illi, illorum, illis, illos, — , illis. 
F. ilhi. illiiis, illi, illiun, — , ilhi.^ ilbc.illiinmi, illis. ilhis, — , illis. 
N. illuil, iilius, illi, illucl, — , illo. ilia, illorum, illis, ilia, — , illis. 

M. is, c.jns, ei", cum, — , eo. ii, corum.iisorcis.cos, — .iisorcis. 
F. ea, ejus, eV, cam, — , ea. caj, eartMii,iisorcis,cas, ,ii>o/cis. 
N. id, ejus, ei, id, — , eo. ea, eorum,iiso/eis,ea, — ,iis>ore:s. 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS— ir/to, Which, That, As. 

Jl/. qui, culus,cui, qucm, — , quo. (|ui,quorum,queis,*(|uos, — ,queis • 
F. quaj.cujus, cui, quam. — , (|ua. (jMa',(|uarum.(iueis,*quas, — ,(]Mcis * 
N. (juodjCujus, cui, (juoil, — , ([uo. (juas, quorum .([ucis, 'qua;, — , quels.* 

The other pronouns are, isfe, qiiis, idem, istic^ aliquiSy 
siquis jnisnam, qviainque, qui)ia)n, 6cc, 

Isle is declined lilce ille. 

Qnis is declined like qui, except that it has qjiid for qvon. 

Idem is declined by audin^r don to the pronoun is 

Isfic is declined like /lic, but is wanting in some of its 
cases. 

Aliquis, siquis, »Src.; are declined like quis. 

* IMoic IVe pieiiily qiiibia. 



92 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Quisnam and quinam, by adding nam and quis to qui. 

Quicunque, by adding cunqiie to (/wz. 

Meus, tuus, stius, noster, and vester, may be called ad- 
jectives. 

Nostras, vestras, and cujas, are declined like adjectives 
of one termination in the third declension: sls^ ?wstra-s, 
atiSf &c. 



VERBS. 

A Verb expresses the existence or action of its nomina- 
tive ; and as all beings are represented, in every language, 
as existing, or acting on another object, or as being acted 
upon by an agent, there are but three kinds of verbs: — 
intransitive, transitive, and passive. 

The Intransitive Verb is defined by the syllables com- 
posing the word — in, not; trans, {a traho,) a preposition, 
signifying over; it, (ind.', pres., 3d, sing., a eo,) goes; ive, 
may: and means one whose action or existence 7?iay not 
go over to an object: as, John stands; David ruTis. 

The Transitive Verb is one whose action {it) goes 
{trans) over to an object: as, John splits wood. 

The Passive {a patior, to suffer) Verb is one represent- 
ing action upon a passive nominative: as, Wyatt was 
hung by the sheriff; (that is, he was hung against his 
own will ;) which is only another form of the transitive. 
The same action may be represented in either form of the 
verb; as (transitive), the sheriff hmg Wyatt; (passive) 
Wyatt was hung by the sheriff. 

In Latin, o, i m, s, or t. final, is the sign of an active 
verb : as, aman;u-5 ; and r of the passive : as, amamu-r, 

' MOOD. 

The Mood expresses the manner in which the nomina 
tive exists, acts, or is acted upon. There are four Moods: 
he Indicative, the Subjunctive, the Imperative, and the 
Tnfinitive. 

The Ir^DicATivE simply declares that its nommative ex- 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 93 

ists, acts, or is acted upon : as, John stands ; .Tosopli 
writes a letter; the letter is written. Tlie signs of this 
mood are, in the imperfect tense, ha; in the perfect, i; in 
the ])lu perfect, era; in the future, b. 

The Subjunctive expresses that the action or existence 
is possible or contingent: as, it may rain ; Jolin can ivrite ; 
i( John weep. The signs of this mood are: in the imper- 
fect, re; in the perfect, eri ; in the pluperfect, isse ; in the 
future, er. 

The Imperative is used to command, entreat, or permit 
some person to exist or act: as, shut the door; give us our 
daily bread. The signs of this mood are: a, e, i, tOy te^ 

ite, &c. 

The Infinitive expresses unlimited action: as, AMA-re, 
to love. The sign of this mood is : re or isse — it is render- 
ed to, or to have. 

TENSE. 

Tense is the division of time into present, past, and 
future. 

The Present Tense represents present time: as, I love. 

The Imperfect represents past time: as, I loved. 

The Perfect represents an action as now completed : as, 
/ have loved. 

The Pluperfect represents the action as formerly done: 
as, / had loved. 

The Future represents future action: as, I shall love. 
MOODS AND TENSE. 

IKBICATIVE. SUBJUNCTITE. 

rrJmp. Per.Plu.Fut. Pr. Imp. Per. Plu. Fut. 

— , ba, i, era, bi. a,e, re, eri, isse, er. 

do, (iid, have, had, will, may, might, may have, might have, bhall have. 

PERSON AND NUMBER. 

EIXGULAR. PLURAL. 

Ut Per 2d Per. 3d Per. Ut Per. 2d Per. Zd Per, 
Active. c.i.ni^ s, (isti t. raus, tis, nt, (ere). 

I, ' 
Passive, r, 



thou, 


he. 


we. 


you, 


they 


ris, re, 


tur. 


mur, 


mini, 


mur. 



J 



94 PRINCirLES OF 



CO o « 

K p^ '-'*-. ^ w *j *j +j '^ •;:: -^^ 'c: '-S 

g ^^^^^-.^ 

»t3 « « « k« 1-1 

?i 

e 

o 



1^ 



tri "" "^ •'" "" "^ 



0'C5 _ _ _ 

513 ^ . • ^ - ^ -, 




e 






Ci5 

OW e fcC »:! .g o ^ 2 -^ ■< -t; 






•o 






o 






?» 






> > > 



II ff >cr I I i y^ "^^ I J" 



e CO .^,^ Mil Rxu... W^SiXU'j^ 






ioia>333 Ku 103 

^ ^ > > > 






I i I I J 



00000 oooco o 00 00 

00000 oooco o op 00 

,-.^(><c}^ 1-<»-l(^^c^c^^ ^ T-^<N coco 



>- H o u 

.0 • . <^ . • . e © 

o5"^ati oE-^-^ti o ©s- ^■ti 



LATIN GRAMMAR 



95 









m 






*^ 










U "» 






• 








ct 




<-• 4J 


4-1 










v. • • -- 















s 


3 3 

a a 


c 




3 3 
«-• >-> 




3 


3 
-J 
B 


'^ — w — 

._> •- f <■'' 

c zj v. .ii 

._: -J [/. _ 




«2 




.0 

£ •- 








1-3 

< 
as 




"c ■ = 

's's 




tfi 


■£ '3 




'c 


'c 















5 


;i^ 




~ 
5 '-^ 


■£"a 




■g 


"s 


— 3 ■■'• 3 

x c— ci 


d 




© '3 




^ 


P4 






u 


w 










fc^ - c t*r 

"^ c« 3 


ot" 












1-H 







si 

3 :i 






iT 


tT 


„ £ 3 3 
2 3 3 


3 








« 
o 

1 






3 3 


1 J 


c: 


3 3 

£ £ 




3 
£ 


3 
_£. 


P at -ji .£ 












CO 




.^ 
(/> '3 

V Vm 


w 

■^ 


1h b 

3 3 






_ — 4> >/3 





3 .. 


fc- * 




1^ 
< 
1^ 


(N 


x-\^-s 


r;; 


</) 


^~\^-s 








0.2 (« « 
^ - « !« 

^ 
S £ 5 
J 2 !^.-g 


.sT 






1 

1 






S 


• 





cJ 

£2 

a3 '^ 




i 






"j-i 




•d 



o 


*e 






^ 








Lh *« 


^0 


^ 


»^ 


3 





»4 


►^ 






•~-i 


6 iT 


\^-v-^^ 


•-^.-w- 


«« 






u 


X •— ID '— 





J^ 




1 










^ 


^ 






1 

W 
O 

»— < 

o 


CO 


tn 

To 

c 
W 


«3 ;i 


-5 


Id 


— Q 

00 3 


2 





•0 
,fcr) 




a -0 


1- 














^^^^^^ 




i>Cn 


Vj 


s 


'i 


s s 


"3 


l*S 




w 








^ 


'^tT'^ 


^-^ QJ 
















> 


e 






cT 


V) 


<n ^ 


^ 
















^ 


'tS 






Xt 


3 •>-< 


^ Cj 




J" r 


fcr _: t n _: 


l':i 






< 
Pi 


o 






c^ cue/: cu 






C3 1 

rf CO 

c c 




7 a, 
















<^-v-^/ 


v^-v^' 






ci d 


cT 




3. J* 














^ 


^ 


^ 


„ 




r>y ^ 










IB. 
















, 


Tj 




'-".sT 


l-< 


►1 


1— 




^ 


^ 


>^ •% 


.^ 




>4 




C 
















*■" 


i« 


l-H l-« 


iFM 








O 




^ 


•N "N 


•^ 


'^ 


-^ 








•\ '^ 


»^ 










W 




>-. (U 


1 


1 


1 




»r 


iiT 


1 1 


1 




• 




g 




^ 


•N »^ 


, 


^ 




















8 


c 




KU «U 


>^H 


>-N 


a^ 




,^ 


•v 


#H *^ 


*iV 




9 




o 












KU 




« 


<y 


»^ :-^ 


)»4 




^ 






,^ 


^ »> 


^ 


^ 


^ 


















O 


t— 1 




WJ 'rf 


irt 


« 


lOtJ 




a.^ 


«s 


■s *\ 


»ik 




• 














>-*'V-«w-' 




^ 


rt 


k4 «3 


K4 




m 
















! 1 


1 


1 


1 


\ 


1 


1 ! 


1 


\ 




<*a 






4-> 4-> 


*j 


4-> 


■^ 




■•-> 


-t^ 


<-> «j 


4J 




^0 




% 






o o 


a 
























Q 








o o 
































K 






»M L^ 


w> 


Vh 


)-■ 




Im 


u 


U IM 


(I 




« 












r3 


'TS 


4.> 




*-> 


'/J 


^3 '<3 


TS 




t? 












CO 


CO 


^^ 








CO CO 


CO 




r4 




^ 










l.^ 








u 








3 






, 




o 





















E^ 






(0 f^ 

^1 


CI- 


Q. 

3 


3 






E 




i 










. 



6 



THE PniNCirLEl? OF 

*^ T* *^ r^ r^ r^ 'r\ "^ 

O > ^ . C S -^ !/> "^ f5 



o (-: *i =■ «? « 



c v=.S w--' ^ c P -ci « 7: « 

.-■2 «i ^ -^ o >-> S =.,= 2 =« te o 'S o 

*-^ gS-^-^S ^^05 = 5 « © ^ ta 

lo pg-35-^ S.ori^'^St^«.2 

' "- ' fcf^ ^ cj .2 ;r f= -'r; ® 'O c .- 3 

2 • I 1^-5 §.-2 ra =^^2^ § » 3 o 

r=^ "^ o fe > ° S o.^*^ 5^*^ s fcn -^ « g 



^3§^ f=< S.2oS!=S«'^®a5^ tog's- 

:j |.iis-.i.s^-s|- - p- I s 

*J 'iJ ©..©eoc — ,' . '-' rr-> +J »-» ** eg 1 

o -^ ^ — '"'='z;-acfi5-, ® ©©o 3 © 

5> tJ5 .J; c-l e-^0■~' tn^„2o-.> +3 •«->-.0 &• 

I s ~ i' iJ^e Sl'^ltfa - -"gS = S 



pl ^55-^ 1^-.= 0J2 S ©-^='2 



^ '- o < ^ .^^ *" © ^ c o ^ ^-^ ^-^ „; *" 

-c ©-^Soo-r-^e-^.^ S§§?2 «" 
HH >^^, „^©.2 © cefio>--3 «? 






W 



S 2 2 o s 2 ^c^ 2-^.2 S S^ ^ © S > *e £.'^- o 



^ ^ -1^2^ o S 2.1^.2 p S S 2. 
f^ c > s c "» c ^ — ^ --' "»5 -^ -^ 






S©.ii i=— ©55 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



o a 
o 



I S 

"^ s 
c •<» 

nJ g 

I ^ 

C ic 

tJ ^ 

^ O 

J- -3 

o -■ 

c 

s to 



a> w be 

•5 c 2 

— c C 
o o S 

5 itJ 

c o 
.- a> >■ 

s ^ 

'- t" ^' 
.2 ?^J3 



o 



© 



C " C 
R >< O 



-a -3 ■> 
c c3 ;: . 



< 



c 

03 
J- -3 



t'l 

15 « 



r3 

C 

o 
a 

</) 



o 






O 03 



53 «'.■ Si 



o 

■)-• w 

eo = rt O ^ 
G 0) o 23 



-3 ci c w 



03 



c 

O 



;: c: « r 
{!■ r- ■- « 



9 ^ 
c5 ^ 2 



rt ^ H ■= - J5 

tc 7I r ^ "^ ^ 
- 5 c "^ -S --3 

o = _ 73 -- c ^ 
— ? " .*f =: '-^ 3 

® -= a" J? 0) = 



<u 






E ©, 






&5 



o 5 



3 e3 w > ^ O 3 



" s '^ 



_ - o •- 



^ ^ - o •- 



O 3 ■■« 

^- <-H C_ ^ ff w -- > 



o 



© 

a 
<^ 

r3 

c 

o 



r • ^ 

^ ^. • 

^ ^ o 
rs c "c: 

y o 03 

!::< '^ to 






fa 

O 

o 



H :; ^ 

§1 

o 8 



a 

d 

tu 

3 



■J t^ 

• ^ Si 



5 <o 



> -^ 



si- 

9 d 



97 



c 2 



'1% 



<^ <S <^ <r2. -^S 



in 



»r 3 

"V >-, "7 r2 



^ o 
o 






i-* 



irt © 



rt jS 



w O 



ICO -g 



.rt-3 



c > 



o 



an 

© 
<i)-] <^^ <^^ 



52 © 
£ ^ 



3 © 

£ i? 

> "~* 

E t 



5 © 

E js 
E ? 



<i ^i 



-2 I O 



■""2 ^ -3 ••:• 2 
P P -. . 






•" -3 



<S> ^. 



-- 3 
"w O 






1-^ 

rt-3 
e © 



> 



> — 



-3 irt 





C > 



3 
~ O 



E 2 



<^ <i^ <iS <s, <;^ 



E P 



"H c I— T 



• 


• > 


u ^ 


c 


^-^ 


2 "^ 






• 


, 


-^^ 


> -2 


> 


_c 


'J 


rt 


•^-3 


^-3 


■rt 


it 


£ 5 


E g 


£ ^ 


P 


© 


<^^ 


<,2 


^rS, 


< 





g. 


^ 


3" 


^• 




5 


^ 


•»^ 


^ 




►^ 


(i. 


a. 


^ 





98 



'THE rRINClI'LES OF 





' .' .i' tr 




^'- 












i 




ti s* = - ^- 
















s'^S 




^"5 i ti -i o 




n © 












tJ'^ 




C3 ei -^ > 5t3 


^ -^ « 


> S o 




S 








2 g 




' S ,rt = 'rt ^ > 


< s • 


^ _ _o 




9 S 








<..l 




<^ 




4 o 












wo ♦? "^ *? ^ 


w o 






£ 'S 










•^ >» ^ 1- (33 


en > 


'n © 








^ 


Co 






• £ ,<i f^ ,rt o 




















4^ <;^ <i1 2 








^-N 




2 ®r 


CO 






Mood. 
Am -e -rans, 
love may we, 
Am-a-re -mus, 
love should vre, 
Am-av-eri-mus, 

; may have we 
loved, 


^ o 


© 

© nj 
> ^ 

ICO -3 

£ > 




©" 

o 




1 




■CO o 


'A 


i Tc o 


• 


4-> 

© © 

w3 © 


'tt 


C3 
© 

£^ 






O 
1 


^'2 


© 


o 


<>i 


O 


©J 

!f. O 






1 

O 

c 




• - © © 

© ® .1:5 
J J — '^ "^ 


"a 

a. 


4^ 
© 


<4) 


© 
> 






> 

H 
< 


S «) c; •-. p • p 


^Tl "^ 


> 72 


►-1 






© -^ 




p. 


^ • £ ,; ^ ^.g 


«o ti (K 

< 2 

O 


ICO _-j 

£ ^ 
o 




^0 

c .=: 




tn O 

M 




^ © 

(A 

r" ©" 




rj K O „ O 


•^ ■•-» 














•4-J 




tfi'^-S o-^ '^■B 

t^ -^ -n > 


■T © 

tn -3 


en 

I- > 

>© 5i ». 




CO 




ft. 


i 


o 




• S 8 .^ :7^ ?i - ^^ ?: 












•^ £ o 




















s 




• 


1— 1 


w-T 




r"N . 








k* 



~1— I ,- © 



s- 



,© 2 




> £ 






t r; 


. c 


.<r:_5 


■CO -5 


.CO 


S Si 


c 9 


£ ^ 


£ ?i 


p 


-<^ 


-<-2 


<S 


<^^ 


*< 


J?, 


^• 


<, 


s 


^ 


<u 


^ 






a. 


>^ 




h; 


f*; 



c __ 



S o 



c c 



jrtt 






LATIN GRAMMAR. 



• 3 tj © 



99 






• © 'Cj: >, .-. Qj - ©*■ '^ -^ 'To, g .- aj 



.•ES E^T'^'S 1-^ ^- £5^ ? '-^ ?^ i-^ 



-3 

a^ s^ a^ s^ ap a 9^ a ?i Eg^Ep=s^ 



^ . -^ « g S ^ T^ "^-^ '-^ E ^ e« ^ '^ 

v;? . T £ i § E^ D © « 2 2 / ^ .©5 

^ .-£ £ ?e ^^ ^J IS 2 i^ =f '? 5 ^^-3 






•TS=:©c<Uc«!J iS^ c©§cpc9 poOpS^cj'^ 

^ <{^ <^^ <^^ <;-5 -<^ ^ <5^ <;^ -^^ -< J ^-^ 

^ -^ V-3 u^cD^-S •© A> fc© 

£-^-?S©l ^-^ iJaS' ^'£:3 'i'-^ ©f '^i 

t>.''^~ — 'T-3 '-*3 ►* C •CO'P©i:i'^0 

[^■«-g<0-3<0_2 ?'3 '•'^'3 ^-3"* "3 irt>K«'->"t„> 

^ E ?i £ ?^ E 5 E> £ ?e £ ^ E 2^ E 2^-5 £ S-^ J g-^ 

^ <^^ <^^ <!^ <i-2 <5^ <!^ <5^ <^-Q <i^^ ^-a 

f^ § ^^3"^^ .3 

-^ J o'~2 ^ <a<o ^3 ^SY^S 

«r-r^ -3 £2 ~£^ <«o wo .j.^ 

3 JlJ . 



1'5 II eI £Si£| eI E£- £^'^ £Tc^ Eli 

l^llli ^^ <5i <^-2<^ <;e <js <^ 



V e" 



11 £l VJ '^ ^ ?S SS S^g 



». 



c« 



Ui 



^ t: ^ • -^ ©-2 •> i^rt ^?; 

?^ <«= °- :>.?-?- ^-^ "V^ <^J 



^ ^^ £> ^g •=: >>" 






1-1^1^ "^-S "-^ ?^ -^-^ <i£|«£?,ir:S 
iMil^ Ji J" ^> si eSI EgJ ££| 



100 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Imperative Mood. 

2. Am-a-re(tor,) 3. Am-a -to -r ; 2. Am-a-mini, 3. Am-a -nt -or. 
liOved ye be loved him let be ; Loved be ye, loved let them be. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Pre5. Am-a -r -i, Per/. Esse -am -a -tus, jFw/.Am-a -turn -ir -i, 
Loved to oe. To have loved been. Loved to be about to be. 

Participle. 
Pre*. Am-a -tus, -a, -um, Fut. Am -and -us, -a, -urn, 

Loved beinfTj he, she, it. Loved to be, -he, -she, -it. 

Note. — In translating from Latin into English, the conjugation can 
never be reniered, because we have not four corresponding conjugations 
in our language ; therefore the a, or av, which marks the 1st conjuga- 
tion in Latin, means nothing in English. 



LATIN ANALYZATION. 

The following is an exemplification of the fifth and sixth theses laid 
down on page 6 of this work. The lesson here selected is from Beza's 
Latin Testament, — Matthew, chap, v., 14, 15, 16, 17; and if the 
reader does not know that the voice, conjugation, mood and tense, per- 
son and number, of the verb; and the declension, gender, 7iumber, and 
case of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, are, inmost cases, to be found 
in the terminations suffixed to the root; instead of a Latin Grammar, 
he is requested to critically review the following analysis and first 
LITERAL translation, and acquaint himself with these first principles of 
the language. 

({^ The figures placed after the English words place them in the 
English order. 

pron. V. root. 2, plu. root. root. 2, m, g, s. adv. 
14 V. Vos es -tis lux mund -i. Non 

Ye 1 are 2 — * light 4 the world 's. 3 Not IC 

root, root. 3 s. root. 3, f. root, 1 conj. pa.s. inf. prep 
pot -es -t urb -s occult -a -r -i Supra, 

able 11 is 9 a city 5 hidden 14 be 13 to 12 upon 7 

root, 3,f, ac,s. root, 1' 

mont -e -ra posit -a, 

a mountain 8 placed. 6 

15r. adv, con, prep, root, root, 3, c, 3.plu. root, l,fac,s. con, 
Ne -que ac -cen -d -u -nt Lucern -a -m, et 
Not 4 and 1 to 6 fire 5 give 3 they 2 a candle 7 , and 3 

• In all words where the nominative is expressed, t\ie personal termin- 
ation of the verb is cancelled; thus, vos es(tis,) ye are. Now, if the 
aom. ros \»ere om Ued, it would be rendered the same, es (are) tis (ye.) 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 101 

root, 3. c, 3,plii, root, 1 f,ac,s. prop, root, 2 m ac,s. con, 

poll -u -lit o -a -m siibtcr modi -u -m, seJ 

place 10 — they 9 it 11 under 12 a measure 13 but 14 

prep, root, root, 2, n, ac,s con, root, root, 2,c, 3, s. 

in can -dolabr -u -m ; et splen -d -e -t 
in a candle-stick 15 — — and 16 light 19 gives 18 it 17 

root, dat, pi. root, nom,p. root, 3, pi, prep, root, 2, m, ab, s, 
omn -ibiis qu -i sn -nt in dom -o. 

all 21 to 20 who 22 are 23 — in 24 the house. 25 

i8v. root l,f, root, root, 2,conj, sub,p, 3, s, root, root, l,r,s. 
It -a splen -d -e -a -t lux vestr -a 

Such 5 splendors give 4 may 1 — light 3 your 2 

prep, root, 3,m,ab,plu, conj, root, 2, c, sub, p^ 3, plu, 
coram homin -ibus,* ut vid -e -a -nt 

before 7 men, 8 that 9 see 12 may 11 they 10 

root, 2,n,placc, root, 2,n,plu,acc, root, 2,n,plu,acc, 
bon -a vestr -a opcr -a, 

good 14 — your 13 — works 15 — 

root, root, sub, p, 3, pi, eon, root, 3,m, ac,8, 
glori -He -0 -nt -cpie Pair -o -m 

glorious 20 make 19 may IS they 17 and 16 father 22 — — 

root 2,m, ac,s, root,nom,s, root, 3, s, prep, root 2, n, ab, pi, 
' restr -u -m qu -i es -t in cccl -i -s. 

your — — 21 who 23 is 24 in 25 heaven.26 

47 V. adv root, 1 conj, imp, 2, pi, root, acc,s, root, inf. perf 
Ne existim -a -te m -e ven -isse 

Not 3 think 1 — you 2 me 4 come 6 to have 5 

con, prep, root, 3,c, sub,p, l,s, root, 3, f, ac,s, con, 

ut dis -solv -a -m lc<r -e -m aut 

that 7 un 10 -loose 11 may 9 18 the law 12 or 13 

prep, root, l,dec, ac, p\, adv, root, ind, perf, con, 
pro -phet -a -s: non ven -i ut 

pro -pliets 14 — — not 16 come 17 have 1 15 that lb 

root, l,f, ac, phi, prep, root, subj,pr, l,s, con, con, 
e -a -s dis -solv -a -m, sod ut 

them 23 un 21 -loose 22 may 20 I 19 but 24 that 26" 

root, l.f, ac,pln, prep, root, 2, c, sub,pr, l,s, 
e -a -s im -pi -e -a -m. 

them 29 in full 30 lill 28 may 27 I. 26 

• The Enfjlish signification of a case is cancelled in the termination 
df a Latin noun, if a preposition expressed precede it ; homin(ffieH) 
»bu8 ( before) — coram ( before ) homin ( //le/i ) ibus ( ca ncelled . ) 

9* 



102 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



THE RADICALS OF VERBS. 

The following list of verbs is inserted for the student to 
conjugate. The figures inserted after each radical will in- 
form the student to which conjugation he is to refer it on 
the table. 

The student should by all means practice on these verbs 
until he can conjugate any verb with the greatest ease^ ac- 
curacy ^ diudi facility. 

1. Am o, am u re, am a vi, am a turn; a, dv, 1st conjugation. 

2. Mon e o, men e re, mon u i, mon i turn; ^, u, i, 2d conjugation 
3 Reg o, reg ^ re, rex i, rec tum ; S and — , 3d conjugation, 

4. Aud i o, aud i re, aud iv i, aud i tum; i, iv, 4th conjugation. 



Ind. Pres. 


, Ut Root. 


Perf. 2d Root. SiTPiNE 


, 3d Root. 


1> 


— io, 


have. 


to. 




Abscond o,3 


abscond e re, 


3 abscond i,3 


abscond i tum 


4* hide. 


Acu 0,3 


acu e re, 3 


acu i,3 


acu tum, 3 


sharpen. 


Ar<TU o,3 


argu e re, 


argu i,3 


argu tum, 3 


irove. 


Aceend o,3 


aceend e re, 


aceend 1,3 


accens um,3 


iindle. 


Al o,3 


al e re,3 


al u i,2 


al i tum ,2 


nourish. 


Ago,3 


a«T ^ re, 3 


egi;3 


ac tum, 3 


do. 


Ard e o,2 


ard e re, 2 


ars i,3 


ars um,3 


burn. 


Aug e o,2 


aug e re,2 


au xi,3 


auc tum,3 


increase 


Batu o,3 


batu e re, 3 


batu i, 3 


batu tum, 3 


beat. 


Bib o,3 


bib e re, 3 


bib i,3 


bib i tum,2 


drink. 


Conniv e o,2 
Ci e o,2 


conniv e re,2 
ci e re, 2 


conn iv i,4 
ci vi,3 




•wink, 
excite. 


ci tum, 3 


Cap 1 o,4 


cape re ,2 


cep i,3 


cap tum, 3 


take. 


Cup 1 o,4 


cup e re. 3 


cup iv i,4 


cup I tum,3 


desire. 


Cresc 0,3 


cresc e re, 3 


ere vi,3 


ere tum, 3 


grow. 


Claud o,3 


claud e re, 3 


claus i,3 


claus um,3 


close. 


Ced 0,3 


ced e re, 3 


cessi i,3 


cess um,3 


yield. 


Cad 0,3 


cad e re, 3 


ceci di,3 


cas um,3 


fall. 


Caed o,3 


ca>d e re, 3 


cec idi,3 


cae sum, 3 


cut. kill. 


Cred 0,3 


cred e re,3 


cred id i,3 


cred i tum,2 


believe. 


Col o, 


col e re, 3 


col u i,2 


cultum,3 


till. 


Cern o,3 


cern e re, 3 


'ere vi,3 


ere tum, 3 


see, decree. 


Cav e 0,2 


cav e re,2 


cav i,3 


cau turn, 3 


take care. 


Do,l 


d a re,l 


de di,3 


da tum,l 


give. 


Dom o,l 


dom a re,l 


dom u i,2 


dom i tum 4 


tame. 


Doe e o,2 


doc e re ,2 


doc u i,2 


doe tum, 3 


teach. 


Die o,3 


die e re, 3 


die si, 3 ((fm) die tum, 3 


say. 


Duo 0,3 


due 6 re,3 


due si,3(<it«;t)duc turn 3 


lead* 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



103 



/ 

Em o 3 
Exii 0,3 
Ed 0,3 

Fri; :r,3 
Fac io,4 
Flic 0,3 
Fuli^ o 2 
Fri<^ e o,2 
Fleet o,3 
Fur 0^3 

Hab e o,2 
Huer e o,2 

JunjT o,3 
Jac I 0;4 

Indu 0,3 

Lab or ,3 
Le<T o,3 
Lud 0,3 

Lav 0,1 



Mori or, 3 
Milt 0.3 
M n r o,2 
Merg 0,3 

Nub o,3 

ISiiif^ o,3 
Nasc or, 3 

Ori or,3 

Pand 0,3 
Pend o,3 
Puno (),3 
Pon o,3 
Pcto,3 
Prem o,3 
Psali o,3 

Pasc 0,3 
Plio o,l 
Piu e,3 

Quaer o,3 
Quiesc 0,3 



to, 

era 6 re, 3 
exu e re, 3 
ed 6 re, 3 

fru i,3 

lac 6 re, 3 
iVic a. re, 
fulLj 6 re, 2 
fri<r o re, 2 
fleet 6 re, 3 
I'ur e re, 

hab e re, 2 
Laer 6 re,2 

jung 6 re,3 
jac e re ,3 



-have, — I 



lab i,3 
\e<r 6 ro,3 
lud 6 re,3 

lav a re,l 
lav 6 re, 3 

mor i,3 
mitt e re, 3 
moil c re,2 
merg e re, 3 

nub 6 re ,3 
niiig e re, 3 
nasc i,3 

ori ri,3 

pan e re, 3 
peiid e re, 3 
piuijT re, 3 
pnn ere, 3 
pet e re.3 
prem e re.3 
psall e re.3 

pasc 6 re, 3 
plic a re,l 
plu e re, 3 

qnaer 6 re, 3 
quiesc S re, 



em i,3 
exu i,3 
ed i,3 

fru i tus,3 
fee i,3 
fric u i,2 
ltd si, 3 
fri xi,3 
fle xi,3 



hab u i,2 
hui si,3 

junx i,3 
jec i,3 



indu d rc,3 indu i,3 



lap sns,3 
legi,3 
Ills i,3 

lav i,3 



mor tuus,3 
mis i,3 
mon u i,2 
mer si, 3 

mip si, 3 
ninx i,3 
na tus,3 

or tus,3 

pand i.3 
jiepend i,3 
pupiii; 1,3 
pos u i.2 
pet iv i,4 
pi ess I 3 
psall 1,3 

pav i,3 

plu 1,3 

quaes iv i,4 
quie \a,3 



-to. 

emp tum,3 
exu tiiiii,3 
e sum, 3 

•ctus,3 
fac turn. 3 
friu turn, 3 



fric tum,3 
flee tum,3 



hab i turn, 
hu) sum, 3 

June tum,3 
jao tura,3 

indQ tum,3 



lee tum,3 
lu sum, 3 
lo turn. 3 
lau tum,3 
lav a tum,l 



buy, 

undress. 

eat. 

enjiy. 

make. 

rub. 

shine. 

be cold. 

bend. 

be mad . 

have. 

stick. 

join, 
tlurow. 

clothe. 

slide. 

choose. 

play. 

wash. 



die. 
miss um,3 send 

mon i turn, 2 ad vis 

mers um,3 dip, plunge. 

nup turn, 3 veil, or marry, 
snow, 
be bom 



pan sum ,3 
pen sum ,3 
puno turn, 
pos i ti.m,2 
pet i turn, 
press um. 



rise. 

open, 
hang, 
priek. 
place, 
seek, 
press, 
play on an in 
strument. 
feed, 
fold, 
raia. 



quaes i turn, 4 
qui Q turn, 3 



seek, 
rost. 



104 



THE PRINCIPLES OP 



Rid e 0,2 
llu 0,3 
licg 0,3 

Stni 0,3 
Sid 0,3 

Burrr 0,3 

StriiJf^ 0,3 
Sent i 0,4 
St 0,1 
Sed e 0,2 
Scrib 0,3 

Ind Pres 

1st root. 

Ton 0,1 
Ten e o,2 
Tim e 0,2 
Tribu 0,3 
Tan<To.3 
Trail 0,3 
Tex 0,3 

Vet 0,1 

Vid e 0,2 
Vine 0,3 
Vend o 3 
Vert 0.3 
Veh 0,3 
Viv 0.3 
Vol V 0,3 
Ven i o 4 
Ven e o,2 



-to, 



-have, 



-to, 



I 



rid e re, 2 
ru c re, 3 
rcg c re, 3 

strn e re,3 
sid e re,3 
surfT e re ,3 
strinfT e re,3 
sent i re, 
St a re,l 
sed e re, 2 
scrib e re, 3 

Inf. Pres. 



ton a re,l 
ten e re. 2 
lim e re,2 
tribu e re,3 
tanjr e re, 3 
trah e re. 3 
tex e re, 3 

vet a re,l 
vid e re, 2 
vine e re. 3 
vend e re,3 
vert e re.3 
veh € re, 3 
viv e re, 3 
volv e re, 3 
ven i re .4 
ven i re ,4 



ris i,3 
ru i,3 
rex i,3 

stmx i,3 
sId i,3 
surre x i,3 
strin X i,3 
sens i,3 
stet 1,3 
sed i,3 
scrips 1,3 

Ind. Perf. 

^ root. 

ton u 1,2 
ten u i,2 
tim u i,2 
tribu 1,3 
tet i gi,3 
tra X 1,3 
tex u ij2 

vet u 1,2 
vid 1.3 
vie 1,3 
vend id 1,3 
vert-i.3 
vex 1,3 
vix 1,3 
volv 1,3 
ven 1,3 
ven ii,3 



rl sum, 3 
ru 1 turn, 3 
rec turn, 3 

struc turn, 3 

surrec turn, 3 
stric turn, 
sen sum ,3 
st a tum,l 
sess urn, 
scrip tum,3 

Supine. 

3d root, 

ton 1 turn, 2 
ten turn, 3 



tribu turn. 3 
tac turn, 3 
trac turn, 3 
tex tum,3 

vet i turn, 2 
vi sum. 3 
vie turn. 3 
vend 1 rum, 4 
ver sum, 3 
vec tum,3 
vie tum, 
vol u tum, 3 
ven turn, 3 



lanjrh. 

rush. 

rule. 

build. 

smk. 

rise. 

bind. 

feel. 

stand. 

sit. 

write. 



thunder. 

hold. 

fear. 

give. 

touch. 

draw. 

weave. 

forbid, 
see, 
overcome, 
sell, 
turn, 
carry, 
live, 
roll, 
come, 
be sold. 



Note. — From the foregoing one hundred radicals, we have more 
ihQ.n five thousand English derivatives, — a consideration sufficient to in 
duce ths student to commit them perfectly to memoiy. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 305 



RULES. 

The follow .f-g are a few Latin rules most likely to le 
used by the student : 

1. The subject of the infinitive is put in the accusative. 

2. The vocative is used in address, with or without O. 

3. Opus and usns, signifying 7ieed, govern the ablative, 

4. Dignus, coJitentus, prcediiics, govern the ablative. 

6. Utor, fnior, fungor, potior^ vescor, and dignor, go- 
vern the ablative. 

6. Perfect participles, denoting origin^ are followed by 
the ablative of the source, without a preposition. 

7. A noun, denoting that with which the action of a 
verb is performed, is put in the ablative. 

8. A noun, denoting that/ro7/i which any thing is sepa- 
rated, is often put in the ablative, without a preposition. 

9. A noun, expressing respect whereiii or the part affect- 
ed^ is put in the ablative. 

10. Verbs that govern two cases in the active voice, 
govern the latter of these in the passive. 

IL The price of a thing is put in the ablative, except 
when expressed by the adjectives tanti, quanti, phiris, 

12. The comparative degree is followed by the abla- 
tive, if quajii (than) is omitted. 

13. A substantive with a participle, whose case depends 
on no other word, is put in the ablative absolute. 

14. Adjectives of plenty or want govern the genitive or 
ablative. 

15. Some adverbs govern the genitive. 

16. Some derivative adverbs may govern the same case 
as their primitives. 

17. Nouns signifying the same thing are put by appo- 
sition in the same case. 

18. The subj. present is often used for the imperative. 

19. The infinitive is often used as a noun. 

20 One verb governs another, as its object, in the infi 
nitive 



106 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

21. Parlf'ciples, gerunds, and supines, govern the same 
cases as their verbs. 

22. The genitive of gerunds fellows nouns or adjectives. 

23. After verbs expressing motion, the place where the 
motion ends, is put in the accusative, without a preposition. 

24. The subject nominative governs the verb. 

25. The verb agrees with its subject nominative in num- 
ber and person. 

26. Transitive verbs govern the accusative. 

27. One noun may govern another noun in the genitive. 

28. Adjectives and participles agree with theirnouns in 
gender, number, and case. 

29. Conjunctions connect words or sentences. 

30. Twenty-six prepositions govern the accusative, the 
principal of which are, ad, ante, apud, circum, contra, in- 
fra, inter, intra, oh, per, post, prcBter^ propter, supra, 
trans, ultra, 

31. In and suh, denoting tendency, govern the accusa' 
tive ; denoting situation, govern the ablative. 

82. Super and sicbter govern both the accusative and 
ablative. 

33. Eleven prepositions govern the ablative, the princi- 
pal of which are a, ab, coram, cum, de, e, or ez, pro, sine, 
tenus. 

34. Many verbs compounded of the prepositions, a, ah, 
de, ex, &c., are followed by an ablative, governed by the 
preposition. 

35. Cause, manner, and instrument, are put in the ab- 
lative. 

36. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. 

37. The relative pronoun must have an antecedent, 
with which it must agree in gender and person. 

38. The predicate noun is put in the same case as the 
subject, after a verb neuter or passive, when both words 
refer to the same person or thing. 

39 Verbs compounded with the prepositions, ad, ante 
con, in, inters oh, post, pre, suh, and super, govern the 
dative. 

40. Sum, in the sense oihabeo, is followed by the dative 

41. Nouns are sometimes followed by the dative. 

42. A transitive verb, governing the accusative, has a 
genitive, dative, or ablative, to express some relation. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 107 

ANALYSIS OF VIRGIL'S iENEID. 

BOOK I. 

Root Definition. Syntax. Etymology. 

N. G. D.A.V..i. 
Ann The arms, cano ARM-a, 26* (2n.p.) a,orum,is,a,a,is 
qu. and, arnia que viruni, 29 conjunction, 

vir. the hero, cuno vir-7//;i, 2G (2 m.) vir, i, o, um,\\v^ o. 

can. I sing, (ego) cAN-o(l)arma, (3d.) o,cre,cecini,cantum. 

is, it, imus, itis, unt. 
T/o. of Troy, oris Troj-«, 27 (1 f.) a, <b, a?, am, a, h. 

qu. who, virmn QU-t venit, 37 (m.) i, cujus, cui, em, -, o. 

prim. first, prim-ks qui, 28 (2 ra.) uSy i, o, um, e, o. 

a. from, a-6 oris, prep. 6 euplionic letter. 

or. the shores, ab or-w, 33 (1 f.) a, ae, aj, am, a, k, 

ffi, arum, is, as, ae, is. 
Ital. to Italy, iTALi-am, 23 (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, 4. 

fat. a for. by f;ito, Fat-o, 35 (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

pro, fug, driven, profug-U5 qui, 28 (2 m.) lis, i, o, um, e, o. 

qu. and, Italiam que litora, 29 conjunction, 

Lavin. Lavinian, LAviN-a litora, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, o, a, is. 
ven. came, qui ven-i7, (2) (3d and 4th.) io, ire, t, turn. 

i. isit. it, imus, istis, erunt. 
lit. to the shores: LiTOR-a ; 23 (3 n.) us, oris, ori,us, us, ore. 

a, um, ibus, a, a, ibus. 
mult. much, (est) MULT-ttm jactatus, adverb 

ill. he, virum iLi.-e jactatus, (est) (ra.)g, ius, i,um, -, o 

Bt. both, ET, et, correspondmg ccnj unction 

terr. upon the land, (in) terr-J5, 31 (1 f.) a, a;, am, a, A 

ae, arum, is, as, aCj t* 
iac. was tossed, ille JACT.af-t«(3) (est,) (1st.) or ari 

alus sum, es, est, &c 
et. and, terris et alto, 29 conjunction. 

• The figures placed after the v^ords refer to the rule — those in pa 
rcnthcses {) Xo page J42 



I 



lOS 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



alt. 

V. 

super. 

saev. 

mem. 

Ju;i. 

ob. 

ir. 

Miilt. 

qu., qu 

et. 

bell. 

pat. 

dum. 
con, do. 

urb. 
qu. 
in J fer, 

De. 

Lat. 

gen. 

de, un. 

Lat. 

qu. 

A.lban 

pat. 

ftd, qu, 

alt. 

moen 



on the deep, (in) alt-o, 31 (2 n.) nm, i, c um, nm. o 

by the power, v-i, 35 (3 f.) is, is, -, im, is, i. 

of the Gods, vi supertI/w, 27 (2 m.)i, (or) -wm, is, os, i, is. 
of cruel, 28 sjev-ce Junonis, (1 f.) a, «, ae, am, a, k. 

lastinf^, 28 memor-ctti iram, (3 f.) or, is, i, em, or, e. 

of Juno, iram JuN-onis, 27(3 f.)o,07iW, oni, onem.o,one 
on account of, ob iram, preposiiion, 

anger, ob iR-am, 30 (1 f.) a, se, £e, am, a, a. 

Much,passus(est) Mult-ct, 26 (2 n. p.) a, orum, is, a^ a., is. 
also, et Quo-QUE, conjunction, 

and, ET quoque, conjunction, 

by war, bell-o, 35 (2 n.) um, i, o, utn, ura, o. 

he suflered, (ille) passus (4) (est) (3d.) ior, i, passussum 

es, est) simius, estis, &.c. 
while, 36 dum conderet, avlverb. 

he would found 

(ille) C0N-D-e-r6-^,(5)25 (3d.) o, ere, idi, itum. 

rem, res, ret, remus, Scc^ 

a city, conderet urb-ctm, 26 (3 f.) s, is, i, ejn, s, e. 

and, conderet que inferret, 29 conjunction. 

would bring(ille) iN-FER-ref(6)Deos,(3d)o,/errc,tuli, latum. 

rem, res, ret, remus, &.c. 
the Gods, inferret De-o«, 26 (2 m.) us, i, o, um, us, o. 

i, orum, is, o$, i, is. 
into Latium, 

inferret Lati-o; 39 (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 
race, 24 gen-ms (ortura est,) (3n.) us, eris, eri. 

us, us, ere. 
from which one36 un-de (ortum est,) adverb, 

the Latin, 28 Latin-W7?i genus, (2 n.)w7n,i,o,um,ura,o 
and, genus que patres, 29 conjunction. 

Albanian. 28 Alban-i patres, 29 (2 m.)us,i,o,um,e,o 

t, orum, is, os, i, is. 
fathers, 24 PAT,res(ortisunt,)(3m.)er,ris,ri,rera,er,e. 

res, rum, ribus, res &c. 
and, patres at-que moGnia, 29 conjunction, 

of lofty, 28 ALT-cE Romae, (1 f.) a, a, se, am, a, &. 

the walls, 24 MCENi-a(ortasimt,)(2n.p.)a,orura,is,a,Scc. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



109 



Rom Homo. mocnia 

M.is. O Muso, (O) 

ego. to me, mcraora 

caus the causes 



inera . relate : 

qu. what, 

num. divinity, 



(tu) 



Ixd. 


beinji oflended. 


v«. 


or, numine Iceso 


qu. 


why, secundum 


del. 


grieving. 


re-s ag 


0. queen, 


De. 


of theGods,regina 



tot. so many, 

volv. to struggle with, 

cas. misfortunes, 

volvere 

m, sign, renowned, 

pi. for piety ,insignem 

vir. a man, irapulorit 

tot. so many, 

ad, i, to undergo, 



lab. hardships, adire 

in, pel. shall have com- 
pelled, regina 

Tant. So much, 

ne. 

auim. to minds, (sint) 

10 



RoM-«, (1 f.) a, «, CB, f.ni, a, k 

Mus-a, (1 f.) a, £e, cc, am, a, A 

MI-/U, ego, mei, mihi, mc, -, me. 

CAUs-as, (1 f.) a, oe, ai, am, a. a. 

ac, arum, is, as, oe, is. 
M£M0R-a ;(7)causas, (lst)o,are,avi,atum. 

a, ato, ate, ante. 
QU-o tmnine (n.) od, cujus, cui, od, -,o, 
NUM-i/ie, laiso, (3 n,)en,inis,ini,cn,en,trae. 
L^s-o, numine, (2 n.)um,i, o,um, um.o. 
VE quid dolens, conjunction. 

QTi-i(/, used adverbially. 

D0-LE-71S regina, (3 f.)7j.9,ntis,nli,ntcm,&.c. 
REGiN-a impulerit, (1 f.) a, ac, ai, am, a. a. 
DE-um, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, us, o. 

i, (or)-uin, is, os, i, is. 
TOT casus, adj., plural, indeelinable. 

voLv-e-re (8) casus, (3d.)o,erc,i,vo!utum. 
ere, isse, esse, voluiurus. 

CAS-w*, (4 m.) us, As, ui, um, us, a. 

us, uum, ibus, us, &cc. 

iN-siGN.gm virum, (3 m.) ia, is, i, ez/i, is, i. 

piETA-^e, (3 f.) s, tis, ti, tem, s, te. 

viR-M/n volvere, (2 m.) vir,i,o,7/m,vir,o. 

TOT labores, adj., plural, indeclinable. 

AD-i-;c(y) (2d and 4th.) eo, ire, ivi, itum. 

ire, ivisse, esse .turus. 

LABOR-cs, (3 m.) or, oris, i, em, or, e. 

es, um, ibus, es, es, &c. 



iM-PUL-g-n^,(10) (3d.)pello pellere pw/i. 

pulsim, cr.m, eris, eril. 

Tant-« hac, (1 f.) a, ac. ac, am, a, d. 

<8, Rrum, is, as, ac, is. 

NE (sint.) interrogative. 

ANiM-is, 4. (1 f.) a, ae, ac, am, a, d 

te, arum, u, as, ce, is 



110 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

cgbI. celestial, C(eles7-i6u« ammis3(3 f,)iSjis,i, em,i9 e 

es, ium, ibus, es, es, iluit 
ir. anger? iii-« (sint?) (1 f.) a, ge, se, am, a, i 

(E, arum, is, as, se, is 
[Jrb A city, Urb-s fuit, (3 f.) s, is, i, em, s, e 

ant., qu. ancient, ANXi-QU-a urbs, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a 

fu. was, urbs FU-i-i, (11) sum, esse, /ui, fui, fuisti. 

fuit, imus, istis, erunt 
Tjr. Tyriaa, Tybi-i ooloni, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

t, orum, is, os, i. is. 
teii. inhabited, ooloni ten-u- crg( 12) (quam) (2(1. )eo, ere ,Mi, turn. 

ui, uisti, uit, uimus, uistis, 

uerunt, or uere. 

col. colom'sts, coLON-i tenuere, (2 m.) us, i, o, urn, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os,. i, is. 
Carthag. Carthage, Carthag-o fuit, (3 f.) o, inis, i, em, o,e. 

Ital. Italy, contra iTALi-am, (1 f.) a, ae, se, am, a, a. 

con. opposite to, contra Italiam, preposition. 

qu. and, Italiam q,ue Tiberina ostia, conjunction 

Tiber, the Tiberian, TiBERiN-a ostia, (2 n.) um,i,o,ura,um,o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
long. far off, fuit longe, adverb. 

OS. mouths contra osxi-a, (2 n.) mn, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
div. abo'anding, div-c* urbs, (3 f.) es, itis, i, em, es, e. 

op. in wealth, dives OF-um, (3 f.) s, is, i, em, es, e. 

ttffi, ibus, es, es, ibus. 
qu. and, dives opura que asperrima, conjunction, 

stud in the arts, studi-w, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

a, orum, is, a, a, w. 
asp. most skilful, ASPER-RiM-a urbs, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

boll. of war: studiis bell-i; (2 n.) um, i, o, um, u.n, o. 

qu. which, coluisse QU-a?7i, (f.) a, cujus, cui, am, -, o. 

Jun. Juno, JuN-o fertur, (3 f.) o, onis, oni, onem, &c. 

er, is said, Juno FER-/-Mr, (13) (3d.) o, ferre, tuli. latum 

feror, ferris, /eriwr, &c. 
err. lands^ magis terr-w, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, A. 

8B, arum, is, as, ae, is. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



Ill 



ninjT, more (than) , mag-u, adverb, 

omii. all, 0MN-i6ws terris, (3 f.)is, is. i, em, is, i. es 

ium, ibus, es, es, ibus. 
un. one, v^-am (urbem) , (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a. a. 

post,hab.bciiijT less est 'incd posT-HAB-t7-d Samo,(l f.) a,ae,ac,am, a,d 
ool. to have cherit>heJ 

fertur coL-u-isse (14) quam, (2(1, 3d.) o,ere,ui, 

cultum. ere, uisse, he. 
Samos.posthabita Sam-o, (2 f.) os, i, o, urn, e, o. 

Here, (fuerunt) Hic, advcii) 



Sara. 

Ilic. 

Ul. 

arm. 

hio. 

curi. 

fu. 



her, 

arms, 
here, 
chariot, 
was : 



arma ill-iws, (f.) a, his, i, am, -, d 

ARM-a( fuerunt) (2n. p.)a,orum is,a,a,is. 

fuit HIC, adverb. 

cuRKUs fuit, (4 m.) us, Os ui, um, us, u. 

currus ru-i-t: (15) sum, esse,/ ui. - fui, fusti, 

fuit, fuimus, fuistis, &c. 
hoc. (that) this, hoc esse, (n.) hoc, hujus, huic, hoc, &.c. 

re-s ag-o,kinjTd()m, esse RF.GN-w/n, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o- 

De. the goddess, De-u tendit, (1 f ) a,zc,€c, am, a, a 

gen. of nations, regnum gent-i6us, (3 f.) gens, tis, i, em, ns, e. 

es, um, ibus, es, es, &c 
6. to be, noc E-sse, (15) sum, esse, fui 

si. if, Dea tendit hoc si fata sinant, conjunction 

qu. by any means, qua, adverb 

fat.cfiA the fates, FAT-a sinant, (2 n.) um, i,o, um, um, o 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
sin. may permit, fata siy-a-nt, (17) (3d.) o, ere, sivi, situm. 

sinam, as, at, araus, atis, ant. 
jam turn. now also, tendit jam tum, adverb. 

qu. both, que, que, corresponding conjunction, 

tend. endeavors Dea TEXD-t-/(18)hoc, (3d)o,ere,tetendi.tura 

tendo, is, i7. imus. &cc 
qa and, tendit Qt'E fovet, conjunction. 

fov cherishes, (the 

hope) Fov-e-f (19) (spcm.) (2d,3d,)ro,cre,i,fotura 

eo, r-<, ct. &.C. 
rr-^.ge.'. A rao*^, Pro OEXi-cm duci, (5 f.)es.ei,ei.<'7/i.es,e 

•eu. but, 8ED, conjunction 



U2 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



enim. indeed, audicrat ekim, advorb 

Tro. Trojan, Trojan-o sanguine, (2 m,; UB,i,o,um,e,«. 

a. from, a sanguine, preposition 

sang blood, a sangui-tjc, (3 m.) is, inis, i, em, is, e 

due. to be descended, ruc-i, (20) (3d.) o, ere, xi, tum. or, 

i, tus, sum. 
aud. she had heard, 

(ilia) AVO'iirat (21) (4th.) io, ire, m, itura. 
iveram, iveras, itrat, &.c. 
fyr. Tyrian, TYRi-a« arces, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, &. 

^ ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

olira. hereafter jVerteret glim, adverb 

qu. which, progeniera qu-c verteret, (f.) <e, cujus, cui, am, -,o. 

vert. wculd overturn, 

quae VERT-e-re-f, (22) (3d.) o, ere, i, sum. 

rem, res, ret, remus, retis, &c, 

ar, citadels, verteret ar-cc*, (3 f.) x, cis, ci, cem, x, ce. 

ces, cum, cibus, ces, &c. 
Hinc. Hence, venturum Hinc, adverb, 

popul. a people, POPUL-ttm venturum (esse) (2m.) us, i, o, 

U7n, e, o. 
.ate. extensively ,regem late, adverb, 

re-s ag-o ruling, RE-g-em* populum,(3 m.)x.gis,gi,g^7«,x,e. 

bell. in war, bell-o, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

qu. and, regem late que superbum, conjunction, 

superb, proud, superb-wwi populum, (2m.)us,i,o,M7/i,e,o. 

ven would come, 

populura VEN-fMr-wm(23) (esse) (3d,4th)io,ire,i,^iifli 

us, i, o, um, e, o- 
8X, cae»l. to the destruction ex-cidi-o, (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 
Liby. of Libya: excidio Liby-<b, (1 f.) a, «,.ae, am, a, k. 

81C. thus, volvere sic, adverb 

voIy. had determined, 

parcas voLV-e-re, (24) (3d.) o, ere, i, volntum. 

ere, isse, voluturus, esse. 
pare. the fates, PARC-as volvere, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am a, k. 

a, ariuT), is, as, be, is- 

• For REO-K-a-ntem. 



LATIxN GRAMiMAR. ] V3 

I. ' This, metupns I-rf, (n.) id, ejus, c\, 'd, -. e.o. 

meiii. fcariiifr, METu-ensSatnrnia, (3f.)/?s,tis,ti '.enijiiSje. 

vet. of the ancient, xET-eris belli, (3 n.) us, eris^ ori, us, &c. 
qu. and, metuens id QUE memor belli, conjunction, 

mora. mindful, MEM-or Satuinia,(3f.)o?-,oris,ori,orem.&c. 

Satuii: Juno, SATuaxi-a arcebat, (1 f.)a,ai,2E,am,a,a. 

bell. wa. , memor bell-i, (2 n.) urn, i, o, urn, um, o. 

prinL. first, PRiM-a (ilia,) (1 f,) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

qu. which, gesserat Q.v-od, (n.) od, cujus, cui, od, -, o. 

ad. at, AD Trojam, preposition. 

Tro. Troy, ad Tnoj-am, (1 f.) a, ae, oc, am, a, ft. 

pro. for, PRO Arj^is, preposition, 

char dear, char-w Argis, (2 m.) us, i, o, urn, e, o. 

i, orum, is, os, :, is, 
ger. she had carried 

on, (ilia) GESs-graf(25)quod, (3d.)o,erc,cs5t,essum. 

eram, eras, erat, &c 
Arg. Argos, pro Arg-w, (2 m. p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is, 

Nec,dimi. Neither yet, 

exciderant Nec-dum, adverb, 

etiam, also, etiam, conjunction, 

caus. the causes, caus-« exciderant,(l f.)a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

a, arum, is, as, ae. is 
ir. of her anger ,causaBiR-arw7n, (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a 

ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 
qti. and, causae qite dolores, conjunction, 

saev. the cruel, ssv-i dolores, (2 m.) us, i, c, um, e, o 

t, orum, is, as, i, is 
dol. sufTerings. roLOR-c.« exciderant, (3m, )or, oris, i,em, or ,e 

es, um, ibus, es, es, ibus 
ex, cal. escaped, doleres E.x-civ-era-n-t, (26) (3d,) o, eri, i 

eram. eras. erat. eramus, &o. 
anira from hermind,ex anim-o, (2 m,) us, i.o, um, e, o. 

Mai, Remains judicium Man-c-^, (27) ' (2d. 3d.) eo, ere, si. sum. 

eo. es, et, emus. &.c. 
alt. deep in her, ALT-d mente, (1 f.) a, ae. ae. am, a. a 

men. mind, (in) MEN-/e, (3 f.) s, tis. ti. tern. s. fe. 

re, poa laij up, re-post-u;/i judicium, (2 n.)u7»,i.o.ura.i*siO 

10* 



114 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

judlo. (ho judgment, JUDici-wn? manct,(2 n.) «m.i,o,nm,ua d 
Par. cf Paris, judicium PARi-riis, (3 m.) s,dis,di, dcm, s, de 
qu. and, judicium que injuria, conjunction, 

spret. of lur despised, spret-« formce, (] f.) a, a, sc, am, a, a. 
m, jur the injury iN-jURi-a (manet) (1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

form. form, injm-ia FORM-<e, (If.) a, te, se, am, a, a. 

ct. and, injuria et genus, conjunction, 

gen. raco, genus (manet) (3 n.) us, eris eri, us,&o. 

in, vid, the hated mvis-um genus, (2 n.) um, i, o, iim.ura, o. 

et. and genus et honores, conjunction. 

rap. of the stolen, RAPX-iGaymedis, (2m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

Ganymed. Ganymede, ho- 
nores Ganymed-w, (3 m.) es, is, i, em, es,e. 
hon. the honors. HONOR-es(raanent.)(3m.)or,oris,i,em,or,e. 

€s, um, ibus, es, es, ibas. 
Hie. These (things,) super Hi-s, (n.) c,hujus,huie,hoc,-,h8eo. 

/ haec, horum, his, hsec, -, his, 

ad,cand. enraged, AC-CENs-a Saturnia;(l f.)a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 

super. on account of super his, preposition. 

jac. tossed, jactat-os Troas, (2m.) us,i, o,um,e,o. 

i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
eeq. sea, (in) iEQUOR-e, (3n.) or, oris, i, or, or, «. 

tot. whole, ToT-o aequore, (2n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

Tro. TrojanS; arcebat TRO-as, (1 m.) a, ae, ae, am, a, d. 

ae, arum, is as, ae, is. 
re. linq. remnants, arcebat, RE-Liqui-as, (If. p.) ae, arum, is, as, &3. 
Dan. of the Greeics , 

reliquias DANA-itm, (2 m. p.) i, (or)-W77},&t 

ad, qu. and, Danaum at-que Achillei, conjunction, 

in, mit. of fierce, iM-MiT-i« Achillei (3 ra.) is, is, i, em is, e 

Achil, Achilles, reliquias AcHiLL-ei', (5 m.) es, e'i, ei , em, es, e 
arc d.ove, SaturniaARC-c-6a-f(28)Troas, (2)eo ere,ui, ebam, 

bas, bat J bamu5,&o, 
long. far, arcebat longe, adverb, 

Lat. fromLatium: (ab)LATi-o; (2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 

qu. and, arcebat que (ille) errabant, conjunction, 

milt many, mult-os annos, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 

i. orum, is. os, i. is. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 



116 



per 
aon 

err 



ag. 
or. 

mar. 
omn. 

circ. 

Tant 
mol. 
er. 

Rom. 
con, d. 

gen. 

Vix. 

e. 

con,spf 

Sicul. 

tel. 

in. 

alt. 

vol. 

d. 

last 
et. 



dininj^, per annos proposition 

years, per annos (2m J as, i, o, urn, e.o, 

i, c;ruin, is, os, i, is. 
tL8ywandGed,(illi)ERR-a-6a-n-f(2y) (l)o, are, avi, atmn. 

abam, bas, batjbaiims, 
batis, bant. 
driven, act-i (illi.) (2 m ) us i, o, urn, e, o, 

1, orum, is, os, i, is. 
by the fates, fat-Is, (2n.)um, i, o, um, urn, o, 

a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
(3 n.) e, is, i, e, o, i. ia. 
ium, ibus, ia, ia, ibus. 
OMN-fa maria, (3n,) is, is, i, cm, is, i. 
ia, ium, ibus, ia, ia, ibus, 
preposition. 



seas, 



aU, 



circum MAR.ia, 



ciRCUM mana. 



around, 

so great, Tant-cc raolis, (1 f.) a, «, ae, am, a, &. 

dilHculty, (opus) mol-w (3 f.) es, is, i, em, es, e. 

itwas, (opus) ERA./(30)condere,sum,esse,fui,eram,eras, 

era-f, eramus, eratis, &c. 
the Roman, RoMAN-a77igentem,(lf.) a, tc,x,am,a.,i. 

to establiskjCrat, coN.D.e.re(31)gentem,(3) o, ere, idi, itura. 

ere, idisse, iturus css« 
nation, condere gen-^ctti. (3f.) s, tis, ti, tern, s, »e 

Scarcely, dabant Vix, adverb, 

out of, E conspcctu, preposition, 

c. sight, e coN-sPECT-?/, (4 m.) us, 6s,ni, um, us, ?*. 

of the Sicilian Siculje telluris, (1 f.) a, a, ae, am, a, A. 

land, conspectu TELLU-ris, (3 f.) s, ris, ri rem, s, le. 



upon, IN altum, 

the sea, in alt-m/w, 

sails, dabant VEL-a, 



preposition. 
(2 n.) um, i, o, um, um, o. 
(2 n.) um, i, o, imi, um, o. 
a, oruip, IS, a, a, s. 
they spread, ('Hi) D-a6a-n-<(32)vela,(l & Z'j o, are,edi,atum. 

dbam,bas, bat, abamus, 
batis, bujit. 

(2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o. 
i,orum, is, os, i, is. 
coni unction. 



joyfu* 
and. 



-iET-t (illi), 
d-ibant et ruebant, 



116 



THE PRINCII'LES OF 



Bpum the foam, I'ucbant spuu-aj. 



sal. 
ffir. 
xu. 

qunm 

Jim 

tttern 

eorv. 

sub. 

pect. 

vuln. 



(1 f.) a, 3E se, am, a, ft. 

ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

of the deep;Mpumas sal-is, (3 m.) sal, is, i, em, oal, e. 

with the j)row, jer-c, (^ n.) Jes, seris, i, aes, aes, e. 

were plowing j(illi)RU-e-6a-n.f (33) spumas ; (3) o, ere, i, itura, 

ebam, bsus, bat, Sec. 
when, (volvebat) quum, adverb. 



Juno, 

an eternal, 

nourishing, 

within, 

her breast, 

a wound, servans vuln-ws, 



h. these things, (volvebat) h-£EC, 



JuN-o (volvebat,) (3 f.)o,onis,oni,onem,&c. 

iETERN-am vulnus,(2n.)um,i,o,u/n,mn,o. 

SERV-a-n-s Juno, (3 L)ns, ntis,ti,tem,ns,te. 

SUB pectore, preposition. 

sub PECT.07*-e, (3 n.) us, oris, ori, us, us, ore. 

(3 n.) us, eris, eri, us, us. ere. 

(n.) 00, ujus, uic, oc, -, oc. 

aec, crura, is, cec, -, is. 

preposition. 

(f.) -, sui, sibi, se, -, se. 

interrogative. 

ego, mei, mihi, me, -, me. 



cimi. with, CUM se, 

s. herself: cum s-e: 

n. desistere ne, 

Ego. (must) I, ME desistere, 

in, cap. from my underta- 
king, de IN-CEPT-O, 
de, St. desist, 

vine. conquered, vicx-am me, 

nee. nor, me desistere nec me posse^ 

pot., esse, be able, me Po-5se,(35) 

Ital. from Italy, aver- 

tere Itali-^, 
Teucr, of the Trojans, 

regem TEUCR-orMW, (2m.p.) i, orti/7i,is,os,&o 
a, vert, to turn away, posse A-VERT.c-rc(36) regem, (3) o, ere, i, sum, 
re-sag-o. the king? avertere RE-g-em ? (3 ra.) x, gis, gi, gem, x, g. 

quip. because, desistere QUippE vetor, conjunction, 

vet. . am forbidden, (ego) VET-or, (37) (1 pass.) or, ari, at us, sum. 
for. by the fates. fat-w, (2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

Pal Pallas Pall-as potuit, (3f. Gr.)tt5,adis,adi,&c. 

n. not, potuit ne, interrogative. 

ex, uf to burn, potuit Ex-UR.e.7-e(38)classem, (3) o, ere, ussi, Sic. 
class. the fleet, exurere CLAss-em, (3 f.) is, is, i, em, is, o. 



(2 n.) urn, i, o, um, lira, o. 
me DE-sisT-e-re,(34) (3) o, ere, stiti, stitura. 
(If.) a, ae, ae, am, a, a. 
conjunction, 
possum, ^osse, potui. 

(1 f.) a, ae, ae, am, a, 6, 



LATIN GHAMMAR. IIV 

Xrg. Greeks classcm Argiv-u7/i (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o 

i, (or)-umf is, os, i, is 
acl,qu. and, cxiirorc 

cUissem at-qce submerfrore, conjunction 

ipa. tliem,3ubmergcre iPS-05, (in. ji.) i, orum, is, os, i,is. 

pot. was able, Pallas vor-u-i-t,(39) possum, posse, potui. ui 

uistijWii, unimus, &c. 
Bub.merg.to drown, potuit suB-MERG-e-rc,(40)ipsos, (3)o,crc,si,sum. 
pont. in the deep, 

submergere pont-o, (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o 

an. of one, vs-ius Ajacis, (m.) us, ius, i, um, e, o. 

ob, on account of, cb noxam, preposition. 

noc. fault, ob nox-«//», (If-) a, ee, oe, am, a, A. 

et. even, unius et Ajacis, conjunction 

fnr^ the fury, ob rVKi-as, (1 f.) a, ae. od. am, a, a 

ae, arum, is, as, vs, is 
Ajax. ofAjax, furias Aja-cw, (3 m.) x, cis, ci, cem, x, ce. 

Oil. the son of Oileus? 

Ajacis OiLE-i? (2 m.) us, i, o, um, e, o 

Ips. She, Ips-a disjecit, (f.) a, ius, i, am, -, A 

Jov. of Jupiter, ignem Jov-i.?, (3 m.) Jupiter, Jovis, i, &c. 

rap. the swift, kapid-w/m ignem, (2 m.) us. i, o, «//j, e, o 

jac. darting, jACUL-a-^a ipsa, (1 f.) a, ae, ie, am, a, ai. 

e. from, e nubibus, preposition 

nub. the clouds, e NUB-i6M5, (3f.) es, is, i, em, es. e 

es, ium, ibus, es, es ibus. 
ign. lightning, jaculata iGN-gTH, (3 m.) is, is, i, eni, is, e 

dis, jac. scattered, ipsa Dis-JEC.i-f,(41) ignem, (3 & 4) jicio, ere 

jcci, jectum. i,is,i7j&o 
qu, both, QXTE, que, corresponding conjunction. 

rat. his ships, disjecit rat-cs, (3 f.) is, is, i, em, is, e. 

es, um, ibus, es, es, ko. 
qn, and, disjecit rates QUE e7ert."; aEquora, conjunction, 

e, verl. upturned, ipsa e-vert-i-/ ^42)aequora, (3) o, ere, t, sum. 

i, isli, it, imus, Sec 
Kq. the sea, evertit EQUOR-a, (3n.) or, oris, i, or, or, o 

a, um, ibu; a, a, ibus 
vent. by th« wlr.ds: \"ent.u: (2 m.) us, i, o, cm, e, o. 

i, orura, is. os. i. vb. 



J 18 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

ill. him, cirripiit iLL-?/n, (m.) e, ius, i^ um^ e, o 

ex, spir. breathing out, 

illun Ex-PiR-a-ni-C7n, (3m.)nS;ntis,ti,/€7n. Ac. 

tran s, fin g. from his trans- [um o.) 

fixed, TRANS-Fix-o pcctore, (2n.) um, i, o, um. 

pect. breast, (a) VEcr-ore, (3 n.) us, oris, i, us. us. ore 

flam. flames,expirantem flamm-cts, (If.) a,jE, a?, am, a, ^. 

SB, arnm, is, as, SD, is. 
turb in a whirlwind, (in) TTTRB-tng, (3 m.) o, inis, i, em, o, ine, 

con, rap. she seized, ilia coR-Rip-w-i-f (43)illurp, (4, 3, & 2)io, ere, 

tti, reptura. ui, uisti, uit^ &c. 
qu. and corripuit que infixit, conjunction, 

jcop. rock, infixit scopul-o, (2m.) us, i,o,ura, e, o. 

m, fing. thrust, ipsa iN.Fix-t-< (44) (ilium) (3) figo, ere, xi, 

ctum. xi, isti, it, &c. 
acut. on a sharp. acut-o scopulo. (2ra.)us, i, o.um, e, o. 

Ast. But, infixit Ast ego gero, conjunction, 

ego. I, EGO gero, (f.) fg-o, mei, mihi, me, &c. 

qu. who, ego QU'^e incedo, (f.)tE, cujus, cui, am, &c. 

Div. of the gods,reginaDiv-tlm, (2m.p.i, (or)-im, is, &c, 

in,ced. walk, quae in.ced.o,(45) (3) o, ere, cessi, cessum. 

o, is, it, imus, isti3, &c 
re-s ag-o. queen, RE-GiN-a incedo, (1 f.) a, ae, se, am, a, a. 

qu. and, regina que soror, conjunction. 

Jov. of Jupiter, soror Jov- is, (3 m.) Jupiter, /oris,!, em, er,e. 
et. both, ET, et, corresponding conjunction, 

sor. sister, (sum) soR-or, (3f.)or, oris, ori, orem, &c. 

et. and, soror et conjux, conjunction, 

conjung, the wife, (sum) con-ju-x, (3 c.)j;, gis, gi, gem, x, ge. 
un. one, vs-d genta, (1 f.) a, se, se, am, a, ^. 

cum. with, <;uM gente, preposition, 

gen. race, cum GEX-fe, (3f.) s,tis, ti, tem, s, te. 

tot. so many, tqt annos, adj . plural , Indeclinable, 

ann. years, per ann-os, (2 m.p.) i, orum, is, os, Sco- 

bell. wars, gero BELL-a, (2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, 8cc. 

ag-o res. carry on: ego ger-o:(46) (3) o, ere, gessl, gestura. 

o, is, it, imus, itis, unt. 
9*. and, ■?gogei obella et, quisquar adoret, conjunotion 



^ATIN GRAMMAR. 



119 



qu.,qu who, qu-ia-quam adoret, s, ciijasc.ii qucm,-,o. 

num. tho divinity ,adoret NUM-en, (3n.) en, inis, ini, en, &,c. 

Jun. of Juno, numen JuN-onfs, (3 f.) o, onis, oni, &o. 

ad, or. can adore, quis. AD.0K-c-/(47»niimen, (1) o,are,avi,atum. 

era, es, et, emus,&,c. 
|)r8eter,ea. hereafter, im- 

ponat PR«TER-EA, adverb, 

aut. 01* adoret numen aut imponat, conjunction. 

sup, pile supplicatinfT^ sup-PL-cx,quisquam, (3c.) ex,icis,ici, 8cc 

ar. on my altars, 

unponat ar.15, (1 f. p.) x, arum, is, &.c 

in, pen. will place, quis- [^fi^> ^^} o-^, amus,&c. 

quara iM-PON-a-/(48)honorem,(3)o,ere,sui,itum, 
hon. a sacrifice? imponat HONOR-em f (3 m.) or, oris, i, ewi , &c. 

TaJ Such (thinj^s), 

volutans TAL.t'a, (3 n.p.) ia,ium, ibus, ia, &c. 

inher inflamed, fla^i m. -a-t ( corde,(2n.)um,i,o,um,um,o. 
herself, cum s-e, -, sui^sibi, se, -, sc. 

with, CUM se, preposition, 

the Goddess, De-u venit, (1 f.) a, ee, oe, am, a a. 

heart, (in) coR-rfe, (3 n.) r, dis, di, dem.r, cfe. 

revolvinfr, xoLur-a-ns, Dea,(3f.) ns, ntis,ti,tera,&rc. 

of storras,patriam NiMB-orwm, (2 m.p.) ijOrwm, is, os,i, is. 
into, IN patriam, 

the country, in PATRi-am, 
in Loc-a, 

F<ET.a loca, 



flam. 

s. 

cum. 

De. 

cor. 

volv. 

nimb. 

in. 

patr. 

loo. 

fOBt. 

for. 



places, 

full, 

of boisterous 



Austr. winds, 

JEo\. jEolia, 

ven. came. 

Hlc. Here, 

vast. in a vast, 
re-sag.o,kinfT, 

-^Eol. ^olus, 

•ntr. cave, 



preposition. 

(1 f.) a, aj, ae, am, a, k. 

(2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

(2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

FUR-e-n-f-t6usAustris,(3m.p.)es,ura,ibus, 

es, es, ibus. 

foEta AusTR-w (2 m. p. ) i, orum, is, OS, i, 15. 

in MoLi-am, (1 f.) a, ae, aB am, a, ft. 

Dea VEN.{-f.(49) (4 & 3) *x3, ire, t, turn. 

i, isti, it, imus, istis,erunt. 

premit Hic, adverb. 

vAST-o antro, (2n.) um, i, o,um,um, o. 

RE-x premit, (3 m.) x,£:i.s,ffi, iicm,x, <ro. 

JEoL.us premit, (2 m.) wf,i,o, um, e, o. 

(in) ANTR-o, (2n.)ura,i o, nm, am, o. 



120 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



luct. the Struggling, LUCT-a-w-f-c* ventos, 3m.p.) es, nm^ibus. 

es, es, ibus. 
ven. winds, premit vent-os, (2m.p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is. 

qu. and, ventos, que tempestates, conjunction 

tempest, tempests, premit TEMPEST-af-es, (3f.p.)es,um,ibus, e.», 

es, ibus. 
on. the sounding, soNOK-as tempestates, (1 f.p.) 2b, arum, ii». 

as, ae, is 
mp3r. by authority, imperi-o, (2n.)»ni, i, o, um, um, o 

pre.n. governs, jEoIus PREM.i.t,(50)ventos,(3) o,ere,essi,essura. 

o, is, it, imus, itis, unt. 
and, premit ac frsenat 

with chains, vincl-is, 

and. vinelis et careers, 

in a prison, CARCER-e, 



ac. 

vine, 
et. 
care, 
freen. 



conjunction. 
(2 n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 
conjunction. 
(3 m.) r, ris, ri, rem, r, e. 
restrains, iEolus FRiEN.a-f(5l)(illos)o,are,avi, atura. o,as, 

at, arous, atis, ant. 
IlLi freraunt, (m.p.) i, orum, is, os, i, is. 
iN-DiGN-a-TO.f-«s illi, (3 m.p.)es,uni,ibns.&e. 
MAGN-o murmure, (2 n.)um, i, o, um.nm,o. 
CUM murmure, preposition, 

cum MURMiTR-c (3 n.) r, ris, ri, rem, r, re. 



Ill, they, 

m, dign. mdignant, 
magn. a great, 
cum. with, 
murmur, murmur, 
mon. 



of the mountain, 

murmure mon-Z-ts, (3m.) s, tis, ti, tem, s, te. 

circ. around, circum claustra. preposition, 

claustr. the barriers,circum CLAUSTK-a, (2 n.p.) a, omm, is, a, a, is. 
frem. roar. illi FREM-w-7i-f.(52) (3 &2)o,ere,ui, itum. 

o,is,it. imus, itis, tfwL 
ofty, CELS-d area, (1 f.) a,ae, ae, am, a, a. 

JEolus, SED.e-<,(53) (2 & 3) eo, ere, i, ssura. 

eo, cs, rf, emus, &c, 

JEoL'US sedet, (2 m.) its, i, o, um, e, o, 

(in) AR-c-c, (3 f.) X, cis, ci, cem, x ce. 

tenens sceptr-a, (2n.p.) a, orum, is, a, a, is. 

TEN-e-n-s iEolus,(3 m.) ns, ntis, ti,tem ,kc. 

sedet QUE mollit, conjunction 

.^olus MOLL-i-f (54)anli'nos, (4) io, ire, ivi, itum. 

io, is, if, imus, &c. 



Cels. 


In (his) 


sed. 


sits, 


JEol. 


JEolus, 


arc. 


citadel, 


scepti 


scepter. 


ten. 


holding ; 


qu. 


and, 


kA\, 


softens. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 121 

ftnim. minJs, mollit anim-os, (2 m.p.) i, caim, is, r 5, i, is, 

et. and, mollit et temperat, conjincticn, 

temper, moderates,. ^olus TEMPER-a-/(55)iras, (1) o, are, avi, atura. 

o, as, at^ amiis, &c. 
ir. their anger, temperat iR-as. (1 f.p.)ae, arum, is, as, ae, is. 

N. Unless, faciat Ni, adverb. 

far. ho did so, (ille) FAC.t.a-f(56)(hoec,) (4 & 3) to, ere, feci, 

factum, iam, ias, taf, iamus, &c. 
nar. the seas, ferant MAR.ia, (3 n.p.) ia, ium, ibus, ta, &c. 

ac. and, maria ac terras, conjunction, 

terr. the land, ferant terr-qs, (1 f.p.)8e, arum, is, as, ae, is. 
qu. and, terras que coelura, conjunction. 

corI. heaven, ferant ccel-wwi, (2n.p.)um. i, o, W7n,um, o. 

pro, fund, the profound, PRO.FUND.tt77icoelum,(2n.)um,i,o,«m,um,o. 
quip. for, temperat quippe ferant, adverb, 

fer. they would bear, FER-a.w-f,(57) (3 & 1) o, re, tuli, latum. 

am, as, at, amus, atis, ant. 
rap. swift, RAPiD.t(illi,) (2m.p.) i, orum, is, &c. 

cum. with CUM 86, preposition. 

8. themselves, cum s-«, (p.)-, sui, sibi,se, -, ««, 

qu, and, ferant que verrant, conjunction. 

ver. would sweep, (illi)vERR-a-n-<, (58) (3) o, ere, i, sum. am, 

as, at, amus, atis, ant. 
per through, per auras, preposition. 

aur. theair. per aur-os. (1 f.p.) oe, arum,is, a.<f, ce, is. 

Sed pater omni-pot-e-ns spelunc-is ab-did-i-t atr-is. 
But 0\o father omnipotent caverns hid them in dark, 

Hoe ."nctu-e-ns; mol-em que et mon-t-es in-snper alt-os, 
This fearing ; a mass and and mountains above them lofty. 

Impo3-u-i t ; re-gem que ded-i-t, qu i foed er e cer-to 
Placed; a king and gave, who laws by fixed 

Et prem-e le, et laxas sci ret dare jnss us habec-a«, 
Bot.h to restrain, and loose would know to give being ccmmandcd reins, 

Ad qu-em turn Jun-o suppl-ex h-is voc-ibus usa es-t: 
To whom then Juno as a suppliant these words used: 

JEo\ e, (namque tibi DivCim pat-er at-qtie b.cm-in-ura re-x 

O iEolus, (for to thee of the Gods the father and cf men king 

Et mulc-e-re ded-i t fluctus et toll-e-re vent-o,) 

Both to calm has given the waves and to raise them with the wind.) 

11 



^ 



122 THE PRINCIPIS3 or 

Gen-s in imie-a mihi Tyrrhen-urt nav!g-a-t a j. •>! 

A nation hostile to me the Tyrrhenian navi<^ate sea, 

Ili-um in Itaii-am port a-ns, vict-cs que Penat-es 

Troy into Italy bearinfr^ the conquered and household gods. 

In-cut-e vi-ra vent-is, sub mers as que ob ru-e pupp-os: 

Add fox'ce to your winds, the submerged and destroy ships: 

Aut ago divers-osj et disjic-e corp-ora pont-o. 

Or separate them ; and scatter their bodies in the deep. 

S-u-n-t mihi bis septera prae-st-a-nt.i corp-or-e Nyraph-ae: 
I have fourteen of beautiful form Nymphs: 

Qu-arum, quae form-A puleherrima, DeTopei-am 
Of whom, who is in form most beautiful, Deiopeia 

Con-nubi-o jung-am stabil-i, propri-ara que dic-a-b-o; 

Wedlock I will join to thee in firm, as thine own and will consecraV3< 

Omn-es ut te cum merit-is pro tal-ibus ann-os , 
All that thee with merits for such years 

Exig-a-t, et pulch-ra fac-i-a-t te prol-e paren-t-em 

She may spend, and by a beautiful may make thee progeny parent. 

^ol-us h-aec contra: Tu-us, 6 regin-a, qu-id, opt-es, 

^olus these words to replied : It is thy, queen, what you may 

[wisii, 

Ex-plor-a-re lab-or ; mihi * jussa capess-e-re fa-s es-t. 

To consider business j to me your commands to execute it belongs. 

Tu mihi, quod-cunque hoc regn i tu sceptr-a, 

You for me, whatsoever of this kingdom / possess, you the sceptre, 

Jov-era que 
Jupiter and 

Concili-a-s: tu d-a-s epul-is ae-cumb-e-re Div-6m. 

Conciliate : you permit me the feasts to recline at of the Gods, 

Nimb-orura que fac-i-s tempest-at-ura que pot-e-nt-em. 

Of the clouds and you make me of tempests and ruler. 

H-aec ubi dic-t-a, cav-um con-vers-a cusp-id-e mon-teia 

These when words were spoken, hollow with his turned spear momitain 

Im-pul-i-t in lat-us; ac vent-i, velut agm-in-e fact-o, 
He struck on the side; and the winds, as if a band were made, 

Qu?i dat-a port-a, ru-u-n-t, et terr-as turb-in-e per-fl-a-n-t 

Where was given a passage, rush out, and the earth in a whirlwind !: low 

[c 'er. 

In-cub-u-ere raar-i, tot -um que ^ sed-ibus im-is, 
They rest upon the sea, the whole and from depths the lowest 

Vnk Eur-us que Not-us que ru-u-n-t, creb-er que procell- is 

At once the east wind both the south wind and disturb, thick and with 

[tempes'ts. 

Afric-us, et vast-os volv-u-n-t ad lit-or-a flact-us. 

The southwest wind, and vast roll to the shores waves. 



LAT'N GRAMMAR. 123 

Tn-seqni-t-ur clam-or que vir-Om, strid-or que nul • n t-uni, 
Follows the clamor both of men, the creakin*:^ ami olcoiaajje, 

E-rip-i-u-n-t suhito nub-cs caelum que, di-em que, 

Snatch away suddenly the clouds sky both, lij^lit and 

Teucr-orum ex ocul-is, pont-o no-x in-cub-a-t atr-a. 

Of the Trojans from the eyes: the deep night broods upon dark. 

In-ton-u-e-re pol'i» Gt crebr-is mic-a-t ign-ibus aeth-er: 

Thundered the heavens, and with frequent glistens lightnings the air: 

Pra}-sent-em que vir-is in-tent-a-n-t omn-ia mor-t-em. 

Immediate and to the men threaten all things death. 

Extemplo JEnG-de solv-u-n-t-ur frig-or-e membr-a. 

Immediately of il^neas are loosened by the cold the members. 

In-gem-i-t, et dupl-ic-cs tend-e-us ad sid-er-a palm-as, 

He groans, and both his stretching towards the stars hands, 

Tal-ia vo-ce re-fer-t : O ter que quater que beat-i, 
He cries thus: O thrice and four times hapi^y they, 

Que-is ante or-a patr-um Troj-oe sub moen-ibus alt-is, 

To whom before the faces of their fathers of Troy under walls the lofty, 

Con-tig-i-t oppet-e-re! 6 Dana-um fort-issim-e gen-t-is 
It happened to die! of the Greeks most brave of the race 

Tydid-o, me-ne Iliac-is oc-cumb-e-re camp-is 

Tydidus, why was I on the Trojan to fall fields 

Non pot-u-isse? tu-a que anim-am banc ef-fund-e-re dextr-a? 
Kot able? by thy and life this to pour out right hand? 

Scev-us ubi iEacid-ae tel-o jac-e-t Hect-or, ubi ingen-s 

Fierce where of Achilles by the weap-on lies Hector, where great 

Sarped-on; ubi tot Simo-Ts cor-rep-t-a sub und-is 

Sarpedon lies : where so many the SimoTs having seized under its waves 

Scut-a vir-Om, gale-as que, et fort-ia corp-or-a volv-i-t. 

The shields of men, helmets and, and brave bodies rolls. 

Tal-ia jact-a-nl-i strid-e-ns Aquil-on-e proccll-a 

As he thus spoke, the shrieking with the north wind tempest 

Vel-um ad-vers-a fer-i-t, fluct-us que ad sid-er-a toll-i-t. 
The sail opposite strikes, the waves and to the stars raises. 

Frang-u-n-t-ur rem-i: tum pror-a a-vert-i-t, et und-is 

Are broken the oars: then the prow turns, and to the waves 

D-a-t lat-us: in-sequi-t-ur cumul-o prac-rupt-us aqu-ae raon-s. 
Gives t7s side: follows in a heap broken of water mountain. 

H-i summ-o in fluct-u pend-e-n-t: h-is und-a de-hisc-e-ns 
They the top of on the wave hang: to them the water yawning 

Terr-am inter fluet-us a|)er-i-t: fur-i-t a^st-us aren-is. 
Tuo earth between the waves discloses: rages the tide in the sands. 

Tr-os Not-us ab-ropt-as in sax-a lat-e-nt-ia torqu-e-t. 

Throe shi^t the south wind driven away upon the rocks hidden whirls : 



J 



124 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Sax-a voc-a-n-t Ital-i, medi-is qii-ae in flnct-ibu5 Jir-ag, 

These rocks caW the Italians, in the midst of which are the waves Altars, 

Dors-um imnnan-e mar-i summ-o. Tr-es Eur-us ab 

Ridge a huge the sea at the top of. Three skips the east wind from 

alt-o 
the deep 

In brevi-a et syrt-es urg-e-t, miserabil-e vis-u j 
Upon shoals and quicksands drives, a miserable sight ; 

Il-lid-i-t que vad-is, at-que agger-e eing-i-t aren-ae. 
Dashes into and the shallows, and with a heap binds of sand. 

Un-am, qu-ae Lyci-os fid-um que veh-e-ba-t Oront-em, 
One, which Lycians faithful and carried Orontes, 

Ips-ius ante ocul-os ingen-s a vert-ic-e pont-us 
His before eyes a great from above wave 

In pupp-im fer-i-t: ex-cut-i-t-ur pron-us que magist-er 
On the stern strikes : is struck bending and master 

Volv-i-t-ur in cap-u-t ; ast ill-am ter fluct-us ib-idem 

Is rolled upon his head : and it three times the wave in the same place 

Torqu-e-t agen-s circum, et rapid-us vor-a-t sequ-or-e vort-e-x, 

"Whirls driving around, and the swift swallows in the sea whirlpool. 

Ap-par-e-n-t rar-i n-a-nt-es in gurg-it-e vast-o: 
Appear a few swimming in whirlpool the vast: 

Arm-a vir-Clm, tabul-ae que et TroT-a gaz-a per und-as. 

The arms of the men, tablets and and Trojan treasure appear in the 

[water. 

Jam valid-am Ilion-i nav-em,jam fort-is Achat-ae; 

Now the strong of Ilioneus ship , now the ship of brave Achates ; 

Et qu-^ vect-us Ab-as, et qu-a 

And the ship in which was borne Abas, and the shipinwhich. was borne 

grandaev-us Aleth-es, 
the aged Alethes, 

Vic-i-t hiem-s : lax-is lat-er-um compag-ibns omnes 

Conquers the storm : through the loosened of the sides joints all the ships 

Ac-cip ' a-n-t in-imic-um imbr-em, rim-is que fatisc-u-n-t. 
Reoiiva the fatal flood, in the seams and gape. 



I 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 125 

VIRGIL'S GEORGICS 
BOOK IV. 

[The use of the hyphen in the following /"mes will he, 
as heretofore, to separate the root, connecting letter or let* 
ters, significant letters and terminations, from each other. 
For example, in the word squal-e-7i-t-i-bus : squal is the root, 
c the medial or significant letter of the conjugation ; n de- 
notes the present participle, t a connecting letter, and ibiis 
the case and number termination. Corusc-a-n-t, — corusCj 
the root, a the medial letter of the present tense and first 
conjugation, n sign of the plural number, t sign of the 
third person. Claros, — clar, the root, o the significant let- 
ter of the second declension, s terminal letter of the accu- 
sative plural in all declensions, excepting in the neuter gen- 
der. Terr-a-m, — terr the root, a significant letter of the 
first declension, ??? terminal letter of the accusative singu- 
lar, in all declensions, excepting neuters of the third. 

If the student has become familiar with the foregoing 
Tables of Terminations, he will understand these divisions 
without difficulty. They will be continued onl}' partly 
through the reading, and then the scholar is expected to be 
able to separate the words in his mind at a glance, and thus 
be enabled, in a moment, to determine the conjugation, 
voice, mood, tense, number, person, declension, case, or 
gender of all words.] 

Protinus aPri-i mell-is ccelet-i-a don-a 
Next of aerial honey the celestial gift 

Ex-eq-u-a-r H-anc etiam, Msccen-as, ad-splc-e par-t-e-m. 
I will describe. This also, Maecenas, look at part. 

A(l-mir-a-nd-a t-ibi lev-i-iim spectacul-a re-rnm, 

To be admired by thee of inconsiderable views things, 

Magn-anim-o-s que dnc-e-s, tot-ins que ord-in-e gen-t-is 
Courageous and leaders, of a whole and in order race 

Mo-r-e-s, et sttid-i-a, et popul-o-s, et prjcl-i-a dic-a-m. 
Customs, and arts, and people, and battles I will relate. 

In ten-u-i labor: at tenn-is non glor-i-a: si qu-e-ro 

On 8 low riij'erf this labor is ; but low is not the glory ; if any one 
11* 



]26 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Nnra-:n-a laev-a sii -a-n-t.,aud-i-t quo voc-a-t-us Apollo. 
Divinities adverse permit, hears, and being invoked Apollo. 

Princip i-o, sed-e-s ap-ibus st-at-io que pet-e-nd-a, 

In the iirst place, a seat for the bees station and must be sought, 

Quo ne-que st-t vent-is ad-it-us (nam pabul-a vent-i, 

Where neither may ba for the winds an entrance (for food winds 

Fer-re dcn-u-m prD-hib-e-n-t) ne-que ov-e-s hoed-i que petulc-i 
To carry home prohibit) neither sheep kids and frisking 

Flor-ibus in-sult-e-n-t; aut err-a-n-s bucul-a camp-o 
The lowers may bruise, or the grazing heifer in the field 

De-cut-ia-t ro-r-e-m, et surg-e-n-t-e-s at-ter-at herb-a-s. 
May strike off the dew, and the growing may trample plants. 

Ab-si-n-t et pict-i squal-e-n-t-i-a terg-a, lacert-i 

Let be absent also spotted as to their filthy backs, lizards 

Pingu-ibus d stabul-is; merop-c-s que, ali-ae-que voluo-r-e-s, 
The fat from hives; bee-eaters and, other and fowls, 

Et man-ibus Procn-e pect-us sign-a-t-a cruent-is. 

And hands the swallow as to her breast marked with bloody. 

Omn-i-a nam lat^ vast-a-n-t, ips-a-s-que vol-a-n-t-e-s 

All things for on every side they destroy, them and flying about 

Or-e fer-u-n-t, dulc-e-m nid-is im-mit ibus esc-a-ra. 

In their mouth they bear, a& a sweet nests to their cruel morsel. 

At liquid-i fon-t-e-s, et stagn-a vir-e-n-t-i-a musc-o 
But pure fountains, and pools green with moss, 

Ad-si-n-t et tenu-is, fugi-e-n-s per gramin-a ri-vus: 

Let be present, and a small, gliding through the grass rivulet: 

Palm-a que vestibul-um aut ingen-s oleast-er in-umbr-e-t. 

The palm tree and the threshhold or the great wild olive let shade. 

tJt, quum prim-a nov-i duc-e-n-t examin-a re-g-e-s 
That, when the first new will lead swarms kings 

Ver-e su-:?, lud-e-t que fav~is e-miss-a juvent-us j 

In spring itself, will play and from the honeycombs sent forth young j 

Vicin-a in-vit-e-t de-ced-e-re rip-a calor-i, 

The neighboring may invite to depart from bank the heat, 

Ob-vi-a que hospit-i-is ten-e-a-t frond-e-n-t ibus arb-os. 

Opposite and ■^» slcome may present itself with a leafy tree. 

In medi-u-m, seu st-a-b-i-t iner-s, seu pro-flu-e-t hum-or, 
In the midst, whether will stand sluggish, or will flow water, 

Trans-veri-as sa.-ic-e-s et grand-i-a con-jic-e sax-a: 
\,cros3 willows and large cast rocks: 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 127 

Pont-ibns nt creb-r-is pos-si-n-t con-sist-e-re et alas, 

Bridges tha , ipon frequent they may be able to rest and their wings 

Pand-e-re ad frstivn-m sol-e-m ; si forte mora-n-t-e-s 

To stretch oi) to tho sumiuer sun: if by chance thein delaying 

Spars-eri-t aut proe-cep-s Neptun-o im-mers-eri-t 

Shall have sprinkled or the dangerous in the rain shall immersed 

Enr-us. 

tho east wind. 

H-GBo circ-iim casi-aB vir-id-e-s, et ol-e-n-t-i-a lato 

These around let there be spice trees green, and fragrant on every side 

Serpyll-a, et gra\'iter spir-a-n-t-i-s copi-a thymbr-ae 
Thyme, and powerfully of smelling abundance savory 

Flor-e-a-t: irrigu-u-m que bib-a-n-t violar-i-a fon-t-e-ra 

Let flourish: the watering and let drink the beds of violets fountain. 

Ips-a autem sou cort-ic-ibus tibi sut-a cav-a-t-is, 
These but, either bark by thee fastened with hollow 

Seu lent-o fu eri-n-t alvear-i-a vim-in-e text-a. 

Or with the bending which will be hives vine woven, 

August-o-s hab-e-a-n-t ad-it-u-s: nam frig-or-e mell-a 
Narrow let have entrances j for with cold the honey 

Cog-i-t hiems, ea-dem que cal-or liqne-fact-a remitt-i-t: 
Congeals winter, the same and heat melted returns: 

Utr-a que vi-s ap-ibus pariter met-u-e-nd-a: ne-que ill-as 
Either and force by the bees equally is feared : neither they 

Ne-quic-quam in tect-is cert-atim tenni-a cer-& 

In vain in their dwellings assiduously small with wax 

Spirament-a lin-u-n-t, fuc-o que et flor-ibus or-a-s 
Air holes smear, with paint and and flowers borders 

Ex-pl-e-n-t: col-lec-t-u-m que h-aec ips-a ad mun-er-a glut-on 
Fill : the collected and these very to uses gluten 

Et visc-o et Phryg-i-ae serv-a-n-t pio o lent-i-us Id-ae. 

Both glue and of Phrygian they preserve pitch tougher than Ida. 

8oepe etiam ef-fos-is(si ver-a es-t fam-a) latebr-is 
Often also dug out (if true is report) in recesses 

Sub terr-i fov-ore lar-e-m ; penitns que 

Under the eartlr tiey have cherished their household; deep and hav4 

re-per-t ee 

been found 

Pumlc-ibus que cav-is, ex-e-s-oe que arbor-is antr-o. 

Pumico stones ai'.d in hullo\i of an old anu tree in the hollow. 



i 



128 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Tu tsimen et lev-i rim-osa cub il-i-a lim-o 

i?o you notwithstanding with yielding leaky hi\es clay 

Ung-e fov-en-s circum, et rar-a-s super-in-jic-e frond-e-s. 
Daub guarding around, and thin above put on boughs. 

Neu prop-ius tect-is tax-um sin-e, ne-ve rube n-te-s 
Neither near the hives the yew-tree permit, nor reddening 

Ur-e foc-o cancr-os: alt-ae neu cred-e palu d-i: 

Burn in the fire crabs: to the deep nor trust marsh; 

Aut ubi od-or coen-i grav-is, aut ubi con-cava pnls-u 

Or where the smell is of mire offensive, or where hollow from a blov/ 

Sax-a son-a-n-t vocis que of fen-sa re-sult-a-t iraag-o. 

Rocks resound, of the voice and offensive rebounds image. 

Qu-od super-es-t, ubi puls-a-m hiera-e-m sol aure-us eg-i-t 
Further, when repulsed winter sun the golden had driven 

Sub terr-a-s, ccel-u-ra que SBstiv-4 lue-e re-clus-i-t; 
Under the earth, the sky and with summer light has brightened j 

111-33 continuo salt-u-s silv-a-s que per-agr-a-n-t, 
They immediately woods forests and wander over, 

Purpure-o-s que met-u-n-t flor-e-s, et flumin-a lib-a-n-t 
Purple and cut down flowers, and streams sip 

Summ-a lev-es. Hinc ne-sc-i-o qu-a dulced-in-e laet-ae 

Surface of flying. Hence I know not in what sport joyful 

Pro-gen-i-e-m nid-o-s que fov-e-n-t; hinc art-e rec-ent-e-s 
Their young nests and cherish ; hence with skill fresh 

Ex-cud-u-n-t cer-a-s, et mell-a tenac i-a fing-u-n-t. 
Form wax, and honey the tenacious make. 

Hinc ubi jam emiss u-ra cave-is ad sid-er-a ccel-i 

Hence where now issuing/rom their hives towards the stars of heaven 

N-a-re per sestat-em liquid-a-ra sus-pex-eri-s agmen, 
To sail through the air clear you shall behold a band, 

Obscur-a-m que trah-i vent-o mir-a-b-er-e nut-e-m ; 

Dark and to be carrid by the wind you shall wonder at the cloud, 

Contempl-a-tor: aqu-a-s dulc-e-s et frond-e-a semper 
Look: waters sweet,and leafy always 

Tect-a pet-u-n-t: hue tu juss-o-s a-sperg-e sap-or-es, 

Dwellings they seek: here do you suitable sprinkle flavored herbs, 

Trit-a melis-phyll-a, et cerinth-ae ignobil-e gram-en: 

Bruised balm-gentle, and of honey-suckle the common herb: 

Tinnit-us qu3 ci-e, et Matr-is quat-e cymbal-a circ-um. 

Ringing and exisif s and of Cybele strike the cymbals around. 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 129 

Ips-JE con-siJ 5-n-t mcdic-a-t-'j scd-ibus: ips-ac 
Thoy rest upon the fragrant places: they 

Intim-a mo-r-e sii-o s-e-s-o in cnna-bul-a cond-e-n-t. 

Familiar rauniiii in their own themselves for hives will build. 

Sin autem ad pugn-a-m ex-i-ori-n-t (nara ssepe du-obus 

If but to battle they shall go forth (for often two 

RefT-ibus in-^ess-i-t maj^n-o discordi-a mot-u) 

Kings has seized upon with great discord disturbance) 

Continuo que anim-o-s vulg-i, et trepid-a-n-t-i-a bell-o 
L-iimedialely and minds of the crowd, and eager for war 

Cord-a licet longo prae-scisc-e-re: nam-que mora,n-t-es 

Hearts it is permitted you long before to perceive : for tho^e delaying 

Mart-i-us ill-e ae-r-is rauc-i can-or in-crep-a-t, et vo-x 

Warlike the brass of the harsh sound rouses, and the voice 

Aud-i-t-ur fract-o-s sonit-u-s imit-a-t-a tub-a-rura. 
Is heard broken sounds imitating of trumpets. 

Turn trcpid-ae inter s e co-e-u-n-t, penn-is que corusc- 

Then swift among themselves they fight, with their wings and they 

a-n-t, 
glitter, 

Spicul-a que ex-acuu-nt rostr-is,apt-a-n-t que lacert-o-s, 

Stings and sharpen with their beaks, prepare and their limbs, 

Et circ-a reg-e-m, at-qiie ips-a ad proetor-i a densae 
And around the king, and itself at the royal hive thick 

Misc-e-n-t-ur magnis que voca-n-t clamor-ibus host-e-m 

They are gathered, with great and chalenge clamor the enemy. 

Ergo, ubi ver nact-ce sud u-m camp-o-s que pat-e-nt-e-» 

Therefore, when spring that they have found clear fields and ope 

E-rump-u-n-t port *s, con-curr-i-t-ur: aether-e in alt-o 

They issue from their gates, it happens: air in the lofty 

F-i-t sonit-us: magnum mixt-ae glomer-a-ntur in orb-e-ra. 
Is made a sound: a great mingled they are collected in circle, 

Pra5-cip-it-e-s que cad-u-n t: non dens-ior aer e grand-o, 

Headlong and fall: not is thicker than in the air hail, 

Nee de con-cussA tant-um plu i-t il-ic-e gland-is: 
Wor iVom the shaken does so much shower oak of acorns, 

Ips-i per medi-a-s ac>e s. in-signibus 

Tht Vtng« themselves t'jrough the ra ist of the amies, 'ipon splendid 

al-is, 
wings, 




130 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



In-gent-e-s anim-o-s auj^usto in pect-or-e vers-a-n-':: 
Great minds a small in breast revolve : 

IJs-que adeo ob-nix-i non ced-e-re, dum fpravis -aat 

So far that resolute not thfty have yielded, while t^e powerful^ either 

h-o-s, 

these, 

A.iit h-o-s, ver-s.& fug 1 vict-or d-a-re terg-a 

Or those, being changed, the flight, conqueror to give their backs 

sub-eg-i-t. 
compelled. 

H*i mot-u-s anim-or-um at-que h-asc certam-in-a tant-a 

These excitsments of their minds and these contests so great 

Pulv-er-is ex-igu-i jact-u com-pre-ss-a quiesc-u-n-t. 

Of dark a little by throwing on stopped cease. 

Verumubi ductor-e-s aci-e re-voc-av-eri-s am bo, 

But when the leaders /rom the army you shall have recalled both, 

Deter-i-or qu-i vi-s-us, e-um, ne prodig-us ob-s-i-t. 
Feebler who seems, him, lest the prodigal injui-e, 

Ded-e nec-i: mel-i-or vac-u-^ sin-e regn-e-t in aul-4. 
Deliver to death: the better an empty suffer to reign in hall. 

Alt-er eri-t macul-is aur-o squal-e-n-t-ibus ard-e-n-s : 
One will be spots in gold with dirty shining : 

Nam du-o s-u-n-t gen-er-a; h-ic mel-i-or, in-sign-is et or-e 

For two there are kinds ; one the betterj marked both on the counte 
nance, 

Et rutul-is clar-us squam-is: ille horrid-us alt-er 

And with bright beautiful scales : the rough other. 

De-sid-i-A, lat-a-m que trah-e-n-s in-glori-us alv-u-m. 
In sloth, broad and drav.'ing ignoble belly. 

Ut bin-ae re-g-ura fac-i-e-s, ita corp-or-a pleb-is. 

As there are two of kings kinds, so there are two classes of the plebeians, 

Nam-que ali-ae turp-e-s horr-e-n-t, ceu pulv-er-e ab alt-o 
For some mean disgust, as if dust from deep 

Quum ven-i-t, et sicc-o terr-a-m spu-i-t or-e, via-t-or 

When came, and /rom his dry on the earth spits mouth, traveller 

Arid-us: eluc-e-n-t ali-ge, et fulg-or-e corrusc-a-n-t, 

The thirsty: shine some, and with brightness glitter, 

Ard-e-n-t-e-s aur-o, et par-ibus lit-a corp-or-a gutt-is. 

Glowing with gold, and with like as to their spotted bodies marks. 

H-aBC po/;-i.or sobol-e-s: hinccoel-i temp-or-e cert-o 

This ij 'lie moia powerfu race : hence of the year time at a certain 



LATIN GRAMMAR. I3l 

Dulc-i-a mell-a prcm-e-s ; ncc, tant~ura 

Sweet honey yon will squeeze out j neither are there other things so 

dulc-i-a, quant-um 
sweet, so 

Et liquid. 2,, et dur-u-m Bacch-i dom-i-tur-a sapir-em. 
And pure, and harsL of wine that will overcome flavor. 



FIRST OKATION OF CICERO AGAINST 
CATILINE. 

Quousque tandem abutcre, Catilina, pationtiA nostra? Quara- 
Hovr 'ong then will you abuse, Catiline, patience our? How 

dui etiam furor iste tuus nos cludet? Quem ad finem scse effrenata 
long also fury this thy us evade? What to end itself unbridled 

iactabit audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palatii. nihil 
will carry audacity? Do not thee the nightly guard of the Palatine, not 

urbi6 vigiliae, nihil timer populi, nihil concursus 

of the city the watch, not the fear of the people, not the assembling 

bonorum omnium, nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatum locus nihil 
good men of all, not this most fortified of holding the senate place, not 

horum ora vultus que moverunt? Patere tua consilia 

of these the looks countenances and move? To be exposed thy designs 

non sentis? Constrictam jam horum omnium conscientiA 

not do you perceive? grasped now these of all in the knowledge 

teneri conjurationem tuara non vides? Quid proximA, quid 
to be held conspiracy thy not do you see? What on the last, what on 

Buperiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, 
a former night have you done, where were you, whom have you collected; 

quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum ignoraie arbitraris? 

what design have you formed, any one of us not to know do you think? 

O temporal O mores! Senatus hscc intelligit, consul 

O the times! the manners! The senate these things perceives,the consul 

videt ; hie tamen vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in. 

sees: this man notwithstanding lives. Lives? nay indeed also into 

senatura venit. Fit publiei consilii particeps: 

the senate he has come. He is made of the public deliberation a sharer: 

notat et designat oculis ad ccedem unumquemaue nostrTira. 

he marks and appoints with his eyes to death every one of us 



132 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Nos aulem viri fortes, satisfacere reipublicae videmur, si istitis 
We but men brave, to do our duty to the republic seem , if of this wretcn 

furorem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, due" 
the fury and wsapons we shun. To death/or thee, Catiline, to be led 

jussu consulis, jampridem opportebat; in te conferri 

by command of the consul, long ago it was fitting ; upon thee to be brought 

pestem istam, quam tu in nosomnes jamdiumachinaris. An 

evil for the same, which you against us all even now contrive. Bid 

vero vir amplissimus, Publius Scipio, pontifex maximus, 

mdeed man that most renowned, Publius Scipio, pontifl' the highest, 

Tiberium Gracchum, mediocriter labefactantem statum reipublicse, 
Tiberius Gracchus, slightly disturbing the peace of the republic, 

privatus interfecit: Catilinam, orbem terranim caede 

a. privsite individual slo-y : Catiline, the world, with slaughter 

atque incendiis vastare cupientera, nos consules preferemus? Nam 
and flames to lay waste desiring, we consuls wull bear with? For 

ilia nimis antiqua praBtereo, quod Caius Servilius Ahala Spurium 

those too ancient matters I pass over, how Caius Servilius Ahala Spurius 

Melium, novis rebus studentem,manu suaoccidit. Fuit, 

Melius, new things desiring, hand with his own slew. There was, 

fuit ista quondam in hac republica virtus, ut viri fortes acrioribus 
there was that formerly in this republic virtue, that men brave with severer 

suppliciis civem perniciosum, quam acerbissimum hostem coercerent. 
punisliments citizen the traitorous, than the fiercest enemy would punish. 

Habemus senatus censultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et 

We have a decree of the senate against thee, O Catiline, powerful and 

grave: non deest reipublicae consilium, neque auctoritas 

weighty: nor is wanting of the republic the counsel nor the authority 

hujus ordinis: nos, nos, dico aperte, nos consules desumus. Decrevit 
of this order : we, we, I speak openly, we consuls are wanting. Decreed 

quondam senatus ut Lucius Opimius consul videret nequid 
formerly the senate that Lucius Opimius consul should see, nothing 

respublica detrimenti caperet; nox nulla intercessit: interfectus est 
republic of injury should receive: night no intervened : was slain 

propter quasdam seditionum suspieiones Caius Gracchus, 

on account of certain of sedition suspicions Caius Gracchus, from 

clarissimo patre, avo, majoribus: occisus est cum 

a most renowned father, grandfather, and ancestors: was slain with his 

liberis Marcus Fulvius, consularis. Simili senatus- 

children Marcus Fulvius, of consular dignity. By a similar de(!ree of the 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 133 

con^ulto, Caio Mario et Lucio Valerio, permissa 

senate, Caius Mar.u.s and Lucius Valerius being consuls, was entrusted 

est respiiblica: num unum diem pnst^'a L.ucii Satnrnini tribuni 
with the republic: did one day afterwards of Lucius Saturninus a tribune 

plebis, et Caii Servilii prastoris mortem reipublioDB 

of tlie people, an J of Caius Serviiius a praetor the death of the republic 

pcena remorata est? At nos vicesimum jam diem patimur 

the punishment hinder? But we the twentieth now day suH'cr 

hebcscere aciem horum auctoritatis. Habemus enim hujusmodi 
to blunt the point of these of the authority. "We have for of this kind 

senatusconsultum, verumtamen inclusum in tabulis, tanquara gladium 
a decree of the senate, nevertheless shut up m tablets, like a sword 

in vaginA reconditum: quo ex senatusconsulto confestira 

in its sheath hidden: which by decree of the senate immediately 

interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis: 

put to death that yon should be, Catiline, it was proper. You live: 

et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciara. 
and you live not for laying aside, but for contirming your audacity. 

Cupio, patres conscripti, me esse clementera: ciipio in tantis 

I desire, fathers conscript, to be mild: and a/so I desire in such 

reipublicre periculis me non dissolutum videri: sed jam me ipse 

of the republic dangers not negligent to seem : but now myself, even I, 

inertias nequitiae que condemno. Castra sunt in Italia, contra 

for laziness remissness and condemn. Camps are in Italy, hostile to 

rempublicam, in Etrurine faucibus coUocata: crescit in dies singulos 
the republic, in of Etruria the defiles collected: increases in day each 

hostium numerus, eorum autera imperatorem castrorum, 

of the enemy the number, of these but the commander camps, 

ducera que hostium, intra moenia, atque adeo in senatu, 

the leader and of the enemy, within /Aese walls, and even in the senate, 

videmus, intestinam aliquam qnotidie perniciem reipublicaE molientem. 
we see, secret some daily mischief to the republic attempting. 

Site jam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici jussero; 

If thee now, Catiline, to be seized, if to be slain I shall command; 

cre!o erit verendum mihi, nennn boo potius omnea 

I presume it will be feared for me, also that this is done rather all 

boni seriiis ame,qnam quisquam crudelius factum 

the good will say too late by me, than that any one too cruel the act 

esse dicat. Verum ego hoc, quod jampridem factum esse 

to be would say. But I this which long ago to have been dene 

12 




134 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

oportuit, cert A de causA nondum adducor ut faciaru 

ought, a certain for reason not yet I am prevailed on ic lo as I may do 

Tum deni(|ne interficiam te, cum jam nemo tarn nnprobus,tam perditus 
Tiien finally I may slay thee, when truly no one so base, so lost, 

tarn tui similis inveniri poterit, qui id non jure factum esse 

BO thee like to be found will be able, who that this not rightly was done 

fateatur. Quamdiu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, 

may declare. While any one will be, who you to defend r^ay dare^ 

vives: et vives ita, ut nunc vivis, multis meis et 

you will live; and you will live just as now you live, many by my and 

firmis praBsidiis obessus, ne commovere te contra rempublieam 

firm guards beset, so that not to move thyself against the republic 

possis. Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, 

you may be able. Of many you also the eyes and ears not perceivmg, 

sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atquecustodient. Et enim 

as hitherto they have done, will watch and guard. For truly 

quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius expectes, si neque nox 
what is if, O Catiline, which now more you can expect, if neither night 

tenebris obscurare costus , nefarios nee privata domus 

by its shades to hide assemblies your wicked, nor a private house 

parietibus continere vocem conjurationis tuae potest? si 
in iis walls to contain the voice conspiracy of your is able? if are 

illustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta jam 

made manifest, if burst forth to view all your designs ? Change now 

istam mentem : mihi crede : obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum : 
this intention: me trust: forget slaughter and flames: you 

teneris undique: luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia 

are hemmed in on every side : light are clearer than to us your designs 

omnia: quae etiam mecura licet recognoscas, 

all: and these things also with me it is proper that you may review. 

Meministine, me ante diem duodecimum kalendas 

Doyounot remember, f/iai I before day the twelfth the kalends of 

Novembris dicere in senatu, certo die fore in armis, qui 
November said in the senate, on a certain day would be in arms, which 

dies futurus asset ante diem sextum kalendas Novembris, Caiura 
day would be before day the sixth the kalends of November, Caius 

i»Ianllum, audaciae satellitem-^tque administrum tuae? Num me 

Manlius, audacity the satellite and assistant of your? Did me 

fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, tarn atrox, tam incredibilis, 
deceive, O Catiline, not only an affair so great, so atrocious, so incredible, 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 135 

verum, id quod mnlt6 maois est admirandnm, dies? Dix> e«:o 

but, that which much mora is to be wondered at, the day? Said I 

idem in tenatn, ca:'dom to optimatnm 

the same in the senate, the shiuj^hter that you of the chief members 

contulisse in ante diem quintum kalendas Novembris, turn euro 

had conspired on before day the filth the kalends of November, then when 

multi principos civitatis Roma, non tarn sui conservandi, 

many principal men of the state of Rome,not so much of its being preserved 

quiim tuorumconsiliorum reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num 
as of your designs being impeded for the reason fled from. Truly 

infitiari pntes le illo ipso die mcis praesidiis, meft dilisfentia 

must you not say that you on this very day by my guards, by my diligence 

circumclusum, commovere to contra rempublicam non potuisse, 

hemmed in, to move yoiursclf against the repubUc not have been able, 

cum tu, discessu ceterornm, nostrji tamen, 

when you after the departure of the others, with our notwithstanding 

qui remansissemus, cocdo contentum te esse dicebasi 

who should have remained, slaughter content that you would be said? 

Quid? cum tute Prceneste kalendas ipsis Novembris occupaturum 
What? when safely Praeneste kalends on these of November would seized 

nocturno impetu esse confideres: sensistine, illam 

by a nocturnal assault be you trusted: have you not perceived this 

coloniam meo jussu, praesidiis, custodiis vigiliis quo esse 

colony by my command, by guards, keepers watchmen and to bo 

munitam? Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, 

protected ? Nothing you do, nothing you attempt, nothing you contrive, 

quod ego non mode non andiam, sed etiam non videam, piano 

wliich I not only not may hear, but also which no* I may pee, plainly 

que sontiam. 
and understand. 



Et enim jamdiu, patres conscripti, in his poriculis conjurationw 
For indeed so long, fathers conscript, by these dangers of conspiracy 

insidiis que versamur; sod nescio quo pacto omnium 

treacheries and we are troubled ; but I know not by what means of all 

scelerum, ac veteris furoris et andaciae maturilas in nostri 

these crimes, and of long-continued fury and audacity the maturity in of our 

consulatus tempus crupit. Quod si rx tanto latrnrinco isle 

consulship! the tixue kas broken out. 13ut if from so «;reat violence thi* 




136 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

unus tolletur; videbimur fortasse an breve qu.iddara tempus 

one shall be removed j we shall seem perhaps for short some time 

curA et metu esse relevati : periculum autem residebit, et 

from c»re and from fear to be relieved: the danger but will remain, and 

erit inelusum penitus in venis atque in visceribus reipuljlicae. 
will be shut up within in the veins and in the bowels of the republic. 

Ut saspe homines segri morbo gravi, cum aestu febri que 

As often men sick disease with severe, with heat fever and 

jactantur, si aquam gelidam biberint primo relevari 

are tossed about, if water cool they shall drink at first to be relieved 

videntur ; deindj multo gravius vehementius que afllictantur ; 

they seem ; then much more severely acutely and they are afflicted j 

sic hie morbus, qui est in republic^, relevatus istius 
so this disease, which is in the republic, relieved of this man 

poenA vehementius vivis reliquis ingravescet. Quare, 

oy the punishment, more acutely by the living remnants will increase. 

Wherefore 

patres conscripti, secedant improbi secernant se a 

fathers conscript, let depart the base,let them separate themselves from 

bonis, unum in locum congregentur, muro denique, id 

the good, one in place let them be collected, by a wall finally, that 

quod ssepe jam dixi, secernantur a nobis, 

which often now I have spoken of, let them be separated from us, 

desinant insidiari domi suae consili, eircumstare 

let them cease to lie in wait for house at his the consul, to stand around, 

tribunal praetoris urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, 

the tribunal praetor of the city, to beset with swords the senate-hous^, 

m-alleolos et faces ad inflammandum urbem comparare. Sit 

fiery mallets and torches for burning the city to prepare. Let it be 

denique inscriptum in fronte uniuscujus que civis, quid de 

finally written on the forehead of every and citizen, what concerning 

republic^ sentiat. Polliceor hoc vobis, patres conscripti, tantam 

the republic he may think. I promise this to you,fathers conscript,so much 

in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tantam in Tobis 

in us consuls that there" shaW be diligence, so much in you 

auctoritatem, tant im in equitibus Romanis virtutem, tantam in omnibus 
authority, so much in knights Roman bravery, so much in all 

consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta. 

agreement, tha: of Catiline by the departure all things laid open 

illusliata, oppressa, vindicata esse videatis. Hisce, 

fho^m '"^rth crushed, punished to be you may see. Witb these same 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 137 

ominil)US, Catllina, cum summ;\ reipnblitoe salute, et ciim tul 
omens, Catiline, with the surest of tlio republic safety, and with Uiy 

pesto ac pernicie cum \ue eorum exitio, qui se 

crime and mischiel with and of those the destruction, who themselves 

tecum omni seelcro parricidio que junxerunt, proficiscere ad 

witli yo» in all wickedness parricide and have joined, depart to 

inpium bellum ae nefarium. Tum tu Jupiter, qui 

</:]/ impuris war and unhallowed Then thou, Jupiter, who by 

iisdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es 

the same wiiich this city was established, auspices Yy Romulus wast 

constitutus: qucm statorem hujus urbis atque imperii vere 

established Acre; whom the stay of this city and empire truly 

nominamus: hunc, et hujus socios a tuis aris ceteris que 

we call: this man, and his companions from thine altars other and 

templis, a tcctis urbis ac mosnibus, a vita fortunis 

tcni])les, from the dwellings of the city and walls, from the life fortunes 

que civium omnium arcebis: et omnes inimicos bonorum, hostes 

and citizens of all wilt drive away : and all the haters of the <Tood , enemies 

patriiB, latroncs Italiae, srelerum fanlere inter 

of the country, robbers of Italy, of wickedness by a compact among 

se ac nefaria societate conjunctos, 

themselves and in an mihallowed companionship joined together, 

ajternis supplieiis vivos mortuos que mactabis. 
with eternal punishments living dead and you will destroy. 

Note. — Lucius Sergius Caiilina, a Roman knight, of vicious and 
contemptible habits, had conspired against the Roman government. 
He had leagued together all the most abandoned men. to assist him in 
liis darmg undertaking. It was his design to attack the city of Rome 
" in the dead waste and middle of the night ;" murder the consul, sena- 
tors, and the other powerful men of the city; usurp the government, 
and establish himself as an emperor. But, by some means, the whole 
of his horrid intentions leaked out and reached the ears of Cicero, the 
then consul. Cicero immediately convened the senate ; but, strange to 
relate, the very object of their convention entered the house and took 
his seat with the other senators. No sooner, however, had he taken 
his seat, than the senators around him arose and left him, with marked 
scorn and contempt. Cicero then arose, and burst forth in the prexie- 
dV'T strain Dfelojuence. v % 9. 

12» 




138 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

THE CRUCIFIXION. 

MATTHiEUM.— Caput 27, Carmen 25. 

(25.) I c respondens, universus populus dixit: Sanjniis 3Jus 
And answering, the universal population said: Blood his 

snp3r nos, et super filios nostros. (26.) Tunc dimissit 

(be) npcn us, and on children our. Then he dismissed 

eis Barabbam: Jesum autem, quum flagellasset, tradidit 

tc thera Ba. abbas: Jesus but, when he had scourged, he delivered 

ut crucifigeretur. (27) Tunc milites prsesidis, 

that he might be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor, 

quum abduxissent Jesum in pragtorium, coegerunt 

when they might have led Jesus into the common hall, collected 

ad eum universam cohortem. (28) Et quum exuissent 

unto him all the soldiers. And when they had stripped 

eum, circumposuerunt ei chlamydem coccineam : (29) Et coronara 
him, they arrayed him in a robe scarlet ; And a crown 

e spinis contextam imposuerunt ejus capiti, et arundinem in dex- 
of thorns woven they placed on his head , and a reed in right 

tram ejus: et genu ante eum summisso, illudebant ei, dicentes, 
hand his: and the knee before him bending, mocked him, saying, 

Ave, rex Judaeorum. (30) Et quum inspuissent ineum,cepe- 
Hail, king of the Jews. And when they had spit on him, they 

runt arundinam illam, et verberabant caput ejus. (31) Et postquam 
txiok reed the and beat head his. And after that 

illusent ei, exuerunt eum chlamyde, indueruntque 

they had mocked him, they unclothed him of the cloak, clothed him 

vestimentis suis: et abduxerunt eum, ut crucifigerunt 

clothes with his own: and led away him, that they might crucify 

eum: (32) Exerntes autem invenerunt quendam Cyrenaeum, 

bim: Going out and tjiey found a certain man of Cyrene, 

nomine Simonem ; hunc angariave runt ut attollerit crucem ejus, 
uamed Simon j him they compelled that he might bear cross his. 

(33) Et qi: :m venissent in locum qui a citur Golgotha, (quod 
And when they come to a place which is called Golgotha, (which 

est, Calvarioe lo.5us,) (34) Dedenmt ei acctum bibendiim cum 
\»f of skulls a pla :;e,) They gav3 to him vinegar to drink with 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 139 

felle mistnm : et quum j^ustAsset noluit bibere. (35) Post- 

gall mixed: auil wticn he had tasted he would not drink Altex* 

qnam autern crucifixerunt eiim, partiti sunt ejus vcstimenta, sortena 
that and they crucilied him, divided his garments, lots 

jaciciites; ut imploretur quod dictum est a prophetA, 

casting; that might be lultilled which spoken was by the prophet, 

Partiti sunt sibi vcstimenta mea, et super vestem meara 

They divided to themselves garments ray, and above vesture my 

jecerunt sortem. (36) Et sedentes servabant eum illic: 
they cast lots. And down silting ihey watched hira there; 

(37) Et imposuerunt super caput ejus crimen ipsius scriptum, 
And they placed over head his crime his written, 

OTT02'E2TIN 'IH20T1: 'O BA2AETC2 TQN 'lOTAAmN 
HIC EST lESUS ILLE REX lUDiEORUM. 

THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 

(38) Tunc crucifigimtur cum co duo latrones; unus ad dextram, 
Then were crucitied with him two thieves; one on the right, 

et alter adsinistrara. (39) Qui ver6 praeteribant conviciabaD- 
and the other on the left. They and who passed by reproached 

tur, moventes capita sua, (40) Et dieentes, Tu qui destruis 
(him,) moving heads their, And saying, Thou who destroy est 

templum, et triduo a?dificas, servatemetipsura: si Filius 
the temple, and in three days buiidest (i/,) save thyself: if the Son of 

Dei es descendite e cruce. (41) Similiter autemetiam 
God thou art, descend from the cross. Likewise and also 

primarii sacerdotes illudentes cum scribis et senioribuSj 

the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, 

dicebant, (42) Alios servavit, sc'psum non potest ser\-aro: si 
said, Others he can save, himself not he is able to save: if 

rex Israelis est, descendat nunc e cruce, et ere. 

the king of Israsl he is, let him descend now from the cross, nnd we 

demus ei. (43) Confidit in Deo ; eruat ipsum nunc, 

will believe hira. He believed in God; let him save him now, 

si placet ei: dixit enim, Filius Dei sum. • • • 

if it please him: he said, for the Son of God I am. • • • 

(50) Jesus autcm quum rursum clamasset voce magna emi- 

Jesus and when again had called voice with a loud he sent 

sit epiritum. (51) Et, ecce, velum templi fissura est 

f3rth his spirit. And, behoW, the veil of the temple rent was 



140 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

in duas j artes, a summo usque ad imum j et terra mota 

in twj parts, froii the top c /en to the end ; and the earth shaken 

est, et pctrae fissoe sunt: (52) Et monumenta aperta sunt; 
was, and rocks rent were: And the graves opened were; 

et multa corporsf>. sanctorum, qui dormiorant, surrexerunt; (53) 
and many bodies of the saints, who slept, arose ; 

Qui egressi e monumentis post resurrectionem ejus, introTerunt in 
Wlio came out of their graves alter resurrection his, and went into 

eanctam urbem^ et apparuerunt multis. 
tiie holy city, and appeared unto many. 



PAUL'S CHARGE TO TIMOTHEUS. 

Epistle II, Cap. 4. 

(1) Obtestor TE, igitur, ego coram Deo, et Domine Jesu 
Charge thee, therefore, I before God, and the Lord Jesus 

Christo,qui judicaturus est vivos et mortuus, in illustri illo suo 
Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead, at glorious this his 

adventu et regno suo. (2) Prasdica sermonem ilium j insta 
coming and kingdom his. Preach word thej be instant 

terapestive , intempestive : argue, objurga, exhortare, cum omni 

in season or, out of season either: reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all 

lenitate et doctrina. (3) Nam erit tempus quura sanam doctrinara 
lenity and doctrine. For will be time when sound doctrine 

non tolerabunt ; sed auribus prurientes, ipsi sibi 

not they will endure j but. with ears itching, they to themselves 

secundum suas illas peculiares cupiditates coacervabunt doctores: 
according to own their peculiar desires shall heap teachers; 

(4) Et a veritate quidem aures avertent ad 

And from the truth indeed their ears they will turn away, unto 

fabulas vero divertent. (5) At tu vigila in omnibus, per. 

fables and shall be turned. ' But thou watch in all (things,) en- 

fer injurias, opus perage evangelistaj, ministerii tui plenara 
dare afflictions, the work do of the evangelist, ministry, of thy full 

fidem facito, (6) Nam ego jam liber, et tempus meae remigrationis 
proof make. For I am now ready, and the time of my departure 

instat. (6) Certaraen illud praBclarum decertavi, cursum 

M manifest Fight the very famous I have fought, the race 



LATIN GRAMMAR. 141 

consuinmav;.. fidem ser-avi. (8) Quod reliquum est, rcpo- 

I have linishei; lie laith 1 li;«ve kept. Hencelortli, there ia 

»ita est inihi justitias corona, (luam rcddet niilii Doniimis in 
laid up lor ine ol' justice a crown, which will yive to me the Lord in 

illo die Justus iile judex, 
that day just tlie judge. 



MATTHiEUM.— Caput VI, Carmen 9. 

Vos, igitur, itaprecamini: Pater nostcr qui es in ccelis, sanc- 
YEjtherelbre, thus pray: Father our wlio art in heaven, lial- 

ificetur nomen tuum: Veniat regnum tuum: Fiat voluntas tua, sicut 
.owed be name thy : Come kingdom tliy : Be done will tliy as 

in cobIo, (ita) etiara in terra : Panem nostrum quotidianura da nobis, 
in heaven, (so) also on earth; Bread our daily give to us, 

hodie: Et rcmitte nobis dcbita nostra, sicut et nos remittimus debito. 
to-day: Andiorgive us debts our, as also we I'orgive .debt- 

ribus nostris: Et ne nos inducas in tentationera, sed libera nos ab 
ors our: And not us lead into temptation, but deliver us from 

'.Mo malo. Quia tuum est regnum et potentia, et gloria, 

all evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, 

in sicula. Amen, 
for ever. Amen. 



LUCAM.— Caput XVIII, Carmen 10. 

(10) Homis'js duo ascenderunt in templum ut precarentur; 
Men two ascended into the temple that they might pra] t 

onus Pharisajus, et alter publicanus. (11) Pharisajus, ecu- 
one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee stand- 

sistens seorsira haec precatus est: Deus, gratias ago tibi 

ing with himself, thus prayed: O God, thanks I give to thee 

quod mn sim ut reliqui homines, rapaces, injusti, mcechij 
because not I may be as other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers ; 

vel etiamutiste publicanus; (12) Jcjuno bis hebdomade; decirao 
or even as this publican ; I fast twice a week ; I give the 

quaeeunque possideo. (13) Publicanus aulem procul 
tenth of whatever I possess. The publican and at a distance 

stanSj nolebat vel oculis in caelum attolcre ; sed percutiebat pectus 

standmg, would not his eyes to heaven hft up ; but bea breast 

Buu\n, dicens, " Dc?/5, placatur viihi peccatori '" 
liis, say ng^ " God, be tnerciful 'o me a sinner!" 



142 



THE PRINC.PLES OF 



ANALYTICAL TABLE. 

TLe following words correspond to the figures used 'w the first part 
of the ^neid, i. e. the Analysis. The object of this \able is to assist 
the scholar in separating words into their constituent parts, which sepa- 
ration is expressed throughout this work by the hyphen. By a careful 
itudy of this, he will perceive the specific use of the various medial 
letters, terminations, &c., and will find that all these divisions have a 
particular meaning. In translating the verb, he will observe that the 
word is rendered backwards. 

The following abbreviations are used : 

1 p., first person ; 2 p. second person ; 3 p. third person. 

pi. plural; where not used, singular is understood. 

i., indicative; tm., imperative; in., infinitive; «w6., subjunctive. 

pr.^ present; p., perfect. 

imp.., imperfect; plup., pluperfect; /., future. 

pass., passive; prep., preposition; ml,, medial letter or letters 

1., 2., 3,, 4., denote the conjugation. 

Examples. — i.pr., indicative present; sub. imp., subjunctive im- 
perfect; ml. 1., medial letter, first conjugation. 



Root. 


Ip. i.pr. 


Prep. root. sub. imp. 


3,,. 


1. Can 


o. 


6. In fer re 


t. 


Sing 


I. 


Into bring would 


be. 


Root. 


i. p. 3. 3 p. 


Root. im. 2 J. 




2. Yen 


i t. 


7. Memor a. 




Come 


has he. 


Relate thou. 





he. 



Root. ml. 3. in.pr, 

8. Volv e re. 
Roll to. 

Prev. root. in. pr. 

9. Ad i re. 
To go to. 

Prep. root. ml. Z. sub. imp. 2p. Prep, root sub. f, 3p. 
6. Con d e re t. 10. Im pul eri t. 

Together put would he. Into driven may have she. 



Root. ml. 1. i. p. pass. 3 p. 
3. Jact a tus es t. 
Tossed was 

Root. i. p. pass. 3 p. 

Pas sus es t. 

Suffer ed he. 



4. 



LATIN 3RAMMAR. 



143 



Root, t p. 3. 3;?. 

11. Fu i t. 
Was it. 

Root. ml. 2. i. p. Z.p.pl. 

12. Ten u ere. 
Hii have they 

Root, i.pr.3 p. pass. 

13. Fer t ur. 
Said she is. 

Root. ml. 2. in. p. 

14. Col u isse. 
Cherished to have 

Root. X. p. 3. 3 p. 

15. Fu i t. 

Was it. 

Root. in. pr, 

16. E sse. 
Be to. 

Root. ml. 3. tub.pr. pi. 3p 

17. Sin a n t. 
Permit may they. 

Root. ml.B.i.pr, 3 p. 

18. Tend i t. 
Endeavors she. 

Root. ml.2.i.pr, 3p. 

19. Fov e t. 

Cherishes she. 

Root. in. pr. pass. 

20. Duo i. 
Descended to be. 

Root. 77i/.4. i.plup. 3p. 

21. Aud iv era t. 
Heard had she. 

Root. 77>/.3. sub. imp. 3p. 
22 Vert e re t. 

Overturn would it. 



Root. in./. 

23. Ven turura ai4. 
Come would. 

Root. i. p. 3. p. pi, 

24. Volv ere. 
Decreed have they. 

Root, i.plup. 3 p, 

25. Gess era t. 
Carried had she. 

Prep. root, i plup. j .3p. 

26. Ex cid era n t. 

From fallen had they. 

Root. ml. 2. i.pr^ 3 p. 

27. Man e t. 
Remains it. 

Root. ml. 2. i. imp. 3 p, 

28. Arc e ba t. 
Driving was she. 

Root. ml. 1. i.imp. pi. 3p 

29. Err a ba n t. 
Wander ed they. 

Root. t. ijnp. 3 p. 

30. E ra t. 
Was it. 

Prep . root. ml. 3. in. pr. 

31. Con d e re, 
Tof^ether put to. 

Root. ml. 1. i.imp. pi. 3p. 

32. D a ba n t. 
Giving were they. 

Root. ml. 3. i.im:*. pi. 3p 

33. Ru e ba n t- 
Rushing were they. 

Prep. root, ml 3. in.pr. 

34. De sist e re. 
From sta? to. 



144 



THE PRINCIPLES OP 



Hoot. m. pr 

35. Po sse. 
Able to be. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. in. pr, 

36. A vert e re. 
From turn to. 

Root. i. pr. pass, 

37. Vet o r. 
Forbidden I am. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. in. pr. 

38. Ex ur re. 
Out burn to. 

Hoot. ml. 2. i.p. 3p, 

39. Pot u i t. 
Been able has she. 

Prep. root. ml. 3. in.pr. 

40. Sub raerg e re. 
Under sink to. 

Prep. root. i.p. 3p 

41. Dis jec i t. 

Asunder cast has she. 

Prep, root, i.p. 3 p. 

42. E vert i t. 
Over turned has she. 

Prep. root. ml. 2. i.p. 3p, 

43. Cor rip u i t. 

On seized has she. 

Prep. root. i.p. 3 p. 

44. In fix i t. 

On fastened has she. 

Prep. root. i.pr. \p. ^ 

45. In ced o. 

On give place *, or I walk. 

Root, i pr. 1 p. 

46. Ger o. 
Carry I. 



Prep. root. ml. sub.pr. 1. 3p 

47. Ad or e t. 
To pray may he 

Prep. root. ml. 3. sub.pr. 3p 

48. Im pon a t. 
On place may he 

Root, i.p, 3p. 

49. Yen i t. 
Come has she. 

Root. ml.3.pr. 3 p. 

50. Prem i t. 
Governs he. 

Root. ml.l. i.pr. 3p, 

51. Fraen a t. 
Restrains he. 

Root. ml. 3. i.pr. pi. 3p, 

52. Frem u n t. 
Roar they. 

Root. 7nl.2.i.pr. 3p, 

53. Sed e t. 
Sits he. 

Root. ml. A. i.pr. 3p, 

54. Moll i t. 
Softens he. 

Root. ml. l.i.pr. 3 p. 

55. Temper a t. 
Moderates he. 

Root. ml. 4. sub. pr. 3p, 

56. Fac i at. 
Do may he. 

Root. ml. 3. sub.pr.pl. 3p 

57. Fer a n t. 
Bear can they. 

Root. ml. 3. sub.pr. pi. 3p 

58. Verr a n t. 
Sweep can they 



PRINCIPLES 



OF THE 



ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX 



OF THE 



GREEK LANGUAGE. 





GREEK ALPHABET. 


• 


The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty- 


•four letters, t 


Oioracter. 


iNTa/ne. 


Sound 


A, a, 


Alpha, 


a 


B, ^, e, 


Beta, 


b. 


r, 7, r. 


Gamma, 


S- 


A, 6, 


Delta, 


d. 


r, f. 


Epsilon, 


e shi-jrt 


z, r, ?, 


Zeta, 


z. 


H, r}. 


Eta, 


e long. 


e, a, &, 


Theta,. 


th. 


I,', 


Iota, 


i. 


K,x, 


Kappa, 


k. 


A, X, 


Lambda, 


1. 


M, |x, 


Mu, 


m. 


N, V, 


Nu, 


n. 


H, 1, 


Xi, 


ks or X. 


0,0, 


Omicron, 


short. 


n, w-, tr, 


Pi, 


P- 


P, f , p, 


Rho, 


r. 


2, (T, ?, 


Sii^ma, 


s. 


T, r, 7, 


Tau, 


t. 


T, u, 


Upsilon, 


y or u. 


*i 9» 


Phi, 


ph, or f, 


x,x» 


Chi, 


ch. 


X+, 


Psi, 


ps. 


n, w. 


Omega, 


o long. 



13 



146 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



Characters. 



ABBREVIATIONS 
Letters for which they stand. 



xa/, 



St. 

kai, and. 
ou, noi. 



Note. — There are many other abbreviations, but these are in mcst 
common use. 



EXERCISES ON THE GREEK ALPHABET. 

Agrippas d e pros ton Paulon 
'Aypi'T'Tra^ 8 k it p o s tov IlauXov 
Agrippa then unto the Paul 



e ph e: 
said : 



'E'7r'i7ps<ff'<!7ai tfoi *u<rsp Csauroo 

Epitrepetai soi huper seautou 

It is permitted to thee for thyself 



1 e g e i n. 

X i y s I V, 
to speaic. 



Tote ho Paulos apelogeito, 

Tore *o IlauXo^ dirsXoygj'ro, 

Then the Paul defended himself, 



eKteinas 

i X T s i V a g 
raising 



ten cheira. Peri panton 

T r] V* y^ s I p a, IIspi -ravToivt 
the hand. Concerning all (things,) 



5 n 

of which 



egkaloumai 
lyxaXou/xai 
I am accused 



hupo Joudaion 
*u<o *Iou5aiwv 



by 



(the) Jews, 



basileu Agrippa, egemai emauton 

(3 OL (f I \ s V 'Aypj-jrcra, r\ y y\ \h a i J|xau7ov 
O, king Agrippa, I think myeslf 

makarion mellon apologeisthai, &c. 
jtaxotpiov juoeXXwv a-roXoysjo'^ ai, A'C. 
happy (that) I am about to defend myself, &c. 



• Pronounced fern, e long. 



t Pantone, o long. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 147 

TABLE OF DIPHTHONGAL SODj^DS 



m 


like 


i 


in fire, 


as 


STu-^ai, 


>h 


like 


i 


in fine, 


as 


TV^Sl, 


at, 


like 


au 


in Paul, 


as 


aulas* 


w, 


like 


eu 


in feud, 


as 


svps. 


01, 


like 


oi 


in son, 


as 


avloi. 


ou, 


like 


ou 


in our, 


as 


ou7oc:. 


w, 


like 


ui 


in quick 01 


we, as 


ulo^, whcos. 



OTHER SIGNS, ACCENTS, ETC. 

Note. — r, before 7, x, ;)^, or |, is sounded like ng in ring, 
as ayyeXog, (angclos,) a^xov, (angkon,) &c. Sigma, at the 
end of a word, is written g, otherwise tf. 

( * ) is called the rovgh breathing or S'piritus a^per; it is 
the same as k in English, as 6 {ho). 

(" ) is called the ciratinflex accent. 

( ' ) the acute accent, and ( ') is the grave, 

( ' ) is the soft breathings or spiritus lenis* 

( I ) This character written under a vowel is called the 
subscript iota^ {i written under,) as tcTj, oLpy^, &c, 

In Greek, the vowels s and are short ; >] and co are long, 
and a, », u, are doubtful ; called so because they are some- 
times short and sometimes long; as a in -rar-Jip is always 
long, in Xao? is always short, while in "ApTjcr, it may be 
either short or lonjr. 

( * ) The apostrophe is written over the place of a short 
vowel, that has been cut off from the end of a word ; as, 
aXX' for aXXa, xar' or xa^' for xara. This is done when the 
next word commences with a vowel, and in compounds, 
when the first part ends and the last part begins with a 
vowel. Sometimes the diphthongs are elided by the poets, 
as <?oAo,a' I70J for ^oAojaaj ky'^^ ; and sometimes after a long 
syllable, the initial vowel is cut off from the following 
word: as, w 'yak for w 'aya&i. Instead of the apostrophe 
or cutting off the final vowel, the concurring vowels are of- 
ten contracted : as, xax for xal ex, xayu for xa/ iyw, «Scc. 

* The spiritiis lenis indicates that the spiriiiis asper is not used 
Every word commer "inir with a vowel or (liphthonrr jms a spirrtvs or 
brcathins; on that vcKvel, while the diphthong has it on (he 2d letter. 



148 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

EUPHONY. 

The Green's paid the greatest attention to the smoothness 
of sound in their language ; and in this manner, it became, 
in a short time, one of the smoothest and richest languages 
on the known earth. This, they called Euphony ; and 
from a regard to this, they carefully avoided all harshness 
of sound by concurring consonants, not easily pronounced. 
The following rules will apply to this subject. 

1. Words ending in Cj, and verbs of the third person in 
s and I, add v to the termination, before a vowel or before a 
pause, in the same manner as we add ti to a in the English 
language ; as, a?i ox for a ox. This is called v appended. 

2. When two** successive syllables would begin with an 
aspirate or rough mute, the first is changed into its own 
smooth; thus, 'rpi-^og for ^p'X°^j '^p^X'^ ^^^ ^p^X^^ rps^w for 
dpscpu), &c., &c. 

3. A -r mute (-r, ?, 9,) before rf, becomes -s]^, (ps.) 

4. A x mute {x, ^, p^;,) before tf, becomes |, (x.) 

5. A r mute (r, 6, &,) before fx, is changed into rf. 

6. When C would stand between two consonants it is re- 
jected ; as, XeXsicp-^ov for XsXsj-tt'-o'-^ov, &c. 

7. When tf, by inflection, comes before tf, it is rejected. 

8. When both v and a<r mute together are cast out before 
tf s preceding it is changed into si, into ov^ and a doubtful 
70wel is lengthened; but 11 and w remain unchanged.* 



PUNCTUATION. 

( , ) The comma denotes the shortest pause. 

(• ) The colon or semi-colon, the next shortest; and 

( . ) The period a full stop. 

( ; ) Denotes that a question is asked, and is the same as 
( ? ) in English. 

* For the remainder of these Rules, see page 156^ on the vei b 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 149 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 

The Parts of Speech in Greek, are eight, viz: 

1. Substantive or noun, Adjective, Article, Pronoun and 
Verb, declined. 

2. Adverb, Preposition and Conjunction,* undeclined, 
(Far th* definitions, see Latin Grammar.) 

NUMBER. 

The numbers in Greek, are three : Singular, denoting 
0716 object; Dual, denoting two objects, (commonly in 
pairs, as a span of horses, the bird and its mate, man and 
wife, &c.,) and the Plural, denoting more than one object. 
The Dual is but little used. 

CASE. 

There are only five cases in Greek, there being no ab- 
lative ; the others are like the Latin. 

Note. — In Greek, the genitive and dative supply the 
place of the ablative. 

(For " Rules for the construction of Cases," see Latin Grammar.) 



OF DECLENSION. 

Declension is the mode of changing the terminations of 
nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives. There are three 
declensions of nouns and adjectives, in Greek, called the 
first, second and third. 

• The participle, which is considered by some jrrammanans, as a 
d'.stin.t part of speech, is more properly a part of the verb. It may 
be, also, an adjective. 

The Inter) octlon is thouj^ht by some writers to be an adverb or a 
tpccch ot'itseli' instead of Q.pirt 

6* 



150 



THIi PRINCIPLES OF 









TABLE OF DECLENSION. 












FIRST DECLENSION. 












Singular. 


Dual. 




Plural . 






N. 


G. 


n. A. 


V. N.A.V. G.D. 


i\r. 


G. D. A. 


J^. 


Mas. 


oi^S 


ou, 


a, av, 


a. a, ajv. 


ai. 


■srv, aij, aj. 


a 


Mas, 


^?» 


ou, 


??, >)V, 


>]. a, aiv. 


ai. 


ts-v, aij, ag, 


a. 


Fern. 


a, 


CIS, 


a, av, 


a. a, aiv. 


ai. 


•scrv, aij, a?, 


oc. 


Fern, 


^> 


'^Sj 


?]» ^v, 


»]. a, ajv. 


a<. 


^v, aij, a^, 


a. 








SECOND DECLENSION. 












Singular. 


Dual. 




Plural, 






N. 


G. 


D. ^. r. iVr..^.F. G.2). 


i^. 


G. D. Ji. 


F. 


Mas. 


OS, 


ou, 


W, OV, S. 


Oi, OIV. 


01, 


WV, Olff, ou^. 


01. 


JNmU 


ov, 


ou, 


W, OV, OV, 


(0, OIV. 


a, 


ojv, 01^, a, 


a. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 

Singular, ' Dual, Plural, 

N. G.D. A. V. N.A.V.G.D.N,G. D. A. V. 

M. ^ F. — ,*o^, I, aorav, likeiV. s, oiv. ss, wv, tfi, as, eg. 



Neuter. 



^0^, I, like iV. like iV. s, 



OIV. 



a, cjv, o'l, a, ce. 



RULES FOR THE ASSISTANCE OF THE STUDENT. 

1. The nominative singular always ends either in a long 
vowel or v, p, g, f and 4/. 

2. In the dual, the genitive and dative always end alike. 

3. The nominative and vocative are always alike in the 
plural, and generally in the singular. 

4. The genitive plural always ends in wv. 

5. The accusative plural of the masculine and feminine 
always ends in ^ ; of the neuter in a. 

6. In the neuter plural, the nominative, accusative and 
vocative end in a. 

7 The dative singular is known by having the suhscrlpi 
tota written under it ; except where it already ends in j. 

• The nominative terminations of this declension are numerous. Its 
genitive singular alw^ays ends in os, and has one syllable more than the 
nominative 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 151 

DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 





Singular, 




DwaZ. 




Plu >aL 


Mas 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. Fern. Nent. 


Noin. 6, 


t 
Vt 


TO. 


rw, 


Ta^ 


TW. 


oJ, ai, Tot. 


Gen. Tov 


friSj 


TOU. 


Ton/, 


rarv, 


ron/. 


T(I;V, TOJV, TWV. 


Dat, «roj 


^V* 


roj. 


Torv, 


Tan/, 


Ton/. 


Tor^, Tar^, Tor^. 


Ace, To'v 


rrjv, 


TO. 


TW, 


Ta, 


TOJ. 


Touff, Taj, Ta. 



Note. — 5s is sometimes annexed to the article through 
all its parts, when it becomes ois, ^^s, rods, &c., this. 



PRONOUNS. 

The Personaj. Pronouns, in Greek, are ^/w, /; tfu, 
thou; ou, of himself of herself of itself They are thus 
declined: 

eyuy I, 
Singular, Dual, Plural. 

N. G. D. A. N. A. G. D. N. G. D. A, 

iyw,(e)/xoiJ,(i)fio/, (£)|X£. voji orvw^ vojiv orvwv. ^jfXer^, >]|xojv, i^fxn/, 5j/xa^. 

tfu, thou, 
N.G.D.A.V. N.A.V. G. D. N.V. G. D A. 

(fu, (fou, (foi, (fg, Cm. (fcpui or tf^pw, (fipwiv or (f(puv. ifxsr^, u/xwv, CfJin/, C/x5^. 



ay, of himself <J*c. 
^. G.D.A. N.A. G.D. N. G. D. wf. 

— , ou, oj, t. (fip^, 0*9 jv. (fipsr^, tfipwv, O'(p»0'l, (fipo^. 

The PossEssiTE Pronouns are declined like the noun- - 
the masculine like the second declension masculine in og\ 
the feminine like nouns of the second declension, in a or 
*] ; the neuter like the neuter of the second declension, in 
■thus : 

Masculine, oc:, ou, 9J, ov, e, &c. 
Femiiiine, a, >) ; rjj aj ; >;, ot ; rjv, av ; >), a, &c. 
Neuter ov, ou, w, ov, ov, &c. 




152 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

The Definite Pronoun, auro^, is thus decl.ned: 





Singular. 




Dual. 




Plural. 




N. G. D. 


^« 


N.A. 


G,D. 


JV. 


G. D. A. 


Mas. 


aoT-o^, -ov, -w 


-ov. 


-w, 


-on/. 


-0?, 


-WV, -0?^, -OUf. 


Fern, 


avr.-n, -^jff, -?J, 


-T^V. 


-a, 


-afv. 


-a/, 


-ojv, -ar^, -Off. 


Neut. 


aur-o, -ou, -w, 


-0. 


-w, 


-orv. 


-a, 


-wv, -or^, -a. 



''AXXo^, oV and Ixsjvoj are declined in the same manner. 

The Eeflexive Pronouns are such as relate to the sub- 
ject of the proposition in which they stand. They are 
formed from the accusative singular of the personal pro- 
nouns, with the oblique* cases of au<ro?. They are s^aurou, 
of myself, (fsavrov, of thyself, §auTou, of himself. They are 
thus declined: 

Singular, Plural, 

G. JD. A. G. D. A, 

Mas. -ou, -0^, -ov, -wv, 'oTg, -ou^. 

Fern, ->3f, -jit -T^v, -wv, -aTg^ -as, 

Neut. -ou, -w, -0. -wv, -org-, -a. 

The Demonstrative Pronouns point out with precision, 
a person or thing already known. They are: 

ouTo^, avrr], rouro, i ^^^.^ ^^^ latter, the one. 

00?, Tjrti;, rods, ) ' 

hsivos, ixsivyjy sxsivo, that, the former, the other, 

Ourofe- is thus declined : 

Singular, Dual, 

N.V. G. D. A, N.A.V. G. D. 
Masculine, ovTog, toutou, <rou<rw, toutov. rovrUy rour'nv. 

Feminine, avrr], Tavrrig, <rauT>), rauryjv. rauTa, ravraiu. 

Neuter, touto, toutou, toutw, <rouTO. roi^Tw, toutoiv. 

Masculine ovroi, rourwv, toutoij, toutouct. 
Feminine, avrai, ravruv, raurcug, ravrag, 
Neuter, ravra, toutwv, Touroig, rovra. 

• AL cases, except the nominative, are called oblique cases 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 153 

*'03e is declined li-K'e the definite article o with the en- 
clitic OS annexed through all its cases, to render it emphatic. 
*Ex5jvoff IS declined like auro^. 

The Relative Pronoun is one that relates to a noun or 
pronoun going before it, called its antecedent. The rela- 
tive, OCT, rj, 0, whoy ivhich, (hat, is declined like auroj. It is 
made emphatic by adding the enclitic syllable -rep; as 
o'tf'Trep, yji^'Ep^ oVsp. 

The lon.c and Doric writers and the Attic tragedians use 
the article 6, rj, <r6, as a relative, instead of o^, -Jj, o. 

The compound pronoun oWjc: is used instead of 6V, as a 
relative, after T'ac:, or any word in the singular, expressing 
an indefinite number; and oVoj, after the same words in 
the plural: as, rug oVn^, every one who; itavrss oVoi, all 
who, &c. 

The Interrogative Pronoun is used in asking a ques- 
tion. The interrogative rig is thus declined: 

Singular. Dual, Plural. 

N. G. D. A. N.A.G.D. N. G. D. A. 

M. F. rig, Tivof, r»vi, rivet, ti'vs, tj'vojv. rivsg, rj'vwv, ri(fi, rivag 

JSeut. <ri, tIvoj, tjvi, ri. rivc, tjvoiv. T»va, tj'vojv, riVi, <r/va. 

The Indefinite Pronouns are such as denote persons or 
things indefinitely. They are: 

T<V, rigy ri, some one, declined like rig, above. 

Ssiv-cL, -a, -a, so7ne one, such a one. 

oiW-og, -Y], -0, another. 

erepog, srspa, erspov, other, a different one, another. 

The indefinite rig has the grave accent on the last sylla- 
ble to distinguish it from the interrogative rig, which has 
the acute accent on the first ; the former is enclitic, the 
latter is not. 

The indefinite bsXyia, someone, of all genders, and alway 
with the article prefixed, is declined like a noun of the 
third declension. It is, however, sometimes used indecli- 
nable ; as, genitive, raZ btTva, dative, tw SsTmol. 

All words used interrogativelv, are also used indefinitely, 
but generally with the accent changed. 



154 THE PRINCIPLES OP 



VERB S. 



In Gree.^, the Transitive* verb has three forms, called 
Active, Passive and Middle. 

An Intransitive* verb is commonly without the Passive 
form. 

The Middle Voice, in Greek, represents the subject cf 
,he verb as acting on itself; as Tu-TTo^aj, I strike myself; 
itXa-^^oLii^riv Tov cro()d, 1 hurt my foot ^ &c. 

OF MOODS. 

Mood is the mode or manner of expressing the meaning 
or signification of the verb. 

In Greek, the Moods are five, viz: — The Indicative, 
Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative and Infinitive. 

The Indicative mood is always used to express a thing 
as certain and actual ; as, 9tXs6j, / love^ tu-tttco, 1 strike. 

The Subjunctive and Optative moods represent an action 
as dependent and contingent, and never actual or certain. 
Not a thing that certainly 2S, was or will be, but that mayy 
can or might be or exist. The subjunctive represents this 
contingency or doubt as 'present j the optative as past. 

The Imperative mood commands, exhorts, entreats and 
permits ; as, ypacps, write thou^ iVw, let him gOy &c. 

The Infinitive mood expresses the sense or meaning of 
the verb in a general manner ; as, rutfrav, to strike. 

TENSES. 

Tense is the division of time into Present, Past and 
Future. 

Although there are, in reality, only the three above 
named tenses, yet, by certain other modifications, a variety 
of tenses may be formed: of these, in Greek, there are 
nine. They are the Present, the Imperfect, the First and 
Second Future, the First and Second Aorist, the Peifect, 
Pluperfect, and, in the Passive, the Paulo-post or Third 
Future. 

• F)r the lefi.iition of these terms, see Latin Grammar, p. 92 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 155 

The Present tense represents the time noiu passing. 

The Lwperfect^ time gone by or post. 

The Perfect tense, time 7^5? completed. 

The Pluperfect^ time preceding the imperfect. 

The First and Second Future^ time that will come. 

The First and Second Aorist, any time past. 

The Paulo-post or Third Future Passive, time that will 
come and be continued ; as, ^77^a-s|/e7ai, he shall conti?me 
enrolled. 

SIGNS OF THE MOODS. 

Indicative mood. There is no particular letter to denote 
this mood ; but its difleicnce from the others may be easily 
seen by a glance at the Table of the Verb. 

Subju7ictive mood, w and y\. 

Optative mood. 01, a» and t\. 

Imperative mood, e, ov, &w, «ri and ^1. 

Infinitive mood. e»v, vai, &ai and ai. 

The Signs of the Tenses will be seen, by referring to 
the Table on the Verb, or page 158. 



OF CONJUGATION. 

Conjugation is the manner of arranging the Moods and 
Tenses of the Verb according to a certain order. 

In Greek, there are two Conjugations: the first of verbs 
in w, the second in (xi. 

The different voices, moods, tenses, numbers and per- 
sons that a verb underpfoes by conjugation, may be referred 
to three heads: the Root, the Augment, and the Termi- 
nation. 

OF THE COGNATE MUTES AND RULES OF CHANGE IN I ETTERS 

The Mutes are nine, but all are founded on three, viz.: 
«-, which is formed with the lips, x with the palate, and t 
«rith the tongue. Add a slight roughness to -r smooth, and 



156 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

you have/? middle; next, the rough breathing (* ), and 
you have cp rough. 

K, with a slight roughness, becomes 7, to which add the 
rough breathing, and you have x- and, in the same man- 
ner, T becomes d and S. Y and f are called double conso' 
nants, being merely -tt and x, with C appended. 

II mutes, K mutes, T mutes. 

Smooth Iff X, r. 

Middle, p, y, 6, 

RDugh, 9, add tf make 4^. p^, add C make |. 6, 

If <f is added to r mutes, the mute is dropped : thus, fror-i 
avijroj you have dvutfw and not dvuro'w. 

11 mutes before i^ are changed into |l/. : as, TsVu/xixai for 
rsVu'ff'/xa/ ; <r£Vp<jUL|xai for Tsrpi^iion ; yiypaiJ^iiai for ysypacpiJ.ai, 

K mutes before (j^ are changed into 7 ; as, flfsVXs/fxai for 

N, before a * mute is changed into |x : as, ii^Qahu for 

N, before a x mute is changed into 7: as, n^icpayxa for 

N, before the liquids, (X, fx, p,) is changed in those let- 
ters respectively : as, (fuXksyu for (fvvXsyOf &c. 

When mutes come together, they must be of the same 
strength ; that is, smooth with smooth, middle with middle 
and rough with rough. Hence, when one is determined, 
the other must be made to correspond : as, irucp-Qriv for erwr- 
^>]v ; XsXsp(;-^s for \s\sx-6Sj &c., &c. 

Note. — The above business of Euphony, (especially the 
last rule,) is no 7iew thing; but one which occurs in the 
English, as well as in the Greek and Latin. There are 
more changes in a great number of words, in the English 
language, than most people seem to be aware of. Take, 
for instance, the words coZ-lect, co?7i-press, co-alesce and 
co?--respond, in which the Latin word con, by euphonic 
changes, becomes alternately col, com, co, (in which the ?i 
is dropped,) and cor. And why this change? Why not 
retain the original word co7i? Let us see. How would 
co7i-lect, co?i-press co?i-alesce and cow-respond sound? Very 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 157 

iT)iioli, I must confess. Hence, these changes are intro- 
duced in the language for the express purpose of making 
tha: language smooth. And in the same manner the syl- 
lables ??i, ne, si(b, ad, and some others, are changed into a 
great variety of forms; in, for instance, when used as a 
negative, and derived from non orne, Latin, becomes il, ?V, 
m, ig, if, (which, with d annexed, becomes dcf, as in dif- 
fident, dif-iicuh, (from facilis, easy,) and some others.) 
Sub becomes swp, suf, sue, sus, &c. ; and ad becomes al, 
at, af, &c. ; thus, eVi-vulnerable, zVi-competent, z'Z-legal, i??i' 
moral, z^-noble, dif-fident, dif-Hcuh. In all these cases, 
the syllable in italic, comes from in, the 7i being changed 
to I before I, ?n before m, g before w, and difheiovef, for 
the sake of Euphony or Sound. 

OF THE ROOT. 

The Boot is that part of the verb that remains un- 
changed throughout, (except as required by the rules of 
Euphony.) 

The final letter of the root is called its characteristic, 
because the verb is denominated picre, mute or liquid, ac- 
cording as that letter is a vowel, mute or liquid. 

In all primary forms of the verb, the characteristic is the 
^etter next to the termination, in the present indicative ; 
thus, X in \iy-(ji, 'T in Tps-rru, u in Xuw, v in rsivu), &c. 

Many verbs have a second and third root, i. e., the verb 
changes its forms in the second future and second aorist, 
and again in the perfect and pluperfect middle. The root 
of the present tense is called the^^^^^ root. 

OF THE TENSE ROOT. 

The Tense Root, or the Tense Sign, is that part of the 
Teib that remains unchanged through the same tense.* 

Note. — In some verbs, where there is no Tense sign, 
the verb root or the termination denotes the Tense. 

• Some Authors make the Verb Root a part of the Tense Root, 
bur, this is "vvTong. The Verb Roct remains unchanged through the 
verb, while the Tense Root through the tense, omy. 
14 



158 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

TABLE OF TENSE SIGNS. 

In Mute and Pure VerbSj the Tense Signs are m he 

Active, Passive, Middle, 

First Future, tf, ^^jrf, tf. 

First Aorist, tf, 6, tf. 

Second Future, .... s, 'j^o', £. 

Perfect & Pluperfect, [' ] or x, — , — . 

In Liquid Verhs^ the Tense Signs are, in the 

First Future, e, ^rjtf, s. 

First Aorist, — , 6, — . 

Second Future, .... s, ^l^", s. 

Pefect & Pluperfect, x, — , — . 

In the Present, Imperfect and Second Aorist, the tense 
is denoted by ihe terminations ; as, Present, w, si^, si ; srov, 
j'rov ; Ojasv, sts, outfi. Imperfect, ov, sg, s ; srov, sty^v ; o/xsy 
ITS, OV. Second Aorist, like the Imperfect. 

OF THE AUGMENT. 

The Augment is the vowel or syllable prefixed to the 
root, in the past or preterite tenses. 

The Imperfect, Pluperfect and Aorists take the augment 
in the Indicative Mood only ; so, on the Table of the Verb, 
the student should be careful not to use the augment in 
any other mood than the indicative, in the three above- 
named tenses, 

Note. — When the augment prefixes a syllable, it is 
called the syllabic augment. When it lengthens the ini- 
tial vowel, it is called the temporal augment. The first is 
used when the verb begins with a consonant, the othei 
when it begins with a vowel. 

The syllabic augment is formed by prefixing s to the 
augmented tenses, as i-Tu-vJ^a, ^-rjov, &c. ; the temporal, by 
lengthening o into w, a and s into ti ; as, a-(5w, ^-iov ; g-Xsu^w, 
ij-Xsudov ; ctj-poj, *>]-pov; o-putfCw, w-putftfov, &c. 

* In this place, the a is changed to fi while the » is r^ybscript, of 
'written under. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. i66 

The diphthongs ei and or, and the long vowels ij and w, 
remain unchang( d by the augnnent. 

A number of verbs commencing with e take the augment 
in €1 ; as, ^-/M, ei'/oi'. 

Where the verb begins with a consonant, the consonant 
is doubled before the augment of the Perfect; as, t-u-^tw, 
r-e-TU(pa ; t-iw, <r-e-T»xa, &c. 

The rough mute reduplicates its own smooth; as, (p-Jw, 

Verbs, compounded with prepositions, take the augmeni 
between the preposition and the root ; as, flrpotf-cpfpw, irpocf-i- 
(pspov, 

OF THE TERMINATION. 

The terminations consist of that part of the verb which 
immediately follows the Tense Root. 



We here present the scholar with a Table on the conju 
gation of the Greek Verb, containing all its changes; and 
by which the whole subject of Euphony will be seen, in 
the changes which the root undergoes, in being associated 
with different letters; as, also, the augment^ reduplication^ 
mood and tense. This Table was prepared, on the plan of 
Professor Thiersch, of Germany, by the author's son, at 
the Rochester Collegiate Institute, in the summer of 1847, 
expressly for this work. The Table exhibits, at a glance, 
all the changes that can take place in the Greek Verb, ex- 
cept the person and number, which will be found in the 
conjugation that immediatel}'' follows. 

In the Table, the following abbreviations are used : — 
Term, Terminations; Wa7it, Wanting; M. S. Mood Sign. 



160 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



•fe; 

P 






g 

En 
O 
O 

ft; 

H 

t— « 
H 

w 

X 



o 
a 

fcX) 

• I— > 
c 
o 

O 



0) 



o 

en 



O 
^ 



P 

> 



a 

02 



0) 






■S'lM 



3 3 



3 3 






5 5 § 

:3. :i 2- 



c 


■4-) 


G 


c 


c 


c 






cd 


C3 


K) 


rt 


CS 


C3 


3 


3 


?: 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 



'S-M 



3 3 



n3 

S 





s 

© 














,,_, 


<_, 


, . 




" 


o 


• 

3 


• 

3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






> 


• 

3 


• 

3 


<1 


•skI 


© 


S O 






^• 


. 


-t-> 


•!-> 






•4^ 








> 


rj 


a 


i3 


a 


^ 


• 




> 


> 


■73 




d 


s~ 


a 


crt 


CTl 


a 


« 


« 


rt 


s- 


5=- 






=L 


i. 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


:i. 


:5. 


^ 


:! 


:! 


•s -w 


o 


o 










o 


-.., 




<s 


o 


© 


« CO 


. 


> 


• 


c 


5^ 




• 


• 


• 






CO 


© -S 


a 


5^ 


ri. 


(S 


d. 


a 


a 


« 


« 






CO 

ci 


Hg 


i. 


:i 


:1^ 


:i- 


^ 


:i 


i. 


:! 


5^ 


5^ 


"s-w 


o 


^o 










o 


o 


O 






o 














• 






• 








. 3 


> 
o 


• 


a 


> 


> 

u> 


• 

3 


3 




» 


o 



s w I 



o 
o 

1^ 



© 

s 


r— ■ 


1 — 




^ ^ e e ^ g ^ 


© 

m 
83 

CM 






• 


C3 ©- b ^ %: V 
3 b> 3 3 :d O 3 
b- !> b- b- b- b- tr 


© 
© 




b- 


b- b- 


3 3 n> 3 ^ 3 ;d 

b- b. b- b- ^ b. b. 



© 
© 


•BTionuon^ip^H 


1 ^U) u> to u» 

1 b- b- b- b. 


b- 


•luauiiJny 


* ♦ * 


* * 

'■(J-v ?o 


•suonisodajj 







© 









^ :2 t: 7i, 



S^ o Dh Ph pLH Oh (i. ^ fjH <5 ^ 
J"" £ (n "^3 73 'tS (« Ti t3 CO "TS 



o 






C3 



0) 
biD 

a> 



o 

n3* 
o 
o 



o 

-3 

I— < w 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



101 



Q 
w 

;?; 

>— I 

H 
O 

O 






r3 
O 
O 



a 



;3 

iirH 



.-^ 


(« 


f-* 


a 


c 


o 






o 


<— • 


H 




•s 


lAI I 



\3 VS 



a « a 



§ « 5 

^ \3 \3 



rt « a 

^ \3 V3 



lu u> u> lu U) 



c3 



.— w 



Hg 



-Ti <IS ■^o J;- v' ;■' "^S "^O •'D t< « 



S "IV 



(ju u> u> 15?" iS:* 



H c 



> S a 

lu u> ;> 



a a 



« i ^ 3 3 S 

> uj tju k^ O u> 



•S -IM 1 



U> '^> "CU u> 





. 






^ \ 




•t-t 


• 


•«-» 


«-> 








• 


• G 




C 


C 


G 


a 


• • 




-a 






o uj rt 


• 


erf 


rt 


CJ 


rt 


a o 




Hg 




^ 




if 


is 


^ 


^ 




o 


•S -IM 1 


o 






















% 


a> 


S5 




• *? c 


o 


c 


r: 


ci 


C 




a; 

> 


> 


fc, . = 


3 

O 


g->-rt 


-^ 


rt 


rt 


rt 


rt 


jp -<5 










> 




> 


t» 


> 


> 




ed 












































•S 'IM 
















s- 5=- 


p 






















1—1 














^ 


^ 


, ; 






(U 










G 


c 


C 


. 




.— 


t- .— 


u> 


U> lu lu 


Mi 


u> 


c3 


rt 


rt 


o Co 




o 


H ^ 










^ 


J: 


?? 






< 
























•s -w 























1 <» 




























■so 






-4-> 


-»-> 


■•^ 


■♦-» 






-*-• 


. 


, 




;:^ 


;:^ 


c 




c 


G 


;^ 


:^ 


G 


i» 


;;. 




?r! -ti 


S5- 


;?» 


r^ 


^ 


r? 


rt 


s» 


«^ 


i:i 


s- 


i;- 




^ 
^ 




5. 


2L 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


"«:_ 


=5. 


^ 


^ 


^ 


o 




•S'lM 


o 


o 










o 


o 




3 


o 


o 










« 




• 
















a3 


1 03 




. 


o 


■♦-> 

r! 


o 




• 


, 


, 






0) 


•^ 
'S 


^■^ 


5>>* 




-co 


a 
^ 




^ 


C" 




<>* 


a.' 


siT 


-s 


^ 
Ph 


H g 


2L 


5L 


:;. 


-«. 


> 


=L 


5. 


5L 


R- 


B- 


♦J 


























Oh 
O 




•s -jv 


o 


O 










o 


o 


o 


i« 


lO 


c5 


s ^ 


. 


• 


. 


. 


. 


• 


. 


. 


G 
rt 


. 


. 




> 


,<u rt 


5! 


5, 


51 


2^ 


5. 


5i. 


5. 


5. 


5. 


3. 




o 
<1 


























o 


o 


o 


S 


s 


o 


o 


o 




a 


o 






^ «u-, u. t: d t 14 -*- •:- ^ •- 



14* 



162 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



TABLE, (Continued.) 



Tenses 


Participle. 


Active. 


Passive. 


Middle. 




Term. 


CO 


Term. 


02 

6 

d 



ov 

a 

6 


Term. 


Present, 




wv, 
wv. 

WJ. 

w^ 
w^ 
w^ 
wv, 

GOV. 

want. 
ag. 

wv. 


6 
6 

/ 



/ 


/ 



l^svog. 

IJ^l^ivog. 

want. 

/x|xevo^. 

want. 

fXSVOJ. 
fXSVOJ. 

sig. 


fxsvo^. 

jxsvoj. 

want. 

want. 

want. 

want. 

ILSvog. 

want. 

fjosvo^. 

fXSVO^. 


Imperfect, .......... 


First Perfect, 

Second Perfect, 

First Pluperfect, 

Second Pluperfect,... 

First Future, 

Second Future, 

Third Future, 

First Aorist, 

Second Aorist, 



The express design of the preceding Table, is to show 
the student, at a glance, the Mood, Tense and Voice of the 
Verb, without the Person and Number; and a Table like 
the foregoing, is better adapted to this purpose than one 
more lengthy, over the whole of which the student is 
obliged to look before he can find the Mood or Tense de- 
sired ; but for the better information of those who desire 
it, we give, commencing on the next page, a full conjugation 
of the verb tuVtw, by which they can ascertain the Person 
and Number, as well as the other par s of any verb of the 
first conjugation. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



163 






«J 






N uT r^ »- 



•5 a -5 a -5 ^ •£ 



g 0) -t, 



V3 1: o "t: 






ftn .- 



O 






3 
O 



U> (1) 



> O lu O) u> Q) 



^ 1^ g-^ S-fe 






•" hi. 




^ O 









o 

o 



3 to 

p ,!i 



:5 
1:3 






o 






>. "'fa 






^ D 



.fa 



O) 






*^ t— T -Ti— H >"»— T .-Ti— r 



U> rt >3 ^ 

_C2 fe 



^ 0) 



s 






to 3 



>-» el 






O 



O 



-a 
o 
o 

a 

o 

.a 



C3 

3 
o 






be 
c 

W 






cc: 



to 



^3 

c 

C3 



n3 
C 
C 
O 
O 

o 
-a 



V3 



a 

3 
C 

o 



Ph 
B 



(J 

fa 



fa ^ -2 



fa 

C3 



fa 



0) 

3 

fa 



3 
fa 



3 
fa 



O 






164 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 









>, 






. >> 


^ 


>> 


^ ^ 


^ ^ 




^ >> 


^ ^ 






o .JQ 








t5 

3 




3 ^ 








^ 0) 




_ 


*^ 








♦J 


-•-> 


•<-» 




^-> 


'^' 




<v» 




























tu 3 




uT 3 




tiT 


3 


fcT =r 


e = 




if = 


f 3 




^ 






-?. 




ST 


O 


^ 9 


-?. 




-*> 


^ ? 




Ri 














^ 








^ 






S « 




S oT 




u> 


o 


5 O 


M o 




S o 


5 QJ 






i-^ 




f^ 




3 


^ 


§-^ 


3;> 




31^ 


i^ 






• 

o 




• 

p 






9 

O 


• 

o 


• 
o 




• 

o 


• 

o 










.s 




• 
> 






>• ^ 

g ** 




it 


>5 














5^ 


>> 








^&- 






.^ 




rl3 






^ 


rC 


^ 




^ 


^ 




^ 




*•» 






■»-» 


■«-> 


■*^ 




■<-> 


'«-> 




^ 




«« 






^ 


•« 


^ 




„ 


«> 






o 




o 




^ 


o 


^ o 


^ o 




-. o 


► o 






^•^ ^ 




s ^ 




o 


^ 


p ^ 


§ ^ 




p ^ 


§ ^ 






O 1-» 




r2 — 




b. 


-4^ 


fc- •*-> 


fc- *-» 




t *-. 


fc- — 


• 




^ o 




S^ 0) 




?:• 


o 


*^ o 


*^ 0) 




^ 0) 


5=- OJ 






>H 




>H 






>< 


>^ 


>^ 




>^ 


>^ 


S 


























;?; 


























HH 




• 




. • 




• 


• 


• • 


• • 




• • 


■ • 


H 




u! a> 


• 


-^ 




5?^ 


a> 


jr^ O 


sv o 




s?", a> 


?^, o 


« 


v: 


^ 


n 






,^ 


'^ ^ 


^ 




ri:5 


ri:; 


O 


Q 




o 










^ 










O 


•-0 




o 










CJ 














^^ 


S 


^ 






«i« 


•« 3 


«^ 




9^ 


•% 


T 


u> o 


e 








3 
O 




-5 




^ s 

^'^ 


^J 


o 
o 


^ 


■«-* 


H 


■*^ 














■4-> 


*^ 


o 




i^^' 


t3 


3*-^ 


• 


3 


H- T 


3 i-H ^ 


3(-r 




s'h^- 


31-1 


-si 


• 
<4> 






P 




e3 




p— 1 


> 


have 
Might 


> 




ba 


t/3 


•— < 

Q 


^ 


v 


4 




L 


S 

. CD 


i 

bo 


t—j 


>> 

B 

ri4 


k may 






^1 






1 


12 






S 




o 

3 


1 - ^ 


^ 2 


1 








cci 


•-^ 






^ 


W 


W t^ 


"w 


"w 


"w 












• 






^-^ > 


^_ 


oT 


















b- 






to ^ 
b« CO 


3 
3 




















^:^ 


>> 


n3 






















^ 








bo 


ru, 












1 




Ol 








^ 






•«.» 






1 




n:^ 








^ 








1. 

O 






O 




C3 
















• 

o 






0) 


3 


CO 

• ■-< 








o 






*2i 






'-' 3 
CD ^ 


3 


3 


o 








< 




in 


P4 


flH 




2h Ph 


S 


fe <i 


<1 






n^ 




s 






t3 ot 


n3 


•4^ 


CO T^ 






Qi 






P- 


1 


1— I 


«— 1 




(M r-l 


Oi 


1— « 


1—1 


N 



1 



f 

I 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



165 






uT 3 
fc- o 






b- O 



3 



U> U> U> Wk> U) 



« a 

3 3 



a a a 

ts >3 Vd 

3 3 3 
I — «~ I — 

*^tu »>V '<o 



<u 



1^ 



> b- 





o 




o 


> 






^ 




^ 








<«-» 




■«-• 








• 
















> >> 








•4-* 




•«-» 


^ 






^ 




^ 


j^ 






O 




o 


b- 






>S 




o 








*- Q) 




b- OJ 








>H 




>^ 


> 

o 

b- 






• 6 




• qS 






, 


^ 




M 






o 








•■ 




o 












o 


^ 3* 




^ 3 






«j» o 




Co O 






> 


^ 

••-• 


o 




vT 


• 


H 




^ 








-«j 


-^k-i 


„ 


-t">— ( 


5. 


^ 


H 


i 


bu 


i 


<w 


o 




_c 


<u 




ftn 






S 


> 

o 




"♦o 






en 


o 


5: 




° a 


CD 


1 — 1 >» 




^ 






rQ 


^B 


%) 






■4-> 


b- 


-^ 



lU U> U> UJ <J» 

i i i i d. 



s- R- jr K" j^ 

b- b- b> b> b- 



b- b> b- b> b> 



\ji \ji yj> yji yj) 



-Tt-^ - -t"i— T 5 l!!^ 2 J J J s 



d. i i i i 



5 >3 



a 

\3 



u 0) bD ^ 

^ i3 ^ I S 

"♦J 



►4i 



V V V V 
^ L =» P 

b- b. b. b- 



O) 

a 
S 






f- ^ 



-g r^ CO 



^ .^ ,- 



^ <^ o 






0-, ^ ^ 









(-1 

Oh 


0) -3 t- 

0.2:= 


.^ "55 


"n 




t-l 


Z5 


-.=" "S 


o'S 


ex 


&H 


Ph 


an 


Pnt^fa 


-<<< 


e 


CO 


^3 


M 


t3 CO '^ 


CO '^ 


«— 1 


1— i 


(M 


1—1 


Ci <-! Oi 


1-1 c^ 



3 3 
I — I — 



3 



3 ^ 



3 3 3 
i~- t — r — 

V«* v^ ^l*» 



3 3 3 

^CU »^ *IA> 



*;: ^ V V 



b- > 



V V V 



b- b- 



-« 



a 

« '^ 

« -^ 

CO ^ 

o 

— (U ^ 
'tZ CO ^ ■ 



CO 



•■to _^ to 

b- Q^ b- 

3 ^ CO 

in --^ "1> 
c/j '^ > 

> d- 



e: & 



o 

3 


3 




M 


rn 


*-» 




f/J 


> 


0) 

> 



- Si a. 

:::. o o i: t-i 

DO CO ~? 

•■ t_ «.,_ CO 

•-» fc- t, •• » 

S-" a o t;; ■— 

<JJ cu a,-— CO 

'^ 3 =3 *- "^ 
O) 



■*-' OJ ^ 
^Sco'Oco'^co'3 



166 



THE PRINCIPLES Of 



o 
o 

1-4 

< 
o 

n 



^5 



■^1 

o ° - « 



,^3 



5 - =^ 



aba 



I— u> to . •- . »■ W U> U) 

'-' •>q-| ■TD **> *" "=15 "n ■■^D 

pa-, OU U> ©- t3- U> U> U> 






•J> U) UJ ^ i^ U3 to UJ 



:i. :L-o ^o ^c 



•"^"^xj 'JO 2 ^ "^^ "^^ "^li 

O >3 \5 ^S "^ VS \3 >3 



5^ 5^ 



u> lo 






r. T> "=0 *^ o "^ ■"=0 ro p p 

O ^ ^ ^ 7^ -; ^ ^ 



v>j <Aj _> , to U) u> 



:L i 



H 
o 

o 
> 

> 
»-( 
m 

CO 

< 



il 



Ss 
^ 





• 

i 


° i £ 5 
.^ fe fe ^ 

<» f t^ u> 


5 


• 


5^ 


F" 


o 


5?l 




S? 


S^ 






1— r 


5 

:5. 




5 


5 


>" 


>" 



3 



o 



>3 

o- 

(:• b- b 



\3 



5=- 5^ 



fc. b 



b> b- 






^'<w -^ 



1 i^l 

,_, rt 5^ <U rO 
^ O rt c3 ^-^ 

ti t^ ^ -^ --^ 

CL, h5 P- P-i r-t 



O) 0) 

•r =3 



C" CO 






.^ en 

1-1 CM 



t> -TO 



O 

•4-J 

cT 



0) 

o 



i'3 






1-3 



:5- 



.t- 



^^ 






5 ^^^ 






■"53 

ST 



5^, 



- a 

■^ d- 






<3-<3- 









»3'i3- 



fc- b. 
IS- is- 



b b- 
15^ 15^ 



b- b- 



S-. jr. 






. '3 i3 






03 i 






^^ b- 



rAe 






QJ Vt V 



^ is 



0) 



C 
O 

o 
CO 



Irf 






a> _Q 



> 



CD 



_£3 









^ s 



j:3 



^ " _§ -S .^ OT 
CL, »±^ Ph PL| f-i <M 



>3 VS 



a a 

Hi «o 

:5- :3 



5^ S- 

\3 >3 



\3 <=V 



i. i 



b> b- 



§■ ^ 
i i 



p => 



CJ 

Ki S 

^ o 

CO X 



GREEK GRAJIMAR. 



167 



•£3 «•» > 

4-* U> 






2, «^ "S "2 ^ -^ ^ 

*^ w Vs Va \3 S- S- 

ffi lO M .s ^ 

b. :i « a « >~ >" 

B K- ^D TO "=Ci U) u> 

»C U> «ju (u J J 

"iS :J. i i |: g^ 



S3 *rt 



J=- !^ S- ^ g. 
•^ •^ -^ f^ r^ 
o to \3 vj;:- v^ 



5^ «" 



♦J ^ 



> > 



=• > > 

000 

^ ^ ^ tS r2 
o >=> \3 jr j;:- 



> > > 

000 •> •» 

^5 ^D "^ > > 

10 tu Ul o o 

— ■ r- 




?=■?=• ^ .B 






:^ 3 






s 


> 


• 


\3 


a 


a 


3 


Va 


^ 


*t) 


3 


3 


e- 


ir 


fa> 


^ 






u> 






■«Ii 


•k 


^ 


e- 


u> 


b. 



3 



^33 



3 3 



\r b- 



3 

e- 



3 3 

b* b> 



o r - 



-4- O 



<i) 



S^ K- 



«>> -=33 ^ 
O 0- V 

^ ^ T> ^g 









3 i^ 0) i:: Jh 



W 0) 0) - 



o «-• *-• 



c «- ^ l; g M 

<L rt o o) ^ o 

«-■ c 0) _:i *-' _w 



3 
o 

{> ^ S 
^ .^^^ 

■« ^ -Kj O 

Q ^ S? W ^ 

^ :3 -^ ^ ^ 
V o Jo c; -^ 

« -'^^^ 

^ ^sj •♦•J 03 

> f:i ^ § ^ 

^ 05 ^ I 

^ ^i- uj -^ 

* ^ Vi (D 

^' t^^ 

• O) (-. <D 

2 ^ i: ^ 
g --= CO rz3 

.^ i: S ^ 

jj QJ I— < 



^QQ THE PRINCIPLES OF 



«o 



;^ 



o 



>- « o • . . § .5 S b ^ 









o 



-rf 



^^ <D <D V* i I 









^ ^ ^^ ^3 



P :: > 



u 



B > ^" 






o JS "^^ to 



ta 






gl1€ 111 1 l« 1 



o 






g |.^,3 § > o o| H ^: H O 5 J 

S5g555 ??•< ^p £ o 



05 






..1 «<-r«»r^i^ "^ ® 



« r^r? 



WOT . "• . M J^ 2^ 

ti C^ r-i d C^ •-• CM 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



169 



SECOND CONJUGATION, OR VERBS IN MI 

Place the root of any verb of the Second Conjiiq^ation, 
in the blank under " Root,'^ in the following Table, and 
veil have it conjuj^atcd. 

Note. — The significations are the same as those in the 
First Conjugation. 



ACTIVE VOICE. INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Tezse. Aug. Root. Singular. Dual. 

Present, - — juii, f, Ci ; 7ov, 7ov ; 
Imperf. s — v, g, rior6j;7ov, 7>5v; 
2d Aorist, s — Like the Imperfect. 



Plural, 



fA5V, 



7^, 
7s, 



(ft. 
(fav. 



fXfV, ISy tfi. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Pr3sent, - — w, f, rjoru; 7ov, 7ov; 
Imperf. I — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
2d Aorist, s — Like the Present Subjunctive. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Present, — — r]v, rie:, rj ; rflovj r)7T]v ; iifAJv, rpSy rjfl'av. 
Imperf. s — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
.^d Aorist, e — Like the Present Optative. . 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Present, — — — , oi, 76j ; 7ov, 7wv ; — , 7ff, wtfav, 

Imperf. I — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 

2d Aorist, e — — , e^oro^, w; 7wv, 7ojv ; — , Is, wCav. 

PASSIVE VOICE. INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, — — fxai, Cai, 7ai ; ^ov ; fxs^a, tf^s, v7ai. 

Imperfect, s — fjLrjv, Co, 7o ; s^ov, (f^yjv ; g^a, C^s, 7o. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, — — fjiai,foor^, 7aj ; ^ov ; jitf^a, tf^j, v7aj. 

Imperfect, I — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

Present, — — jaT)v, ©r, 7o ; ^ov, 4y)v ; jas^a, tf^g, 7o. 
Imperfect, I — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 

imperativE'mood. 
Present, - — — , (j'uorou,C^w ; tf^ovjcf^wv ; — , tf^s, tfJojCav. 
Imperfect ? — Like the Imperfect Indicative. 
15 



170 



THE PRINCIPLES OP 



MIDDLE VOICE. INDICATIVE MOOI 

Tense. Aug. Root. Singular. Dual. Plural. 

Present and Imperfect like Passive, through a 1 the Moods. 
2d Aorist, s - — fXTjv, (fo, 7o ; 4ov, ^yjv ; iis&a, (f&s, v7o. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

2d Aorist, s — waai, wor^, 7a» ; fxs^ov, (fhv ; iis&a,, (fdis, wv7ai 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

2c Aorist, I — ai^v, o, 7o ; ^ov, 6riv ; /xs^a, (f&s^ v7o. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

2d Aorist, i — — , (ro(ou) C^w ; tf^ov, C^wv ; — , (f&s, (f&u)(foLv. 



RULES. 

1. A verb must agree with its nominative in person and nc. 

2. Adjectives, participles and the article, agree with 
their nouns, in gender, number and case. 

3. Trans, verbs in the active voice govern the accusative. 

4. One noun governs another in the genitive. 

5. Intransitive verbs admit a nominative case after them. 

6. Some nouns are put absolute with a participle. 

7. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs 

8. An adjective in the neuter gender, without a noun tc 
qualify, governs the genitive, and sometimes the dative. 

9. E/V» and yjvofxai, signifying property, possession or 
duty, govern the genitive. 

10. E((xi, yjvofjLaj and u-Trapp^w, taken for the Latin haheo 
to have, govern the dative. 

11. Many verbs govern the genitive and dative. 

12. Prepositions govern the genitive, dative & accusative 

13. Participles govern the same case as their verbs. 

14. One verb governs another in the infinitive, 

15. The infinitive is often used as a noun. 

16. The cause, manner and instrument are in the dative, 

17. The relative og agrees with its antecedent in gender 
ani number. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 171 



ANALYSIS OF MAT0AIor, Keep ^. 

N. G. D. A. V, 
Translation. Syntax. Etymology, 

The (^-1) T-ou IrjCoiJ, 2 m. o, Toi7, rw, <rov. — 

when yzv-fi^ZMlog 6s conjunction, Indeclinable. 

Jesus, ysvri&ivlog Irjtf-ou, 2m. g. abs. ouj, o u, ou, oCv, oi;. 
being born yev->)^-£v7oj IrjCou, fV, £v7ocr, £vr», ^vra, tig, 

in sv prep. B>]^X£s|x, Indeclinable. 

Bethlehem, iv Bri&Xssy^^ Indeclinable, 

of the Tvij 'Iou(5a»a^, f. s. rj, 7^^, 7>j, 7^v. — 

Judea, B>]^Xt£/x 'Iou5ai-a^, 1 f. s. a, a^, a. av, a. 
in ^v prep, riaspaij, Indeclinable, 

the days iv riiiip-aTg, 1 f. pi. at, wv, aTg, ag, at, 

of Herod r;|x/paij 'Hpoj6-ou 1 m. s. rig, ov, j), i^v, a{Yi), 
the Tou ^atfjXf'wff 2m.s. 6, 7 o u, 7:7), 7ov. — 

King-, oj/x/paij ^adtX-i'^g, 3 m. s. 6;;V» ^'w^, ^r, e'a, giJ, 

behold, <(5ou (cTu), verb from £»(5w, Imper. Mood, 

wise men iiciy -oi Trapsysvovro, o/, wv, or^, ou^, o/. 

from a-ro dva7oXwv prep. Indeclinable, 

the east a-jro ava7oX-wv 1 f. pi. al, wv, ar^, af, a/, 

came |xa,yo» 'irap-i-ysv-o-vro verb, from itapayivoixai, 

into elg 'IsporfoXufxa, preposition. 

Jerusalem, s/V 'IsporfoXu/jt-a, 2n. a, ojv, oij:, a, a. 

Saying, (2) Aey-o-v7-sc:, jxa^oi, ovleg, wv, oiJCi, ov7af, &;c. 

where ecfriv IIou adverb. 

IS eVt-i-v verb. erfxj', s'/(j), £fl'7»(v), &c. 

(he) who 6 TS-)(&sig 2 m. 6, toiJ, <rw, <rov. — 

is to be born 6 rs-x^-&-sig part, from tjxtw, &c. 
king ^a(ft\s-ug, 3 m. j , wj^ /, a, j. 

of the T-wv 'Iou(5aiwv2m.pl.a/, 7ojv, lalgfloug^ — 

Jews? 'Iou(5a»-wv ; 2 m. pi. ai, wv, aTg, ojg, cu 

We have seen 576-o-|xev dtfripa verb, from £«^w or ekJew. 

Note. — For pa-sing the verbs, see page 238 



172 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

for ItfTiv yap sUoy^sv conjunction, 

of him, arfrspa, aur-ou, 2 m. o^, o u , w tv, 

the ^-ov ctCrspa, 2 m. d, 7ou, <rw r d v, — 

star Siboixsv atfrsp-a, 3 m. ^p, ^po^, ^p i, » p a, s'p 

in ^v ocvaroX^ preposition. 

the 'r-rj avaroKji 1 f, ^, t5j^, r^, t^v, — • 

east Iv avaroX-J, 1 f, ^, ^j, ^, ^v, ^, 

and e75o|X£v xa/ -^X^o^sv, conjunction, 

have come (V^*^) ^-X^o-/^sv verb, from ^p;)(o/xai, 

to v/crship ifpo(f-xvv-r}-(fat inf. from •rpotfxuvsw. 

him. 'ff'poo'xu^a'ai, au<r-w. p. pro. m, oj, ou, w, ov, 
Heard'Hpw^vj5(3) 'Axou-tfa^ (raulwv) verb, from dxsw. 
when dxosVaff 5s conjunction. 

Herod *Hpw5-7]j axoutj'a^, rj ^, ou, jj, >3v, ijora, 

the 6 ^adiksvg 2 m. 6, tou, rw, tov, — 

king (BoLtfiX-svg 3 m. su^, ewj, si ga, su. 

he was troubled ^-rapap^-^ig, from •raparfd'w. 
and STapd^d^ xa/ conjunction, 

all crao'-a 'IspotfoXu/xa, •n'afl'a, aj, a, av, «, 

Jerusalem, 'isporfoXu/x-a, 1 f. d, a^, a, dv, d 

with i^st' auTou, preposition, 

him, fiST* auT-ou, per. pro. m. o^, o u, 9J, ov 

and (4) Ka; conjunction, 

called together Cuv-ay-a^-wv -ravlaj part, from tfuvdyw, 
all (fuvayaycbu iravr-ag, adj. from 'n'aj, -ratfa, «7fav, &;c, 

the T-oCf *ap-)(^iSpsTg 2m. pi. oi, twv, ToTg^ 'roug, — • 

chief priests Vpp(;i?p-£r^ 3 pi. m. sTg, gwv, cutfj, sTf, sr^, 

and tfuva^aycbj/ xa/ tfuvaya^wv, conjunction, 

scribes Ciiva^a^coi/ ypajXfxctT-gr^, 3 pi. m. sr^r, gwv, Eutfi, sTg', sTg, 
of the r-ou Xcrau 2 m. 6, r C, tw, tov, — 

people ypajj.pLaTfiis Xa-oi> 2 m. o^, u, w, ov, 5, 

asked *Hpw5y]& i-nwdav-S'TO from 'n'uv^dvo/xai. 
of 7ra/)' auTwv preposition, 

hem 'T'ap' avr-cov pro. m. plu. 0/, w v, ofg', oiJ^, 0^ 



/ 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



173 



where yswalai croC adverb, 

the Xpig'og, 2 m. o, <rou, tw, tov, — 

Christ Xpis'-ogyevva7ai,2m. og, oG", w, ov, g, 

should be born, ygwa-cai. verb, from yivaQ 



They 

and 

«aid 

(to) him 

in 

Bethlehem, 

(oO the 



(5) Oi siVov pro. m. plu. ol, to^v, tokt, Tovg, — 
6s conjunction. Indeclinable, 

ol SiV-ov verb from e crw. Defective. 
9 



ou, 



ov. 



s/'Tov auT-w ::i m. o^, u^, ^^, 

iv Bti^Xssjx, preposition. 

£v "ByjflXgl/x, Indeclinable. 

<r-^j 'Ix(5a(af If. »?, ttjj, r^^, ti^v, 



Judea, T% (scfliv) 'laSai-ag^ 1 f. 
thus ysypoLitroLi Oicr-w Adv. 
for ^£vvarai yap yiypaifTai 



a?, 



a. 



ctv 



ct. 



it is written y^-^'pa-jr-rai 

by 6»a "Trpo^p^rou 

ihe r-ou «rpo(p>;Tou 

prophet ^/a «rpo(pr;T-ou 1 m. 

And (6) Ka; 

thou (f-li 21 

Bethlehem, Q. Br]^Xsi/x, 

land y-yi 1 f. 

Judea, yr] 'lou^ot 

not ou5-ajawj £/ adverb, 

the least ^Xap^iV-^j (fu 1 f. i^, tjct, >j, >jv, 

art o'u ei gj|x», sJ, gc-ri , &c. 



conjunction, 
verb, from ypaipw. 
preposition. 

0, TO u, <r:>), 

conjunction. 

tf u, (I'd;;, Cor, 
Indeclinable. 

7^» '^^» ?i» 



TOV, — - 

^v, a 



amongst 
the 



01, 



iv r;^e/xoo'jv, 

noble princes ev Tj/^fxo'-rfi-v 3 plu. m. 
of Judea, 'Jj^'jfjLofl'jv 'Li-a 



preposition 

TWV 



, TO If, TOV^, - 

Dative. 



from 

you 

for 

sha'l anVg 



e'' fl'oi> preposition. 

Ix tf-oJ pro. 2 plu. (fj, c iJ, <toT^ d 
£1 yap i^sXsvtfSTai conjunction. 

i^-s\sv(rs-rat verb, from e^/pp^o/xai. 



16^ 



174 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

one ruling ^yci^sv-oj IfsXsJtfSTai from riyoviiat 

who o-5'is 'jfoi^avsT pron. com. o^and rig. 

will protect og'ts Aroi/xav-sr verb, from -n'o/fn-atvo. 

the T-ov Xaov 2 m. 6, toC, <rw, tov, •-• 

people flTJiaavs? Xa-ov 2 m. o^, ou, w, ov, ^» 

of me Xaov /x-ou pronoun. ^yw, jx o u, fxoi, |x^, — 

the T-ov 'ICpao^X 2 m. 6, ^ou, tw, r o v, — • 

Israel, ifaiiuxvsT *l(fpc(.ri\ mas. Indeclinable, 

then rixpi3cA)(fs (7) Tors, Adverb. 

Herod, ^HpC}8-7ig, 7ixpll3u(fs r}g, ou, >], >]v, ijoreu 

secretly xakitfag Xa^pa, Adverb, 

having called ycaXid-aS perfect participle, from xa>£w 

the <r-ou5 /xa^'ouj 2 m. o», rwv, ror^, rouj, — 

wise men xaXidoig |xa/-oLi^, 2 m. p. oi, wv, ojj, o i; g, 6(. 

inquired 'Hpwiirjj ■^-xpi/^w-o'g, verb, from 'axpi/3o'co 

of flTapa aurwv, preposition, 

them cfapa aur-wv pr. m. p. oi, <r w v, ror^, <rou^, •!• 

the <r-ov %po'vov 2 m. 6, tou, rw, r o v, — 

time ■y)xp»/5w(3's %po'vov 2 m. oj, ou, w, o v, s. 

the c-ou (paivo/xs'vou 2m. 6, roC, rw, tov, — 

shining Xpovov (pa»vo|xsv-ou 2 m. o^, o u, w, ov, s, 

star, (pajvo/xs'vou 'atfrs-poj. 3 m. vjp, s p o f, s'p;, gpa, £p. 

and (8) Kai conjunction, 

having sent ^six-vj^-a^ a-Jrou^, part, from •^s/x'Trw. 

them 'TSix-vJ^a^ aurouj 2 m. pi. o<, wv, oi?, o u ^, oi. 

into s<V Bs^Xssa, preposition. 

Bethlehem, e/j Bs^Xjgfx, Indeclinable, 

he said (auToj) s/V-s verb, from s atw 

departing, part. 'ropsu^ivT-sf, (i5|x£r^) part, from 'Topeuw. 

diligently *a>cp»/3w^', adverb. 

»2arch (u|xsrg) al-aTatf-oi *-£ verb, from i^sra^cjjy imp. 

concerning *sp/ craj^/ou preposition, 

the T-ou <?ra»6»oL/ 2 n. to, tou, rw, to, -— 

child, flfjp* <ra(5^ ou 2 n. ov, ou, w, ov, ov. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



175 



and (when) 5i 'aifayyiiXars conjunction, 

you have k unc Fup-rjrs, aurov, verb, from eCpjVxw, 
bring word. 'ait-ayyslX-a-ri, verb, from aTroay^sXw. 

to me ^wjra.yysiXaTB fx-oT^ iyCj^ (xoiJ, |x o T, jxe, — 

how 'uirayysiXaTS oVwj tX^wv, conjunction. 

I also xd'yCi ccmpountl of xai and eyut, 

going (-7^) sX^-ojv part, from epp^ojxai. 

may worship (^/w) 'jrpofl'-xu-v-^-fl'-w, verb, from •rpoo'xuvsw. 



ou, 



ov. 



him crpofl'xLiv^cj'co aOr-w 2 m. oj, 

they'axxfl'avTEj (9) ol 2m.pl. o J, rwv, Tor^, To^f, — 

and 'axoutfavrs^ ^s sVopsii^rjA'av, conjunction. 

having heard 'axo^-Cav-TE^, part.of axouco. 

the T-ou ^a.(iCk£(j)g 2 m. 'o, r o u, tw, <rov, — 

king 'axo^^tfavTS^ /SatfiX-iw^, 3 m. sue:, sw^, si, ea, fiv. 

departed ^-'7rops:;-^-7]-o'av verb, from -Tropsuu. 

and ^-TTopeu^cO'av xai 'rpor/^sv conjunction. 

lo ! (tfu) <5-ou imp. mood, from si^w. 



*o 'aCTi^p 2 m. 



TOU, 



roj, 



«rov, 



the 

star 'atfri^p -rpoTJ^sv, 3m. i^p, spocr, spi, spa, 

which W'nip,s/(Jov ov Kelative pronoun, 

they saw (oi) sM-ov ov verb, from t'l^w. 

in 5v 'avaToXy) preposition. 



?• 



the 
east 

led before ^adri]^ '7rpo->iy-sv 
them cTpoTJ^sv auT-ou^ 
until 'B'po^iysv ^wj 
being come auroV sX^-wv 
it stool auro'j efl'T-r) 

s-Trava) 
stfrT] ou 
•rai^i'ov ^-v 



T«^ 'avaToX>5 1 f. >], t>^j, 
Sv 'avaroX-'^ 1 f. -Jj, r,c;^ 



<rri^ 



/"> 



about 

where 

was 

the 

child 



T-o fl'ai^iov 2 n. 
•rai^i-ov. -^v 2 n 



verb, from "Tpo ayu. 
m. 01, Gjv, or^, ouj, 

adverb. 

part, from sp;)^o|aai, 
verb, from I(rrr;fjM. 
adverb, 
adverb, 
verb, from e/(x/. 

TO. <roi7. r:^, 



^. 



ov, 



ou, 



w. 



TO, 

v, Ov. 



176 THE PRINCIPLES OP 

Seeing (10) ^iSovr-sg (auTo;) ovlsg^ ov7wv, outfi, ov7a^, ovleg 

and 6s sp^apTitfav Conjunction, 

the T-6v d(tT6poL 2 m. o, tou, <ri), rov, — » 

star 'l^ovrs^ d(fTSp-a, 3 m. o^p, spoj, £p», gpa, gp 

(they) rejoiced l-yjip'r^-dtvi^ Verb, from p^ai'psw. 

joy (m-^*^') X'^^p-'^v 1 f. a, aj, a, dv, d. 

great /xs^dX-i^v ^apdv 1 f. 

v/ilh exceeding. tf^poiJp-a fjus^dXiiv. Adverb. 

And (11) Ka< Conjunction, 

having come (o/) eX^o'vr-s^ 3 m. Participle, from Ip-^a^ai, 

Preposition. 

a, a^, a, a v , d. 
Verb, from eupio'xto. 

TO, roC, TW , TO, 

ov, oil, &}, V , ov. 
Preposition. 
a, a^, oc, av, a. 

*3p, poff, p?, pd, gp. 

, u , &J, 6 ■ 
Conjunction. 

falling down (o(') crgrfo'v-rg^ 3 m. pi. Part, from •ti^tw. 
(they) worshipped crpotf-s-xiJv-oi-fl'av, Verb, from orpoo'xuvsw. 
him 'Tpoo'sxuv'yjo'av ai3r-w 2 n. o , oU, w, o, 

and, 'TTpoo'sxuv'igrfav >ca/ •n'pofl'svg^xav Conjunction, 

having opened(o<) otv-oifav-r?^ Part, from dvojyw. 

the T-ouj ^rjCaupou^ 2m.pl. o, wv, o"^, oO^, 

treasures drjo'aup-ou^ 2 m. pi. oi, wv, o?^, o i) f, ol 

of them ^so'aupou^ au<r-ojv, ' 2 m. pi. w v , or^, ouf, 

(they) gave (auTo/) •n'pofl'-'^-vg^x-a-v Verb, from ^poC^p^pw. 
(to) him auT-w 2 m. o , ou, w, o . 

gifts, 'K'po(fyivSYxav 6C)p-oL 2 n. pi. a, wv, oj^, a , a. 

gold, -TTpotf^vj^xav p^putf-ov 2 m. oV, ou, w, ov, ^ 



mto g/^ o/xjav 




the T-iiv ojxj'av 


If. 


house. i'lg ohi-dv 


If. 


(they) found (oi) gup-ov -rai^jov, 


1 


the T-o «ra»6/ov 


2n. 


child gOpov cr'a«(5«-ov 


2n. 


with fxsrd Mapj'a^ 




Mary, fji-grd Map<-a^, 


If. 


the <r-rjg |X'/]<rpo^ 


If. 


mother fjt-?rd fA>iT-po?, 


3f. 


of it, l^i^'Tpog auT-ou, 


2n. 


and iX&ovTsg xai irsdovrsg 





GREEK GRAMMAR. 177 

and ^putf-ov xai Xi/3avov, Conjuncticn. 
fran.iincense "kipav-ov, 2 m. o^, oj, w, ov, s 

and Xi'/3avov xa/ Cfxi^pvav Conjunction, 

myrrh. 'TT'pofl'rjvg^xav tf/xupv-av. 1 f. a, o^c:, >), av, a. 

And (12) Kai Conjunction. 

heing admom^hed -x^pYiixoLTtaQiv-Tsg Part, from p^ps.aariijcj. 

by xar' ovap Preposition. 

a dream xar' ovap Indeclinable. 

not dvaxaix^ai |xi) Adverb, 

to turn back ava-xaju1.-4.-a1 Verb, from dvaxajx-TrTw. 

unto <7rpoj 'IIpoj(5?]v Preposition. 

Herod, irpo^ 'IIpoj6-iiv 1 m. >;?, ou, ij, vj v, aoi>; 

by (5i b^oD Preposition, 

another aXX-rjj 66ou 1 f tj, tj^, tj, -yjv, >). 

way 5i 6(5-ou 2 f og, u, w, ov, s. 

the}'' retired (0/) dv-s-p^wp-r)-o'-a-v Verb, from a.va-)(^upsu, 

into £jV X^P^^ Preposition. 

the T-rjV "Xy^pOLM 1 f. 7), T>5J, T^, T7]V, 

country £/V X'^P"^^ ^ ^* "» "^> *?■» ""^j "• 

of them. X'^'pav auT-wv. 2 m. pi. ' oj v, oTg^ odg. 
Having departed (13)'Ava-p(;wpT]fl'av-T6Jv Part, from'avap^psco 
however ^5 Conjunction, 

they ccvap^cjpTjrfavrcjv auT-wv 2 m. plu. 01', c5 v, aTg^ o-jg, 
lo ! ((fu) 16-ou, Verb, from hSui, 

( an ) angel ayyzK-og (pa/vsraj g, ou, w, ov, s. 

of the Lord xupi-ou 2 m. oj, ou, w, ov, e. 

appeared ayyeXogf (pajv-s-r-ai Verb, from (paivw 

by xar* ovap Preposition. 

a dream xa<r' ovap Indeclinable, 

(to) the T-oj *lu(fYj(p 2 m. 0, rou, tw, tov, — 

Joseph 9a<veTai 'Iwtfii^, Dative, proper noun, indclinable. 
saying, Xf^-wv oiyysXog Participle, from Xsyw. 

awaking, (rfu) 'E^ep-^-SiV Participle, from iynp^jj. 

take (tfu) leoLpoL'XoL^-s Verb, from rtoLpcCka^^oLvtji 



a78 the principles of 



the 


TO 'K^iSlo ■ 2 n. 


TO, <roC, TOJ, TO, — 


chi d 


itccpoLkafSs 'n'OLiSl'Ov 2 n. 


OV, OU, w, ov, ov. 


and 


ifai5m xoCi [kr,tipa 


Conjunction. 


the 


T'TIV f/^TOTEpa 1 f. 


>3, T%, TJg, Tigv, 


moiheT i:'ap6Cka(3s y.riTS'pa 3 f . 


Tjp, poj, pj, spa, ^p. 


of it 


(jTlTspa auT-ou 2 n. 


, OU , W, 0. 


and 


lio.poCka.ps xal cpsvys 


Conjunction. 


flee 


(tfO) (psvy-s 


Verb, from cpsCyoi, 


into 


slg Ai'^u-rrov 2 f Preposition. 


Egypt 


sis A'tyvifT'Ov 


ts, OU, w, ov, s. 


and 


(psvys xai i'tf^i 


Conjunction. 


be (you 


) (tfu) i'tf-^-l 


Imperative, from s/^/. 


there 


'/tf^j sx'sT 


Adverb. 


till 


7tf^i sus 


Adverb. 


shall 


av Siifc^ 


Auxiliary. 


Icall 


(syw) siV-w 


Verb, from s crw. 


to you, 


e/Vw tf-oi Pronoun. 


tfO, tfou, tfOJ, tfs, 


will be 


about ftsXX-ej 


Auxiliary. 


for 


7«P^ 


Conjunction. 


Herod 


*Hpw5-7]g psXXsi 


^^» oi'j Vj ^v, 11 or a. 


to seek 


fJLSXXei (Jr)T£rv 


Verb, from ^rjr&w. 


the 


T-0 "Tai^/ov 2 n. 


TO, TOU, TW, TO, 


child, 


^YiTsTv raj5<-ov, 2 n. 


OV, OU, 0,0 V, OV. 


to 


T-ou 2 n. 


0, TOU, «rW, TOV, 


destroy 


[avrog) *a<R'o-X£-o'-ai 


Verb, from WoXuw. 


him. 


'a-B'oXsfl'aj aur-o. 2 n. 


, OU, (J , o'. 



He (14) *0 flrapsXa/3g 2 m. 6, tou, tw, tov, -^ 

however, ^^ Conjunction, 

aroused [airoV) ^ysp-S-sis 3 m. Part, from iysipo, 

took up *c -rap-s-Xa/^-s Verb, from irapaXaij^lSavo, 

the T-^ 'n'ai3/ov 2 n. An article, 

child rfapiXafSs craj6/-ov 2 n. See "raj^/ov above, 

and wai6tiv xal /x^jripa Conjunction. 

the T-»V (/.IfjTSpa 1 f. ^, TV^^, T>], T'/^V, — 



GREEK GRAMMi\K. 



179 



f ^ 



mother m'api'ka^s (jnTr-s'pa 3 f. rjp, p?^, p, i 

of it /x>]<re'pa auT-ou 2 n. o ; oC, w, o , 

(by) night, <5j(X vu3<<r-o^, 3 f . f, x r o cr, xr/, xra, i 

and <7rapiXaj5s xa/ 'avsp^ojpyjrfsv Conjunction, 

(he) departed 'av-s-p^c^jp-rj-o'-sv Verb, from 'ava;)(;wpew. 



into 6iV Aiyu<7rrov 

F'&yP^' A/'j/u'TrT-oV 2 f, 

A nd dvep^wpyjtfsv ( 15) Ka/ i^v 
was (auTocr) ^-v 

there ^v 'ex-sr 

until £WJ TSXSVTr^S 

the r-TJj TgXeuT^j 1 f, 

end £ug <rsXsvr-r,g 1 f. 

of Herod, rsXs'jTTJj 'Hpw5-ou, 1 m. 
that ■^v iva •n'XrjpcAj^^ 

(it) might be fulfilled crXiip w-^/j 
which T-6 p'Jj^cv 2 n 

was spoken to p-V^-^v 

U-TTO KupJOU 

T-o'J Kupjou 2 m. 
^•ffo K'jpj'ou 2 m. 
^ict <jrpo;p>)<roCi 



from 

the 

Lord, 

by 

the 

prophet, 

saying, 

out of 

Egypt 

Ihavecalled(iyw) k-xaX-scf-a 

the T-ov uiov 2 m. 

Son kxaXs(fa ui-o'v 2 m. 

of me. ulo'v fx-ou. Pronoun, 

ThensdJfAc:j^r)(16) Tots 

Herod, 'Hp:l)J-r]f, i^J/xw^T) 



Preposition, 

0^1 01^, f » V , s. 

Conjunction. 

Verb, from e/'/x/. 

Adverb. 

Preposition. 

Conjunction. 
Verb, from -TrXiipow. 

TO, ToiJ, TW, to', — 

Participle, from p£w. 
Preposition. 

6, T U, TOJ, TOV, 

Of, oiJ, W, OV, £. 



Preposition. 
T-oy 'n'poip^Tou 2 m. 6, toD", toj, tov, — 
6ioi ifpoip^T-ou 1 m. ijj:, o u , w, >7v, a, 

Xiyov-Toj *po(p^Tou wv, ov7o^, ov7i, ov7a, 
i^ A/yu-n'Tou Preposition. 

6^ AiyUTTOU 2 f o'fj OU, 6J, OV, S, 

Verb, from xaXsw. 

0, TOU, TW, TOV, — 
OCT, OU, W, OV, ^. 



seeing 'H puj^yjj, 'kJ-wv 



yo, |x 'J, aoj, jULc, — 

Adverbr 
^?, ou, >7, >)v, ») 
Participle, from s15l\ nom. 




180 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



that i5wv 

he was mocked, 
by 
the 

wise men, vifo 
was enraged 
exceedingly; 
and s^upow^/] 

having sent off 
killed 'a'K'QS'siXas 
all 
the 

young children 
that (were) 
in 

Bethlehem, iv 
and B>)^Xs£fji, 

in 
all 
the 
coasts 
3f it, 
from 

two years Wo 
and Sisroug 

under, (^tfav) 
recording to 
he 

(ime xam 

ihat Tjxp^wo'e 
le had enquired 
»f 
he 
nsemen. -rapa 



X/av 

xa/ 'aii^og'si'kag 

^aifO'-g'-si'X-agf 

^av-sT-X'S 



Iv 
opioid 



oV» svzifai-)(&ri Conjunction. 

^vs-Tfai'-p^-^-Tj Verb, from s/x-raj^.- 

iVo fxaywv Preposition, 

r-wv /xayojv 2m.pl. oj, rwv, ror^, ro:^^, — 
/xaywv 2 m. pi. o», GJ V, oig, oug^ o» 

Verb, from ^ufxo'w. 
Adverb. 
Conjunction. 
Part., from a-ro^sXXw. 
Verb, from avaipsw. 
cravT-af 'r^cubag 3m. £^, wv, tff, a^, tg. 
T-ou^ '7rar(Jaj 2 m. ol, twv, to»V, r o u ^, — 
flralS-a^, 3 m. pi. £^, wv, tfj, aj, e& 
c-ou^ (s'/vaj) 2 m. pi. oi, rwv, Tor^, <rouV, — 
£v B7]^Xss/x, ' Preposition. 

Bvj^Xsi/x, Indeclinable, 

xa/ 6p/oi^ Conjunction, 

ev opioj^ Preposition, 

cratf-i opioid 8 n. pi. 7a ojv, arfi, av7a , 7a 
<ra, Twv, <ro T^, <ra — 
a, wv, r^, a, a. 

Preposition. 
o«, wv, oig, ovg^ oi 
Conjunction. 
Adverb. 
Preposition. 
. Article. 
0^, ou, w, ov, s. 
*of ou, w, ov, - • 
Verb, from axpi/Sow. 
Preposition. 
01, Twv, <rorc:, <rouf, — 



T-0»^ OpJOJJ 

opj-ojff 2 n. pi. 

aOr-Tj^, 1 f. 

'a<:ro ^isrouj 

5iS<r«ouj 

xa< xarwTSpco, 

XaT6JT8pW, 

xaTa p^povov 

T-OV %p0V0V 

)^pov-ov ^ 2 m. 
o-v 

TJ-Xpi/^-W-tf-ff 

flrapa jxa^wv 
T-wv fjia^wv 



(xay-wv. 2 m. pi. oj, wv, o»^, ouj, 



01 



I 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



131 



Then sVX^po^c (17) Tors 

was fulfilled (oi) i-'!:'\yip-C)-&-r} 



A.dvcrb. 
Verb, from -rXiipow. 



the thing 

spoken 

by 

Jeremy 

the 

prophet, 

saying, 

A voice 

in 

Khama 



<r-o pY,(l£v com. rel. to, tou, t^, to, — 
TO priQ-s-v Participle, from psw. 

b'TTo 'IspSjxiou Preposition. 

vita 'IepejX('-ou 1 m. r^, ou, a, av, «. 

T-ou Tpoq37;rou 2 m. 'o, t o u, tw, tov, — 
u-jfo -rpo^^T-ou, 1 m. rig, ov rj, i^v, a. 

Xs^ovT-oc:, -rpocp^Tou, wv, ov7o^, ov]i, ov7a, wv. 
(18) «t>wv-'i9 r^xoutf^T] 1 f. 17, Sjc:, ^, T^v, r). 

^v *Pa|xa Preposition. 

Iv 'PttfX-tt 

was heard, (pwvi^ ^-xou-o'-^-t], Verb from dxouw. 

lamentation &pr}\og r,xoC(f&y] 2 m. 0^, ou, w, ov, g. 

and ^p~/Voj xai xXaudfxo^, 

A^eeping xXau^/x-oj rjxouo'^ii 2 m. 

and xXau^jULOff xa< oiupfxoc, 

wailing o^upjx-oj r/xouC^rj 2 m. 

much, -roX-ucr, oSvpixog 2 m. 

Rachel *Pap^TiX xXalov&a fem. Indeclinable. 

weeping *Pap^TgX xXai-ou-C-a Present part, from xXaiw. 

(for) the T-(X Ts'xva 2 n. ra, twv, Torcr, to., - — 



Conjunction. 

OCT, 0?, OJ, ov, £. 

Conjunction. 
Of, ou, w, ov, ^. 
Of, oC, w, ;;v, u. 



a, wv, otg, a, a 

Conjunction. 

Adverb. 

Verb, from ^sXw. 



children xXaiouo'a Ts'xv-a 2 n. 

of her Ts'xva avT-rig fem. 

and xXa/outfa xal ^^s\s 

not ■^^sXe oux 

would *Pap^r]X -^-^sX-s 

to be consoled -rap-axX-ii-^^-va/ Verb, from crapaxaXsoj 

for ^&s\s orl eJ(fi Conjunction. 

not s/V» oux Adverb. 

(they) are (xuto;) e/Vi. Verb, from eijuii. 

having diei^ (19) TsXsvrr,(fa.vr-og 3m. Part, from TsXeuTaw 

5 Conjunction. 

the T-ou 'Hpw5ou 2 m. 0, toC, t:^, tov, — 

16 




182 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



*Hpw^-ou, rsXsvTrjCfavrog "Jij,*, o y , >j »jv *j 
{(fv) U-ou Imperative from hSc*), 

ayysX'og^ (pctivsrai 2m. o^-, ou, w, ov, g 



0^, u , Q, ov, s. 

Preposition. 

Indeclinable. 

Verb, from cpaiv^), 

0) <roi7, T w , Tov, — — 

Indeclinable. 

Preposition. 

0^, ov, w, ov, g. 



Herod, 

behold, 

the angel 

of theLorday^sXo^ Kvpf-ov 2 m. 

by xar' ovap 

a dream xaiS* ovap 

appears ayyeXos <pai-v-s-r-a< 

(to) the T-w 'l6j(fi^(p 2 m. 

Joseph (paivsrai 'IwCi^^ 

in ev Alyvifru 

Egypt ev Alyuieri^ 2 f. 

saying, (20) As^-wv ayysXog 3 m. Part., from Xsyw. 

being arisen, (tfu) 'Eyep'^-si-g, Participle from l/sjpw. 

take up ((fu) 'jfap'OL-XajS'S Imp., from •^'apaXajx/Savw. 

the <r-6 Araj^iov 2 n. 

young child iraidi-ov 2 n. 

and crai^jov xa/ /xi^repa 

the r-^v (xi^Tfpa 

mother -rapaXa^s |xii<ra-pa 

of it jxi^rspa aur-ou 

and ^apaXa^e xa/ flr'opeuou 

depart (tfu) iropsu-ou 

into e/V 7^v 

the land elg y-rjv 

of Israel, yr}v iCpay/X, 

have died oj TS-^v^x-a-tfj 

for flTopsuou yap re&vrixaffi 

they 

seeking for 



r 



If. 
3f. 
2n. 



rov, <rw, TO, — 

ov, oLi, w, v , ov. 

Conjunction. 

^, T^, rjj, Tijv, — 

rip» po?> p', Spa, Jp. 

ov, U , W, ov, 5. 

Conjunction. 

Verb from •n'opsuo^ai. 

Preposition. 

Indeclinable. 
Verb, from ^v-yjc'xw. 
Conjunction. 
0-1 TS^vTjxao'j 2 m. p. 01, rwv, «rjor^, tou^, — - 
^'riTovv-jTsg oT Participle, from ^rirsu. 



If. 



the T->;v -vl^^^iiv 1 f. 

life i^Yirovvrsg ^/up^-^jv 1 f. 

of the T-ou <n'aidm 2 n. 

young child -^v^n > 'Tr'ai^i-ou. 2 n. 



ro, <r u 9'w , TO, — - 
See flfai^jcv above. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 183 



'inANNOT, Kc> a. 

(1) In (the) beginning was the Word, and the Word was 
(Vi In principio erat Sermo, et Sermo erat 

■rpoc: rov 0fov, xa/ 0£oj i^v o \oyog, (2) Oorog' -^v 
with (the) God, and God was the Word. This ( Word) was 
apud Deum, que Deus erat ille Sermo* Hie (Sermo) erat 

^' ^9'x3 '"'P^^ '''°^ 0SOV. (3) riavTa ^»' au- 

in (the) beginning with (the) God. All (things) by this 
in principio apud Deum. Omnia per hunc 

rou iyivSTo* xou X^?'^ clvtov iyivsro ou(5= 

(Word) were made ; and without him was made nothing 
(Sermonem)facta-sunt; et absque eo factum-est nihil 

yiyovsv, (4) 'Ev auTOJ ^CaJti i]v xai tj ^u^'O r,v to 
that was made. In him life was, and the life was the 
quod factum-sit. In ipso vita erat, et vita erat ilia 

(p'7)^ <ro5v 'av^pw'Twv. (5) Kai to (pCjg iv Tr\ dxoTio, 
light of the men. And the light in the darkness 

lux hominum. Et ista lux tenebris 

(pai'vfi, xai 7) tfxoTi'a auro ou xaTiXajSsv. (6) 

shineth, and the darkness it not comprehendeth 
lucet et tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt. 

'E^t'vSTo av^pwTfo^ 'a'n'eg'aXjxsvo^'r'apaQsou* ovojaa avrco 

There was a man sent from God ; the name of whom 

Exstitit homo missus a Deo ; nomen cui 

'IwavvTjj, C) O-jTog rfk&sv sig jmapTup/av Tva ' ixaprvp^a-r] 
John. He came for a witness that he might testify 

Joanne* Is venit ad testimonium ut testaretur 



184 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

•rsoJ rev (pwTocr, «'va m'avTSg •ncrsi^o'wo'i Si* 

concerning the light, that all (men) might believe through 
de ilia, lace, ut omnes crederent per 

auTou. (8) Oux 7jV ixsmg <ro (pCig aXX* I'va 

him. Not he was this the light, but (he was sent) that 

eum. Non erat ilia lux, sed (missus est) ut 

lA>0LpTvp7)(fri WHpi rov (pwroj. (9) Hv to (pwcr, ro 

he might testify concerning the light. It was the light, the 
testaretur de ilia luce. (Hie) erat lux, ilia 

'aXvj^tvov, (pwrii^sj flravra av^pwrov lpp^o|X£vov sig <rov xoo'i^ov. 

true that lighteth all men coming into the world. 

vera quae illuminatomnemhominem venientem in mundum. 

(10) 'Ev rcd *oo'fX(>i *lv xcct 'o xoo'jxoj (5<' aurou iyivero* 

In the world (he) was, and the world by him was made, 
In mundo erat et mundus per eum factus est, 

xaj *o xotfiiog avTov owsyvoj, (11)E<V tcc "iSia, rfk&Sf 
and the world him not knew. Unto the his own he came, 
sed mundus eum non agnovit. Ad sua . venit, 

xoLi o« 'iSm aurov oi3 ifapiXa^ov. (12)"0(J'oi ds 

and the his own him not received. As many (as) but 
et sui eum non exceperunt. Quotquot autem 

skafSov aurov, t'^ojxsv avTo7g s^outfiav rsxva, Gsov 
received him, he gave to them power children of God 
exceperunt eum, dedit eis jus (ut) filii Dei 

'ysvi(f&c^if rcTg ^-rjtfTSuoufl'iv slg to ovojuia auTou* 

to become (even) to them (that) believe on the name of himj 
smt facti (nsmpe) iis (qui) credunt in nomen ejus; 

^13) OV ou3« i^ dl|xaTwv ovSs ix &s\rjixarog (fapxog 

WVch no^ of blood nor of the will of the flesh, 
Kim nor ex sanguine neque ex libidine carnis 



(5o^av 


ug ixovoysvjvg 


glory 


as of the only begotten 


fjloriam 


ut unijjeniti 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 185 

Olds ix d£;j)fAa'7o^ dv5pOf, otXX' ^x ©sou t'y£vvr,6r,(fav, (14) 
nor of the will of men, but of God were born. 
neque ex libidine viri, sed ex Deo geniti sunt. 

Kti *o Xoyog tfap^ iysvsro' xai i(fxriv(^(f£v £v tjiulu; {koi 
And the Word flesh became; and dwelt among us (and 
Et ille Sermo caro factus est ; e,* commoratus est inter nos (et 

we beheld the 
Bpectavimus ejus 

itapoL IIoLTpog,) ifXriprig -^apirog xai Wri&siag. (15) 'Iwavv^jj 
of the Father,) full of grace and truth. John 

a Patre,) plenis gratiae ac veritatis. Joannes 

jxap-rupsi flrepi aurou, xai xixpays^ Xiyuv, Obrog 

bear witness concerning him, and he cried, saying- This 
testatus est de eo, et clamavit, dicens, Hie 

f|V Jv eiVov* *o oifl(fu) (XoiJ ipxofievos 

was (he) of whom I spoke ; he (that) after me cometh, 
erat quibus dicebam ; is (qui) pone me venit, 

s\kifpo(iH\i fxou ysyovsv oVi "TrpoJTo^ |xou ry. (16) Kai 

preferred before me is; for before me he was. And 

ante-positus mihi est ; quia prior me erat. Et 

^x Tou flrX»)pojaaro^ auToiJ rn^Big ifavrsg eXajSo/xfv, xai X'^P"' 
of the fullness of him we all have received, and grace 
ex plenitudine ipsius nos omnes accepimus, et gratiani 

\vri yoip\Tog, (17) "Or/ 'o vo'/jioj ^ja MwCc'ojj i^o&y\' 

for grace. For the law by Moses was given ; (but) 

pre gratia. Nam ilia lex per Mosen data est; (s^cd) 

1] ydpig xai t] '-Xtj^eia Sia ^lr,(fov Xpig'oiJ iysvEro, 
che grace ant/ the truth by Jesus Christ came. 

gratia et Veritas per Jesum Christum procstita est 
16* 



186 



THE PRINCIPLES OP 



(18) 0£ov ovSiig ^'Jjpaxs TrCjrroTS' 'o ^ajoysvrjg i>7ot. 
God no one hath seen ever; the only begotten Son, 
Deum nemo vidit unquam ; ille unigenitus Filius, 

3 GOV £ig Tov xoX-Trov Tou IlaTpo^, sxsTvog s^riyr^a aro» 
wha being in the bosom of the Father, he hath titciared. 
q ji est in sinu Patris, ille exposuit (eum.) 

(19) Ka? auVr) Ij-iv tj jaaprupia tou 'Iwccvvou, orz a'j(ig'Bika\ 
And this is the record of the John, when sent 
Atque hoc est testimonium Joannis, quum miserunt 

o» 'Iou(5aroj i^ *Ispoo'oXu(xwv ^Is^sTg xal Asvlrag, i'va 
the Jews from Jerusalem Priests and Levites, that 
Judasi Hierosolumis Sacerdotes et Levitas, ut 

ip(j3T7i(fu(fiv auTQVf 2u rig si ; (20) Kai w/xoXoyiio's 
they might ask him, Thou who art ? And he confessed 

interrogarent eum, Tu * es qui? f Et professus est 

xa/ 0U3C ^pvY}(faTOf xai uix,ok6'yYi(fsv 'On, oux slixt iyCy 'o 
and not denied, and confessed; That, not am I the 
que ne negavit, et professus est ; Ut, non sum ego ille 

Xptg'og, (21) Kai rjpwri&av auTov, T/, ouv, ^HXlag 

Christ. And they asked him, Who, therefore, Elias 

Christus. Et interrogaverunt eum. Quid, ergo, Elias 

si du ; Ka/ Xiysi, Oux sl^i, *0 'n'po(priry]g si tfu ; 
art thou ? And he said, Not I am. The prophet art thou ? 
es tune ? Et dixit, Non sum. Propheta es tu i 

Kai d'XSxpl&r], Ov, (22) eJ-tTov ouv aurw, • Tig si 
And he answered. No. -They said then to him. Who ai ., 
A-tque respondit, Non. Dixerunt ergo ei, Quis e.> 

tfu ; d'Toxpio'iv i'va 6oj/x£v to?^ 'KZ\h\a.(iv\> 

>hou an answer that we may give to them (who) sent 
lu'^ responsam ut demus is (qui) miseruu' 



. GREEK GRAMMAR. 187 

ifHULaf Ti Xiyst^ ifspl (fsavrov ; (23) 'E^ti, 'K/'Jj 

us; what saycst (thou) of thyself? He said, I (am) 
lies- quid dicis de teipso? Ait, (bum) 

cpuvr\ /Soojvroj ev ryj ^phl^^i Eu^jvars 

the voice (of one) crying in the wilderness, Make straight 
vox (unius) clamantis in deserto, Complanate 

Ti^v o^ov Kupiou, xa&'Jjg eiVsv 'Htfataj *o '7rpo(p'AjTr]f. 

the way of the Lord, as said Esaias the prophet. 

viam Domini, ut dixit Esaias propheta. 

(24) Koil o" d<rs^aXjx/vo», ^o'av Ix ro3v ^apjo'ai'wv 
And they (which) were sent, were of the Pharisees. 
Vero iis (qui) missi fuerant, erant ex Pharisjcis. 

(25) Ktti r]p-^Ty](fav auTov, xa/ e<Vov aurw, Ti', 
And they asked him, and said to him. Why, 
Et interrogaverunt eum, ac dixerunt ei. Cur, 

ouv, ^a'jfri'^slgj el do oux d *o Xp«ro?> oUrs 

therefore, baptizest thou, if thou not art the Christ, nor 
ergo, baptizas, si tu non es ille Christus, neque 

*IIXi'a^, oUrff flrpo(f)^T>]«; ; (26) 'A-rsxpi^r] axiToTg 6 'Iwavv>)f, 
Elias, nor the prophe^ ? Answered them the John, 

Elias, neque ille prophe, a? Respondit iis Joannes, 

X^yoVf 'Eyoj /HaiTTj^cj i\) v5arr [lidog ^l ufxwv 

.mying, I baptize with water ; in the midst but of you 
dicens, Ego baptizo aqua; (in) medio vcstrum 

fsr7]X£v ov u/xs?^ oux oi'(5arg. (27) Ajroc: s\civ, o, 

•tandeth (one) whom ye not know. He (it) is,n'ho, 

sta' (unus) quem vos non nostis. Ille (hie) est, qui, 

^"TfiVcj fjLou, Ip^ofxsvoj, og siX'n'po(f6iv aou yiyovsv eu iyu oux s/jxi 
after me, cQming, who before me is ; I not am 

pai6 mCjVeniens, qui antepositus mihi est; ego non sum 



188 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

a^ioj '/va Xutfoj aurou <r(5v Ju-a^a ^ov 

worthy that I should unloose of him the latchet of the 
dignus ut solvam cujus corrigiam 

iir^^riixaiog. (28) TaiJra iv Bri&afSapa. iyivsvro crs'pav tou 
shoes. These things in Bethabara were done beyond the 
solearum. Haec in Bathabara facta sunt secus 

*Iop(5(XvoiJi, oifov ijv 'IwavvTjj (Sa'n'rl^uv. (29) T>) i'jravpiov 
Jordan, where was John baptizing. The next day 

Jordanem, ubi Joannes baptizabat. Postero die 

jBXs'T^si 6 'IwavvTij rov 'I'/itfouv ^pp^o'^svov "Trpoj ai^rov, xa/ Xsysi, 
seeth the John the Jesus coming unto him, and he said, 
videt Joannes Jesum venientem ad se, et dixit, 

"iSs a/xvo^ rov ©sou 6 a'/pwv tyjv a/xapTj'av <rcy 

Behold the lamb of the God that taketh away the sins of the 
Ecce agnus Dfei qui tollit peccatum 

>,oo'/xou. (30) OvTog i(fTi 'n'Spi ou syu) sZ-tfov, 'Oct'jVw julou sp-)(Zrai 
world. This is (he) of whom I said, After me cometh 

mundi. Hie est de quo dicebam, Pone me venit 

avi^p 0^ sis,ifpo(f&iv jxou yiyovsv oVj -rpwro^ fxou 

a man which preferred before me is ; for before me he 

vir qui antepositus mihi est ; quia prior me 

^v. (31) KaY^J wx ^Ssiv ctuTov, aXX* I'va (pavspw^p 

was. And I not knew him, but that be should be made 
erat, Et ego nonnoveram eum,sed ut manifestus 

TW *l(fpaYi\ Sia rovro ^X^ov iyu iv' rw v^art 

manifest to the Israel, by which am come I with the water 

Israeli, propterea veni ego per aqua 

^aifri^uv. (32) Kai iixaprupri(fsv 'IwavvT)^, Xiyuv, "Ori' 
baptizing. And bare record John, saying. That, 

baptizans. Et testatus es\ Joannes, dicens, Ut 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 189 

reflea/xa* to Jlvzv^a xaru^aTvov wrfsi' ifspii, fpav, £g oupavoC, 
I saw the Spirit descending like a dove, from heaven, 
conspexi Spirituin descendentem quasi columbamexcoelo, 

xai fc'fjLSjvev l<n'' auro'v. (33) Ka'^^ ^'^'^ fjicjv aurov aXX' 
and abode above him. And I not knew him but 

etiam mansit super eum. Et ego non noveram eum sed 

c'c'|x4'aj lis (Bwirrl^siy/ sv vSari, ixeTvog fAoi 

(he) who sent me to baptize with water, the same unto me 

qui missit me baptizare aqua, ille mihi 

6/Vev, 'E(p* ov av 'idrjg to ITveU/jLa xarafSuTvov 

said, Upon whom shall thou see the Spirit descending 

dixerat. Super quern videris Spiritum descendentem 

xa) juisvov lir* auTov, oOto^ ig'iv 6 /Sa-rTTi^wv 

and remaining on him, the same is (he) that baptizeth 
et manentem super eum, hie est qui baptizat 

iv IIveufjLaTi ayiui. (34) Ivo-Y^ Iwpaxa, xai jULEfAapTuprixa 
with Ghost Holy. And I saw, and bare record 

Spiritu Sancto. Et ego videbam, et tester 

OTJ ovTos ig'iv vlog tov Qsov. (35) Tjj irfavpiov -raXrv 

that he is the Son of the God. The next day again 

ille est Filius Dei. Postero die iterum 

gig'^xsj 6 'IwavvT]^, xa) sx rC^v fxadrjTWv auTou S6o, (36) Kol 
Stood the John, and of the disciples of him two. And 

stabat Joannes, et discipulis ejus duo. Et 

ili(3\i-^ag r(^ 'Ii^tfou ^^pi'TaToCv-rai, Xsysi, 'ISs 6 

looking (upon) the Jesus walking, he said, Beho.d the 
intuitus Jesum ambulantem, dixit, Ecce ille 

aixvog Tou Qsov, (37) Kai ^xoutfav auTou ol Suo iiOL&r,T'ai 
Lamb of the God. And 'heard him the two disciples 

Agnus Dei. Et audierunteum illi duo discipuli 




190 THE PR:iNCIPLES OF 

XakovvTog, xa) rpcO.ou^^r^dav tw 'lyjcfou. (38) St oa(pj»t,- 51 o 
speaking, and they followed the Jesus. Turned then the 

loquentem, et sequuti sunt Jesum. Conversus vero 

Jesus, and saw them following, and said unto them, 
Jesus, et videbat eos sequentes, dicit eis, 

(39) T» ^riTsTrs ; 01 5s sf^ov aurw, *Pa/3/3i, (o 
"What seeki'ye)? They and said (unto) him, Rabbi, (which 
Quid qusDritis ? Illi vero dixerunt ei, Eabbi, (quod 

XiySTut, kpiXYivsvSvoiisvov, Sida(fxa'ks,) itou fASvsij ; 

IS to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou' 
dicitur, interpreteris, prseceptor,) ubi moraris? 

(40) Aiysi avToTg,''Ep-)(S(f&s xcti 'Idsrs, 'HX^gv xoj 
He saith unto them, come and see. (And) they came and 

Dicit eis, venite et videte. (Et) venerunt ac 

sl6ov 'TT'ou ixivSi' xa) 'Tap' auroj s^iSivav tyjv 7}iiipav sxs/vrjv* 

saw where he dwelt; and with him abode the day that; 
viderunt ubi moraretur ; et apud eum manserunt diem ilium; 

ojpa 6s ^v d)g 6sxary}. (41) 'Hv *Av8pia.g, o 

hour for it was about the tenth. Was Andrew, the 

hora enim erat quasi decima. Erat Andreas, 

dSs'k(pog 2i|jLwvo^ IIsVpou, slg ix tuv 6uo tu>v dxov&ccvruv ^rapcl 
brother Simon Peter, one of the two the hearing with 
frater Simonis Petri, unus ex duobus (qui) audierunt cum 

Twavvou, xat 'axoXou5>](J'avTwv aura). (42) Eupl(fxsi ovrog 'jt^pCjTog 
John, and followed ' him. Findeth he first 

Joanne, et sequuti erant eum. Invenit hie prior 

rov 'a($sX(pov rov 'l6iov Tllixuvu, xai Xsysi auroj, 
the brother the own Simon, and saith ^unto) him, 
fratrem suum Simonem et dixit ei. 



GREEK CJRAMMAR. 191 

Eup>;xa|UL?v Tov Meo'o'jav, o i(friy /xs^^pixr^vEuojasvov, 

We have found the IMessiah, which is, being interpreted^ 
Invenimus ilium Messiam, quod est, si interpreteris, 

XpjO'ToV. (43) Ka/ ryaysv auTov "Tpof tov 'IrjO'oov. 

the Christ. And he brought him unto the Jesus. 

ille Christus. Et adduxit eum ad Jesum. 

'EfA^Xs -sl^aj (5s auToj 6 'I^itfouf, £<Ve, IIu e< 2i'(xwv 
Beheld and when him the Jesus, he said, Thou art Simon 
Intuitus autem eum Jesus, dixit, Tu es Simon 

uloj 'Iwva* tfu x'Kr,{^fj<fr] K>3(pa^, 6 

the son of Jona ; thou shalt be called Cephas, which (is) 
Filius Jona ; tu vocaberis Cephas, quod (est) 

ifiirivsosratj «n'/Tpoj. (44) T^ £<ra;;piov ^^sXtjo'ev 6 '!>]- 

by interpretation, a stone. The next day would the Je- 
si interpreteris, petra. Postcro die voluit Je- 

dovg i^tX&sTv elg ti^v TakiKculav' xal sjplcfxsi i^iXiifrrov^ xo.l 
sus go forth into the Galilee; and findeth Philip, and 
sus abire in Galila3am; et invenit Philippum, et 

yjyei auTOJ, 'AxoXou'^^j |xo<. (4/5) 'IIv 5s o i>iXi'n''n'og a-Tro 
saith to him, Follow me. Was now the Philip of 
dixit ei, Sequere me. Erat autem Philippus ex 

Bvj^rfai^a, ^x Tr}g ifoXsug 'Avi^ps'ou xal ITtVpou. (46) EupiVxsi 
Bethsaida, of the city of Andrew and Peter. Findeth 

Bethsaida, civitate Andreoe et Petri. Invenit 

^iXi-riroj TOV Na^ava-J^X, xal Xiysi aur^, "Ov 

Philip the Nathaniel, and saith unto him, (Him) of whom 

Philippus Nathanaelum, et dixit ei, (lUum) de quo 

sypoL-^e Mwtf*;^ sv tw vofxw xal o» 'n'po^>;rai, e-jp^xrt|Hfv, 

wrote Moses m the law and the prophets, we have found, 
«cripsit Moses ir lege et prophetae, .'nvenimus, 



192 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

'IrjCouv Tov d-TTo Na^apsV. (47) Kai slrtsv ovr^ Na^ava^> 
Jesus the of Nazareth. And said to him Nathaniel 

Jesus ex Nazareth. Et dixit ei Nathanael 

Hx 'Na^apir Suvarai <ri dya&ov sivat; Aiysi oLvrt^ 

Out of Nazareth can any good (thing) be? Said to him 
Ex Nazaretha potest aliquid boni esse ? Dixit ei 

5>iXj'7r''7r'o^, *Epp(;oii xctl '15s. (48) E/(Jsv *o 'Irjtfou^ rov NadavaigX 
Philip, Come and see. Saw the Jesus the Nathaniel 

Philippus, Veni et vide. Vidit Jesus Nathanaelum 

ip-)(o^svov 'ifpog auTov, xai Xiysi crfp/ aurou, *I^5 d\Yi&C}$ 
coming unto him, and said of him, Behold indeed 
venientem ad se, et dixit de eo, Ecce vere 

^IffparfkiTrig iv w 66Xog ovx I'p. (49) Aiyst auTW Na- 
an Israelite in whom deceit not is. Said to him Na 

Israelita in quo doluis non est. Dixit ei Na- 

davai^X, Ilo^fv /xs yivuxfxsig ; *Aflr£xpi^>j *o ^Iricfovg 

thaniel, Whence me knowest thou ? Answered the Jesua 
thanael, Unde me nosti? Respondit Jesus 

xai giVcv auTW, ITpo <rou (fi ^i'ki<jf'n'ov (pwvSjO'ai, ovra L'-tto 
and said to him, Before that thee Philip called, being under 
et dixit ei, Priusquam te Philippus vocaret,quum esses subtei 

v^v (fvxriVi St S'.v ds, (50) 'Acr'sxp/drj Na/Java-i^X xai Xiysi 

the fig tree, I saw thee. Answered Nathaniel and said 

ficum, videbam te. Respondit Nathanael et dixit 

auToj, *Pa/3/3/\ tfu si *o uroV rou ©sou* (fu St 
unto him. Rabbi, thou art the Son of the God; thou art 
ei. Rabbi, tu es Filius Dei; tu es 

*o (SatfiXsvg tov 'lo'pa^X. (51) *AifSxpi&ri *Ii^(fovSf xai siifsv 

the king of the Israel. Answered Jesus, and said 

rex ille Israeli Respondit Jesus, et dixit 



J 



GREEK GRAMMAR 193 

to him, Because I said to thee, I saw thee under the f^.g tree, 
ei, Quia dicebam tibi, Vidi te sub ficu, 

'K'KfTSueig ; Msi^u) roCruv o-^ei, 

believest thou ? Greater (things) (than) these shalt thou see. 
credis ? Majora istis videbis. 

(52) Kai Xiysi aur^, 'A^i^v, a/xigv, Xsyw vyJv, 'A-r' 
And he said unto him, Verily, verily, I tell you. After 
Praeterea dixit ei, Amen, amen, dico vobis, Ab 

apri o-^sffds Tov oupavov dvscjyoTa, xa< rovg dyyiXovs 

now thou shalt see the heavens opened, and \J:ie angels 
hoc videbitis coelum apertum, et ange'.os 

rov ©sou dvalSaivovrag xal xaTa(3aivovTag irrl <rov u/ov too 
of the God ascending and descending upon the Son of the 
Dei ascendentes et descendentes super Filium 

av^poj-rou. 

Man. 
Hommis. 



PAUL'S DEFENCE BEFORE AGRIPPA. 

Hpa^if, Ketp. x^'.— Acta, Cap. XXVL—Acts, Chap. XXVI. 

(1) ^Aypiif'K'ag 6s <n'pog tov ITauXov £(p>], 'EwiTpsVsTai 
Agrippa then unto (the) Paul said, (it) is permitted 
Agrippa turn Paulo dixit, permittitur 

tfoj Wlp (fsauTou Xiysiv, ToVs o ITaCXo^ 'aceXovcK-o, 
to thee for thyself to speak. Then the Paul defended himself 
tibi pro teipso dicere. Tunc Paulus hie defensione usus 

ixrslvag Tr,v X-~p«' (2) TLcpl irav-rwv ojv 

extending the hand. Concerning all (things) of uhich 
est extensa manu. Super omnibus de quibus 

17 



194 



THE PRi TClPLfiS OF 



I am accused by (the) Jews, O, king Agrippa, I think 
postulor a Judaeis, rex Agrippa, cogito 

^/xauTov ixaxapiov jut-sXXwv a'n'okoysTd&at kit] tfoC 

myself happy (that) I am about to defend myself before you 

me beatum (quod) sim dicturus apud te 

tf^jaspov* (3) MaXj^ra yvwrfri^v ovra di flravrwv twv 

this day: Especially knowing being you in all things which 
hodie: Maxime gnarum sciam quod te omnium quae 

(are) among Jews, manners ■ and the customs. Therefore 
(sunt) apud Judseos, rituum et questionum. Ideo 

^soixai (fou /Jt-axpo^i^/xw^ cixo\j(fai jxou. (4) Ti^v fjtsv ouv 

I pray you patiently to hear me. The truly, therefoie, 

rogo te (ut) patienter audras me. Itaque vitam 

[Siuctiv fxou rriv ix vs6rr]Tog, <r7]v 'a-n'' . 

manner of life of me the from (my) youth, the from (the) 
actam meam a juventute, a 

^oip-)(y]S ysvoii^svYiv iv cu) Uvst fxou iv *I>)pe- 

beginning which was at first in the nation of me m Jeru- 
principio quseque fuit in gente mea in Hiero- 

tfoXufjLoi^, l(fa(fi 'jravTsg o) ^lo\jScuor (5) Tlpf^yivCi&xovrsg ^xa 
rusalem, know all the Jews ; (That) know me 

solymis, sciunt omnes Judaei; (Qui) noverunt me 

avu&sv iav 6s\(f)(fi jaaprupsn/,) on xccra 

from the beginning (if (they) would testify,) that after 

a majoribus (si velint testari,) secundum 

rr]v dxpilSscfroLTriv aipS(ftv Trig ^iisripctg &py}(fxslagj 

the most rigorous (and) strict of the our sect of religion, 
illam ex^uisitisiman nostroe heresin reMgionis, 



GREEK GRAMMAR. i«j5 

*Fri(fa (.iyupi(fu'i''jg (6) Kai vCv inr^ ?Xt«(5« tT^^ 

I lived a Pharisee. And now for hope which the (was) 
vixisse Pharisajum. Vero nunc ob spem 

flTpog rovg rfaripag iifuyytXlag yevofxs'vrjj vrto rov ©sou, 

unto the fathers (of the) promise constituted by the God, 

patribus promissionis facta? a Deo, 

i'(fr>]xa( Defective) xpivojxsvog* (7) E/f ^v TO SuStxucpvXov 

1 stand (and) am judged ; To which the twelve tribes 
sto in judicium; Ad quern duodecim tribua 

>jfjLOJv ev ixTSvicc vuxra xa» i^spav Xarpsvov kX'rrl^si xaravrv^Cai* 
of us constantly night and day servmg hope to come j 
nostrae perpetuo nocte et die servientis sperant perventuras ; 

flTSp/ ijg iXm'idog eyxaXou/xaij^ao'iXsu'AypiV'jra, u'rroTOJv'Iou5a»'wv. 
for which hope I am accused,OkingAgrippa,by the Jews, 
de qua spe postular, rex Agrippa, a Judseis. 

(8) T» oiifKfrov xpi'vETtti <ap' u|a?v, si o 

Why incredible should (it) be judged by you, that the 
Quid incredibile judicatur apud vos, quod 

Gsog vsxpQvg lysipsi ; (9) 'E70J /xsv ouv 

God should raise up (the) dead? I even therefore 
Deus excitet mortuos ? (Ego) equidem statueram 

e/xauTcj), "jrpof TO ovojaa 'Iritfou tqC Na^ojpa/ou 

with myself, against the name of Jesus of the Nazareth 

apud adversus nomen Jesu Nazareni 

bsTv croXXa ivavrla ifpa.^ai. (10) "O xai 

taught many (things) hostile to practice. Which also I 
multa contraria facere. Quod ctiam 

i'rcciy\(fa, iv 'IspotfoXo/xoi^ xa« toXXouj tojv dylu)v zyd (p\:\oLxaTg 
performed in Jerusalem, and manyof the saints I in prisons 
feci in Hierosolymis, et mull us sanctorum ego carceribus 



196 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

confined, ivhich from the Chief Priests, authoriry 

inclusi, a principibus Sacerdotum, potestate 

Xal3C)v' dvaipou/josvwv rs OLvrCiv 

having obtained ; being put to death and when they 
accepta; interimerentur et quam 

xccryivsyxa -^rjcpov. (11) Kai xara ^atfag rag (fwayuyd^s 

I gave against (them my) voice. And in all the synagogues 

tuli (ab eis) suffiragium. Ac per omnes synagogas 

flfoXXaxtj T/fxwpwv avTovg, rivayxa^ov (3\a(fcp'^iisTv 

often punishing them, I compelled (them) to blaspheme ; 
sepe puniens ipsos, coegi ad blasphemandum ; 

'n'Spi(f(fo^g TS S|UL/jLajvo|XSvoj a\)ro7g^ l(5/wxov S(j)g 

exceedingly and being mad against them, I persecuted them 
supramodum et furens adversus eos, persequutus sum 

xai 'rag I'^w <Trri\sig. ( 12) 'Ev oig xai iropsvoixsvog 

even also (to) the foreign cities. Thro' which as I passed 

etiam in exteras civitates. Inter qua; etiam proficiscens 

s/j '!"^'^ Aafjoao'Kov i^sr i^ou(flag xa» ^'jfirporyig rr}g ifapa. 
into the Damascus with authority and commission from 
Damascum cum potestate et procuratione a 

rwv ^ctp-)(ispiojVj (13) "^Hixspag [LZdrig^ xoltol tt^v 65ov, 2/6ov, 
the Chief Priests, Day at mid, in the way, I saw, 

principibus sacerdotum, Die medio, in via, vidi, 

jSatfiXsu, c'jpavo^sv C-rsp Ty\v "ka^MfporrircL rov tjXiou, 

king, from heaven above the brightness (of) the sun, 

rex, coelitus quae superans splendorem solis, 

crs pi>.a,pi-^a,v iJ.s (pCJg xai rovg tfuv iixot 'rropsvoiijvoug 

shining around me a light, and those with me journeying. 

circumfudit me lucem, et eos cum me iterfaciebant 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 197 

(14) rTavTWv 8s xara'TStfovTuv f)iiuv elg <rYiv yr,v, 

All and when having fallen of us upon the earth, 
Omnes autem quum decidissemus in terram, 

rxoua'a (pwvigv XaXoutfav crpoV fz-s, xai Xiyoutfav c^ 'E- 
I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying (in) the He- 
audivi vocem alloquentem me, ac decentum He- 

/Spai'(5i (JiaXsWoj, 2aouX, 2aouX, ti fjis 6jwxsij ; 

l)re\v dialect, Saul, Saul, why me persecutest (thou) ? 

braica lingua, Saul, Saul, quid me persequeris? 

tfxXrpo'v (for -rpoj xs'vrpa XaxTi(^eiv. (15) 'Eyw Js £/Vov, 

Hard for 3'ou against (such) power to kick. I and said, 
duram tibi contra stimulos calctrare. Ego autem dixi, 

Tig si Kvpis ; 6 6& Siirsvy 'Eyw elfx» ^\v(fovg ov 

Who art (thou,) Lord? he and said, I am Jesus whom 
Quis es, Domini? ille et dixit, Ego sum Jesus quern 

"'u ^iCixSig, (16) 'AXXcc 'avag'rj^i, xal (fTr,6i iifi roOj iroSas 

thou persecutest. But rise up, and stand upon the feet 

persequeris Sed exsurge, et sta in pedes 

CoiT, sis I'ovTo yoLp w(p4>]v tfoi, rpop^sipiVao'^aj 

of you, for this because I have come to you, to choose 
tuos, idcirco enim apparui tibi, designarem 

(fs Wr]pirr\v xat fxapTupa ojv ts eldsg, 

you a minister and witness the things which thou hast seen 
ministrum ac testum tum eorum quae vidisti, 

*OJv TS o(p^r;(;'o|xa» tfoi, (17) 'E^aipooasvoj (fb 

the things and I will show to you. Delivering you 

tum eorum quibus apperebo tibi, Eruens te 

£x Tou XacJ xa/ Tojv edvwv e)g ovg vuv <fs a.rrg'eWu, 
from the people and the heathen unto whom now you 1 send. 
ex hoc populo et geniibus ad quod nunc te mitto. 

17* 



19S THE PRINCIPLES OP 

(18) 'AvoT^ai ocp6akiJ.ovg auTWv rov iirig'pi-^ai ^aifb (fyiorovg 
To open (the) eyes of them to turn from darkness 
Ut aperias oculos corum (et) convertas (eos) a tenebris 

tig (pw^, xat rris i^ov(flag tou 2arava iirl tov ©sov, toO 

unto light, and the power of the Satan unto the God, tha^ 

ad lucem, et (a) potestate Satanae ad Deum, ut 

Xa/SsM/ avTovg a^stfjv a/xaprdiv, xai xkripou 

they receive to them remission of offences, and a share 

accipiant remissionem peccatorum, et sortem 

Iv roTg rj^jacffxsvoi^ 'Jfig'si rrj sig Ifjus. 

among them who are sanctified by faith which (is) in me. 

mter illos sanctificatos per fidem quas est in me. 

(19) "O&Bv, (BadCksZ 'A^pjV'Ta, oux lysvofXTjv aitsi^rig ttj 
Whence, O king Agrippa, not I was disobedient (to) the 

Unde, rex Agrippa, non fui rebellis illi 

oupavjw o-rrarfja. (20) 'AXXa ToTg Iv Aa/xafl'xoj -rpwrov xai 
heavenly vision. But (to) those in Damascus first and 

coelesti apparitioni. Sed iis (qui sunt) Damasci primum et 

*Ispoo'oXujXo«j, £«V 'TT'ad'av ts T'^v "/f^pccv Trig 'Iov6aiag, xai 
at Jerusalem in all and the consts of the Judea, and 
Hierosolymis in omnes et regione Judeae, et 

troTg £&vs(fiv, aft'rfayyiXkL^^v i^STavosTv 

(then) to the Gentiles, showing (that they) might repent 
(deinde) Gentibus, anunciavi ut resipiscerent 

xai i^tcfrpicpsiv rVi tov ©sov, a^ia Trig 

and turn unto the God, (and) worthy of the 

et converterent (se) ad Deum, convenientia 

ixsravzlag spya *!(pa<i(iovTag, (21)"EvsxaT0(^rwv /xs ol 'Iou5aroi 
repentance works do. For which me the,Jews 

resipicentiae ope ra facientes. Horum causa me Judani 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 199 

0\uWaf3rj^svci i\ Toj ]sp'7i f'Treipwvro Sioi-^sipiffaff&at 

have seized in the temple (and) attempted to kill (me), 
comprehensum (in) templum tentarunt interficere (me). 

(22) 'E-rjxc'jpi'aj ouv rup^wv Tr,g rrapci tov ©sou, 

Assistance therefore having obtained from the God, 
Auxilium sed nactus a Deo, 

ap^pi T>3j rjjULs'pacr TavTr]g Itfrexa iiaprvpoC^svog jaixpoj <rf xal 
to this day thus I continue testifying to small both and 
in banc diem usque pcrstiti testificans parvis turn turn 

jULSyaXoj, ou(5£v ixTog Xo'ywv (Iv TS ol <7rpo(p>j>rai 

great, nothing than saying which both the prophets 
magnis, nee quicqam dicens quae prophetae 

i'kaXy\(fav /xsXXo'vtcov ylvscfdai xal Mu}(frjg 
did say should come and Moses, 
prajdixerunt futura ac Moses. 



DIVES AND LAZARUS— Luke XVL 19-31. 

( 19) "Av^pwTfo^ 5s rig r]V irXoCtfio g, xal ivsdi()6(fxSTo <n'op(pvpav 
A man and who was rich, and clothed (in) purple 

xa? /3uo'fl'ov, su(ppa»vojULSvo^ xa&^ 7]^spav Xa/X'Tpw^. (20) 

and fine linen, (and) feasted by day sumptuously. 

Jlruyog 6s rig t^v ovo'/xari Aoc^apog', bV il3il3Xr,ro 
A beggar and who was named Lazarus, who was throwii 

irpog <rov irJXwva a-jrov TjXxwfjisvoc:, (21) Ka*' iiri&v^iCJv 

before the gate of the other full of ulcers, And desired 

p^opraj'dvjvai cwro twv -.j^.^i'ojv twv < ^rrovrojv difo Tr,g rpar, i^rig 
to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the table 



200 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

(of) the rich (man,) but also the dogs came (and) licked 

ra. sXxYj auTou, (22) ^Eyivsro ds dirQ&avsTv tov -Tfrcjp^ov, 

the sores of him. It came to pass and died the beggar, 

xa/ dirsvsy^&rjvoii fciurov v'lfo tuv dyyiXov slg tov xoX-ttov tou 
and was carried he by the angels into the bosom of the 

A^pctdiJjf diti&avs 6s xai 6 •n'Xouo'joj xai STa,(ps, 

Abraham, died and also the rich (man) and was buried. 

(23) Kal iv Tw a,Sfi * iirdpag rovs o(p^aX/xou^ auToC, u-Trap^j^wv 
And in the hell he lifted the eyes of him, being 

iv /^arfavoi^, opa tov 'A/Spao^a a-ro jitaxpodsv xa/ Aat^apov 
in torment, seeing the Abraham at a distance and Lazarus 

^v ro7g xoXifoTg avrov, (24) Ka/ avrog (f>(jjv'r}(fag £i<rrs, llarsp 
in the bosom of him. • And he crying said, Father 

'A/3paa|x, ^Xsi^tfov |X5, xa< Ts'{J^^|^ov Aa^apov hct 

Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he 

f3a-^r) TO ctxpov tou ^axTuXou auTou vSaTog, xa/ xara-^v^r^ 
may dip the tip of the finger of him in water, and cool 

TYjv j^Xwrfrfav fxou* oTi o5uvw|xa/ Iv t^ (pXoy/ ravrr}, 

the tongue of me; for I am tormented in the flame this. 

(25) E/Vs §s 'A^paa/x, Ts'xvov, /xv^jo'^'^Tai otj d<Tii\oL^Eg (fu 
Said and Abraham, Son, remember that received you 

•'a ^aya&cc tfou iv ttJ ^urj tfou, xai. Aa<^apog 

the good things of you in the life of you, and Lazarus 

C|i/,o<oj^ TO. xaxdl, vuv 6s o6s ifapaksTrai^ tfu 

likewise the evil things, now and here he is comforted, you 

• Literally, unseen^ the invisible abode of the dead— derived from 
^^6u, to see. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 201 

SI orJuvad'a (26) Ka/ ifrl -ratfi ToCroigj jULSrafJ ^juiwv xai 
and tormen 3d ; And besides all this between us and 

you a gulf very great is placed, so that they who would 

pass from tl.is place to you, not can, neither those 

ixsT&sv -rpog hl^oig Sia'KSp(^(fiv. (27) EjVs Sc, 'Epwroj ouv 
from that to us can pass. He said then, I pray therefore 

tfs, ^rarep, i'va iriix-^rjs aurov s/V ''"ov o/xov tou 

thee, father, that thou wilt send him to the house of the 

warpo^ fjLoG* [2S)''Fj-)(^uyap rfivre d5£\(poijg,o'irug5iaixapTupy{Iat 
father of me; I have for five brethren, that he witness 

auroTgy 5'va y.-^ xat auroi eX^wo'jv stg tov toVov toCtov r^j 
to them, that not also they come into the place this of the 

/3a(favoiJ. (29) At'ysi auTOJ 'A^paajx, "Ep^ourfj Mwrfea xai 
torment. Said to him Abraham, They have Moses and 

rovg 'Tfpo'pYjTag, dxoutfarwfl'av auTWv. (30) 'O ^1 SiVsv, Oup^;/, 
the prophets, let them hear them. He and said, Nay, 

fCcLTSp 'A,/3paa|x, VXX* lav Hg V-tto vsxpwv <;ropcu^r) 
father Abraham, but if any one from the dead should go 

m'pcg auToOf, jxsravoT^rfoufl'iv. (31) E/Vff Si auTu), E/ 

unto them, they would repent. He said and to him, If 

Mwtftwj xat <rwv «n'po(pr]To5v oux axoJoutfjv, ovSi sav nV Ix 
Moses and the prophets not theyhear, neither if any one from 

vsxpwv 'avarfT^, 'n'SK^Qr^ffovrctt. 

the dead shoiL-d arise, will they be persuaded. 



202 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

MATTHEW XXIII. 34-39. 

(34) ^Aiol ToZrc^ /(Jou, ^y(ji d'Tco'T^Xw^ if fog wug 'TTpotp^rar, xa^ 
Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and 
Propterea, ecce, ego mitto ad vos prophetas, et 

^o(povSy xa/ ypai^i^aTsTs' xai i^ auTwv a'TfoycTSV' 

wise (men) and scribes; and (some) of them shall ye 
sapientes (viros) et scribas ; et (nonnullos) ex ipsis trucid- 

bTts^ xal (j'Taupojo'srs, xai i^ auTWv aao'-nywo's-rs 

/cill and crucify, and (some) of them shall ye scourge 
abitis et crucifigetis, et (nonnullos) ex ipsis flagellabitis 

iv raTg (fvvoLyfjj'yaTg upiwv, xal 6<w|st£^ d-ro "ffoXsw^ slg 
in the synagogues of you, and persecute from city unto 
in conventibus vestris, et persequemini ab urbe, in 

flToXiv* (35) "O's'wj iXQyf icp* v^j^ag <r:oc\P a/juia ^j'xaiov, 
city ; That may come upon you all blood the righteous, 

urbem ; Ut veniat super vos omnis sanguis Justus, 

^xp^uvofxevov sifl TYjg yy\g^ a-n'o rou a'l'ixaTog "AQsX row 5ixaiou, 
shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the righteous, 
effusus super terram, a sanguine Abel justi, 

^ug TQV ai'jL/.aro^ Za^apjou, v\ov Bapap^i'ou, ov 

until the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom 
usque ad sanguinem Zacharias, filii Barachiae, quern 



* Jesus says this, speaking of Jerusalem ; it is a beauti- 
ul passage. 

Literally, throicgh this — also, Propterea, on account 
of these things. 

^ Compound of a-^ro and (friXku- — send away. 

■* From dt'H'oxTS.i/w. ** From 5io;x6j. ^ From Epp^ojaai. 

' Greenfield says, " I. e., aJ/jia •s'avrwv twv 5/xaiwv" — the 
hlood of all the just. 



2 



3REEK GRAMMAR. 203 

icpovsuaars jXfTa|u t<J vaoiJ xai tov ^Kfiaffrripicj. (36) 'A/j/i^v 
ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily, 

occidistis inter templum et altare. Amen, 

Xtrw u/xn/, rj^si toZtol ifOLvra, irrl tyjv 

I say (unto) you, shall come these (things) all upon the 
dico vobis, venient hoec omnia super 

yevSttv ravrriv. (37) 'IspoutfaXi^lui., 'lepoutfaXigix, rj a-n'oxTSivoutfa 
generation this. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, (thou) that killest 
aetatem istam. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, (tu) qui trucidas 

TcCg •n'po^^Taj, xal Xj^oSoXourfa Tovg d'jreo'TaXjLievouj "sfpo^ auT/jv, 
the prophets, and stonest them (that are) sent unto thee, 
prophetas, et lapidatrix* eorum (qui sunt) missi ad te, 

ntodaxig rfii\y)(ioL i-n'Kfvva.ya'ysTv to. rixMct (I'ou, ov 

how often would I have gathered the children of you, in 
quoties volui congregare liberos sui, 

Tpoifov i'T^Kfuvayei opvig to. voo'o'i'a laur/jj u-ro 

like manner as gathereth a hen the chickens of her under 
quemadmodum congregat galina pullos suos sub 

rag ifripvyas, xal oux rtdzKridoLrs ; (3S) 'l6oi), d(p»eTait \j^7v 
the wings, and not ye would ! Behold, is left (to) you 
alas, et noluistis ! Ecce, relinquetur vobis 

oixog ujULOJv ipr\[Log, (39) As'yw yap vixTv, Ov jx^ 

the house of you desolate. I say for (unto) you, In no wise 

domus vestra deserta. Dico enim vobis, Nequaquara 

as 'iSriTS d'Tf' aprj, ewj dv elVr^rs, EuXo^i^fASvo^ 

me shall ye see after now until shall ye say. Blessed (is he) 
me videbitis ab hoc usquedum dicatis, Benedictus 

lp;)^ofiSvop t ev ovojaari Kupi'ou. 

that cometh in the name of the Lord, 
qui venit in nomine Domini. 

•A stoner of them. tFrom d^irj.ai. tLit. the one comi7i<r. 



204 THE PRINCIPLES OF 



MATTHEW XIX. 27-30. 

(27) ToVs d'K'oxpi&s^g * b UsTpog slifsv auroj, 'I^oO, hl^'J^ 
Then answering the Peter said (to) him, Behold, we 
Turn respondens Petrus dixit ei, Ecce, nos 

dcpyixaiisv rfavra, xcci '^xoXou^^o'a/xsv tfou* ri ctpa 

have forsaken all, and followed thee ; what, therefore, 
relinquimus omnia, et sequuti sumus te ; quid ergo 

s(fTat Tjiuv; (28) *0 ds ^iTjcfoug bWsv a^roXg, 'A/xo^v 

will there be to us ? The and Jesus said unto them, Verily 

erit nobis? Autem Jesus dixit illis, Amen 

"kiy^j) viJAv, oVj i>iJ.sTg o{ dxokov&r}(favrig |Xoi, Iv rj) 
I say (unto) you, that ye which have followed me, in the 
dice vobis, vos qui sequuti estis me, in 

ifakt'yysvscfiaf oVav xa&icfr] 6 ulo^ <rou dv^pw-n'ou S'b'/ 
regeneration, when shall sit the son of the man upon the 
regeneratione, quum sederit filius hominis in 

^povou 5o|y]^ avTov, xa&l(fSif&s xai v^j^sTg sif\ dC^5sxcc 

throneof the glory of him, shall sit and ye upon twelve 
throno glorias suae, sedebitis etiam vos super duodecim 

^povou^, xpivovrsg rag 6u)Ssx(x, cpvXdg tov *Ifl'pa^X. (29 
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of the Israel, 
ihronos, judicantes duodecim tribus Israel. 

Kal <Kag o^ ^a(py]xBv t ohlag, rj 'a^sXcpou^, ^ aSsXtpdgf 

And all who have forsaken houses, or brothers, or sisters, 
Et omnis qui reliquerit domos, aut fratres, aut sorores, 

* From 'a'Toxpivojaai. tFrom ^acplriikt. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 205 

or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, 
aut patrem, aut matrem, aut uxorem, aut liberos, aut agros, 

FvExsv Tov ovrjy.aTog /xou, kxarovTtt'jtXatflova \r}-^sratf 

on account of the name of me, an hundred fold shall re- 

ob nominis mei, centuplicia accipiet, 

xoLi ^WT^v a/wviov xXrjpovofXrjO'Ei. (30) IToXXo/, 6s 
ceive, and life everlasting shall mherit. Many, however 
et vitam aetemam hajreditatis. Multi, autem, 

ftfovTai "Tpwroj, tVp^aror xa.1 to'p^aroi, <n'pwToi. 
shall be first, last ; and last, first, 
erunt primi, ultimi ; et ultimi, primi. 



ST. LUKE XV. 1-7. 

['[)'n(fav6si'y'yi^ovTsgavrui'if6LV'rsg o« TsXwvai xa/ ol ajiiaprwXoi, 
Were but coming to him all the publicans and the sinners, 
Autem accederunt ad eum omnes publicani et peccatores, 

*axovsiv avrov, ^2) Kai Stsyoyyv^ov o) ^apitfam xai ol rpa/x- 
to hear him. And murmured the Pharisees and the 
audire eum. Et murmurabant Pharisaei et 

ixarsr^, XsVovTScr, "Ot« o6toj a(xapT6uXoij^ ifpoffSi-^STcci^ xal (fuvs/f^isi 
Scribes, saying. That he sinners receives and (he) eats 
Scribae, dicentes, Ut hie peccatores recipit, et edit 

auTOKT. (3) EiVff 6s -TTpo^ avroCig to^v TCapa- 

(with) them. He spake, nevertheless, unto them the para- 
(cum) illis. Loquutus est, autem, ad eos para* 

18 



206 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

^oXriv ra'jTYiVj Xiyuiv' (4) Tis av&poin'os i^ o/xwv tp^wv Ixarcf 

ble this, saying; What man of you having an hun 
bolam hanc, dicens ; Quis homo ex vobis habens cent- 

dred sheep, and if he loose one of them, not doth leave 
um oves, et perdiderit unam ex illis, non relinquit 

Tot ivvsvYixovrasvvioL iv rvj ^p^l^w, xa< ii^opSuSTai lid 
the ninety nine in the wilderness, and go after 
illas nonaginta novem in deserto, et abit ad 

TO d'Tr'oXwXo^, zoig sUp^ auro ; (5) Ka< gupwv I'TJTj^yjo'iv 
the lost, until he find it ? And finding (it) he layeth 
perditam, usquedum inveneriteam? Etnactus (earn) imponit 

l-jfi rovg u)ixoug laurou p^a»pwv, (6) Ka/ eX^wv 
(it) upon the shoulders of him rejoicing, And having 
(earn) super humeros suos gaudens, Et veniens 

slg rov o/xov, (fvyxoCKsT trovg (piXovg xai 

come into the house, he calleth together the friends and 

in domo (suo) convocat amicos et 

roug yslrovag, "kiyuv avroTg, 2uy^ap'y)<rs jxoi, on 6upo» 

the neighbors, saying to them. With rejoice me, for I have 

vicinos dicens eis, Gratulamini mihi, nempe 

TO TTpo^aTov fJLou TO oLiTokuikog, (7) As'yoj. VllTVf 
found the sheep of me that was lost. I say unto you, 

inveni ovem meam quae perierat. Dico vobis, 

OTi ouTW X^P^ stfrai iv toj oupavy, iid kvi a/jiapTwXoj 
that likewise joy shall be in the heaven, over one sinner 
ut etiam gaudium erit in coelo super uno peccator« 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 207 

jxsravoouvTi, rj i-jri ivvsvyixovrccswicc l\xai. 

that repentcth, (more) than over ninety nine just 
resipiscente, magis qaam super nonaginta novem jus- 

oijr, oirivsg ou XP^''^'^ i!')(ov(fi ixsravoiag. 

(persons), which no need liave of repentance, 
tis, qui non opus habent resipiscentiae. 



ST. LUKE XV. 11-32. 

(11) E<Vs f^f, *Av^pW7roV rig f/p^s 5jo uIoJc:, (12) Ka/ e/criy 
He said and, A man certain had two sons, And said 
Ait autem, Homo quidam habebat duos filios, Et dixit 

6 vsCjTSpog auTWv <ru5 '?raTpi, IlaTtp, 6og |noi to 

the younger of them to (his) father, Father, give to me that 
junior illorum patri, Pater, da mihi 

iiri^aXkov /xe'po^ Tr}g ovcflag Ka/ Si- 

falleth (to me) the portion of the property. And he 

attinentem (ad me) partem substantiae. Et par- 

eTXsv auToTg Tov /3i'ov. (13) Kai fj.sr' ou <iroWag 

divided to them the living (of him.) And with not many 

titit eis illam vitam. Et post non muhos 

^ixsp^.g (fwctyayi^v aifavra, 6 vS'^rspog v\og ccco^^juiiia'sv 

days collecting together all the younger son departed 
dies congestens omnibus junior filius egressus est 

iig •)((jJoa.v jLtaxpav • xolI sxs7 6iS(fx6p'n'Kfs Tr^v ourf/av avrou 
into country a distant; and there wasted ihe goods of liim 
inregionemlonginquam; etillicdissipavit substantiam suam 



208 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

2^wv atfojrwj. (14) Aa.ifaMri(iou\jrog Ss aui lu 

living with luxurious. He had consumed but when of him 
vivendo profuse. Consumpsisset autem quum 

•n'o.vra, iyhsro "kii^og /V^upoj xard ro^v J^wpav ixsivriv, 

'gDods) all, there came famine a mighty in the land that; 
omnia, orta est fames valida in regione ilia ; 

a; OLvrog '^plaro v(frspsT(f&ai, (15) Ka/ 'K'opsv&elg ^xtiKkrfiy] 

and he began to be in want. And he went and joined 

et ipse coepit defici. Et abiens et adhaesit 

Ivi' Twv 'ToXjrwv Trig X'^P^^ ixslvrig • yicci 
himself to one of the citizens of the country that; and 
uni ex civibus regionis illus ; et 

iifsix-^sv avTov slg Tovg dypovg avrou (3o(fxsiv ^pipovg, (16)Ka< 
he sent him into the fields of him to feed swine. And 

missit eum in agros • suos pascere porcos. Et 

eVs^u(x£» y£|jiiVa» rriv xoiX/av aurou ct-rro rwv xspa<r/ojv CJv ^(f&iov 
he wished to fill the belly of him with the husks that did eat 
desiderabat implere ventrem suum siliquis quas edebant 

ol "XpTpoi ' xcu ovdsig iSi6ov aurw. (17) E<V lauTov 

the swine ; and no one did give to him. Unto himself 

porci; et nemo dabat ei. Ad se 

Ss IX^WV, Sl'TSj IIoVoi fXlV^JOl TOV ifttTpog 

however coming, he said, How many servants of the father 
autem redens, ait, Quotquot mercenarii patria 

jixou 'K'spi(f(fsvov(fiv otpTwv, iyCi Ss Xi|xw a'T-roXXu/xai ; 
of me abound in bread, 1 however with want perish? 
mei abundant panibus, ego autem fame pereo? 

( 18) ''AvoLdrag "Tropsutfoixai itplg tov iraripa, jy.ou, xat ipCi 
Arising I will go unto the father of me, and will say 
Surgens proficiscar ad patrem mei, et dicai» 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 209 

a.VT(^, J[aT?p, rji^aprov sig tov oupavov xa\ 

unto him; Father, I have sinned against the heaven and 
e:. Pater, peccavi in cceIuhi et 

ivwTiov tfou • (19) Ka/ ouxsVi s/'ja? cl^iog xXti^7jv«i 

in the sight of you ; And no more am worthy to be called 
in conspectu suo ; Et non amplius sum dignus vocari 

in'? fl'ou • <n'olri(f6v jas ug sva rwv fXiC^/wv (fov. 

the son of you ; make nie as one of the servants of you. 
filius tuus; fac me ut unum (ex) mercenariis tuis 

^20) Kai dvacfrag, yjX&s irphg tov -rarfpa laurou. *Eti 

And arising, he came unto the father of him. Yet 
Et surgens, venit ad patrem ejus. Quum 

51 auTou jut-axpav acrt'p^ovrocr, s/Jsv auTov m'arrip aorov 

however way ofT a great he was, saw him the father of him 
autem adhuc longe abesset, vidit eum pater ejus 

\ai i(f<n''kay)(yi(f&r] ' xai dpa^xdv iiti'jrstfe)/ iirl rhv rpa-^r{kop 

and had compassion ; and running fell upon the neck 
et misericordiamhabuit; et accurrens incidit in collum 

auTou xal xarstp/Xi^fl'sv aurov. (21) EZ-tts 6s au<r^ 6 uloj, 

of him and kissed him. Said and to him the son, 

ejus et deosculatus est eum. Dixit autem ei filius, 

ITarsp, ^jxapTov s)g tov oupavov xal ^vwttkjv 

Father, I have sinned against the heaven and in the sight 
Pater, peccavi in ccelum et in con?pectu 

(fou, xai ouxcVi si^i ci^iog xXr;^>jva» v\6g (fou. 

of you, and no more am worthy to be called the son of you, 
tuo, et neque amplius sum dignus vocari fiL'us tuus- 

(22) EiVs 6s 6 irarTi p 'TT pig Tovg 6c-JXovg auToC, 'E|Ev£^xaT« 
Said but the father unto the servants of him. Bring 
Dixit autem pater ad servos suos, AfTerte 

18* 



I 



210 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

rm o'co>.'>^v T^v 'n^C)ry\v, Ka/ iv5u(faT3 aurov, xa drWi 

the robe the best, And put (it) upon him, and give 

stolam illam prsBcipuam, E* induite eurn, et indite 

SaxrvXiov slg t'^v p^^rpa aurou, xal Cflro^^yjaara sis <roO^ <jro(5a5'. 
a ring to the hand of him, and shoes to the feet, 
annulum in manum ejus, et soleas in pedes. 

(23) Kai iviyxavrsg rov ii,6(fy(ov tov (firsuTov ^odars, xctt 
And bring the calf the fatted (and) kill (it,) and 
Et afTerrentes vitulum ilium saginatummactate, et 

(^ayovrsg £u(ppav^W|X£v • (24) "Otj ouro^ o xAog jxou vsxpoj 
eating let us be merry; For this the son of me dead 

edentes exhilaremur; Quiaiste filiusmeimortuus 

^v xai av£^>]0's, xa? d<n'oXwXoog i]V xou svps6ri, 

was and is alive (again), and lost he was and is found, 
erat et revixit, et perierat et inventus est. 

Ka/ -Jjp^avro sv(ppaivs(f6ai, (25)' Hv 6s o mog au<roO 
And they began to be merry. Was now the son of him 
Et coeperunt sese exhilararet. Erat autem filius ejus 

b 'n'pE(f^urspog sv clypoj, xai ^g ip-)(oi:.svog rfyyidz <Tr\ 

the elder in the field, and as coming he drew near to the 
senior in agro, et ut veniens appropinquavit 

o/x?(X '^'xoutfs tfujtj-^ojvi'a^ xa/ p^opwv. (26) Ka/ •n'poo'xaXsfl'a/xsvo^ 
house he heard music and dancing. And calling 
domui audivit concentum et choros. Et vocatum 

£va Twv 'TraitJwv auroC, s-ruv^avsro ti s/'rj q-aura 

one of the children of him, he asked what were these 
unum (ex) pueris ejus, interrogavit est quid essent 

(27) *0 (5i c/Vsv auTW, "Or/ o d^sXcpo'^ tfou 
[thi^igs?) He and said to him, That the brother of yor 
ha)c Is autem dixit ei, Fiater tuus 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 211 

>5x:i, xat Uxjdsv "Trarrjp tfou rov [L<i<f-)(pyi rov 

is come, and hath killed the father of you the calf the 
venit, et mactavit pater tuus vitulum ilium 

rfiTcUTOv, or oyittivovra aurov a'TsXa^sv. (28) 'flp^jC^r] 

fatted, for safe him (he) hath received. He was angry 

saginatum,quia tutumeum recepit. Indignatusest 

(51, "KOA o'jx -Jj^sXev EJCfeX^cIv. 'O oLiv ifarrjp aurou 

and, and not would come in. The therefore father of him 
autem, et non voluit introire. Ergo pater ipsius 

i^sX&uiv «jrapexaX?i aurov. (29) 'O ^e d'reoxpi&slg sWs toj 
coming out entreated him. He but answering said to the 
egressus hortatus est eum. Ipse vero respondens dixit 

flrarpr 'IrioO, rocfaura tVr] (JouXsJw o'oi, xa< ou^sVors 
father ; Behold how many years I serve thee, and at no time 
patri ; Ecce tot annos servio tibi, et nunquam 

EvroX^v (fou flrapyjX^ov, xou iyi.ot ou^cVotj 

the commands of you have I transgressed, and to me never 

mandatum tuum sum transgressus, et mihi nunquam 

tfiwxaj fcpjipov, 5'va fxsroc rwv (pi'Xwv jxou £u(ppav^o5. 

gavest thou a kid, that with the friends of me I might make 
dedisti hcedum, ut cum amicis meis oblectarer. 

(30.)"Ors ^5 6 vUg tfou ovTog, o xarafpayojv 
merry. When but the son of you this, that hath devoured 
Cum sed filius tuus iste, qui devoravit 

tfou rc'* (3lov jasTo, "Tropvojv ijX&svj H\)(fag 

of you the living with harlots was come, thou hast killed 
tuam vitam cum meretricibus venit, mactasti 

auToj rov fxotf^o; -rov (ftrevrlv, (31) *0 6s e/Vsv aJrw, 
for him the calf the fatted. He and said unto him, 
ei vitulum Hum saginatum. Ipse vero dixit ei, 



I 



212 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Texvov, tfu 'r.uvrors ix.st^ s/xou s/, xccl ifoiMTd <ra i/xa, (fa 

Son, thou always with me art, and all that (is) mine, thino 
Fill, tu semper mecum es et omnia mea, tua 

^pv, (32.) Eucppav/'vivai, <5s, xai p(ap>)vai f^si, 

is. To rejoice, therefore, and to be glad it was meet, 

sunt. Exhilarari, vero, et gaudere opportebat, 

oVi 6 a^z\(^og tfou ouroj vsxpo^ ^v, xoa dvi^^a-e • xou 
for the brother of you this dead was, and liveth; and 
quia frater tuus iste mortuus erat, et revixit; etiam 

lost he was, and is found ! 
perierat et inventus est ! 



ROMANS III. 21-26. 

(21) Nuv/ Ss %wp;V vo'/jLou 5ixaio(fuvr} ©sou 

Now but without the law the righteousness of God is 
Nunc vero absque lege justitia Dei 

flr'£(pavsp6jrai, jaapTupou|X£v>j ucro tou vo/xou xai rw*' 

manifested, being witnessed by the law and the 

manifesta est, testificata a lege ac 

9rpo(pr]TWv* (22) Aixaio(fvvri Ss ©sou Sia. •ttiVtscoj 

prophets ; Even the righteousness of God by faith of 
prophetis; Inqam justitia Dei per fidem 

'lyjo'ou XpitfTou, slg rroLvrag xal ^ifl <B'avra^ roxjg frtidrzuavrag • 
Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all that believe ; 
Jesu Christi, in omnes et super omnes qui credunt ; 

oy yap sdri Sicc(fTokr}. (23) TLavrsg yap ■^/xaprov xcu 
no for there is difference All for have sinned and 

non enim est distinctio. Omnes enim pecaverunt ac 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 213 

i)(fTSpcu\Tat tTj^ ^'^s'l^ Gsov, (24) A»xa<o;;|Xcvoi Supsav 

come short of the glory of God. Being justified freely 

deficiunter gloria Dei. Justificati gratis 

rji auTou X«piT» ^10. Trig d'S'oXuTpwfl'Swj Trig iv 

by the of him grace through the redemption that (is) in 
ejus gratia per redemptionem quce 

XpKfri^ *lritov' (25) "Ov ^poi&STo 6 05oj ]\a(frr;pio\f 

Christ Jesus : Whom hath set forth the God a propitiation 
Christo Jesu ; Quern proposuit Deus placamentum 

SioL rr]g Trig'sug iv tgj aurou ai'fJLarj, elg ^vSsi^iv Trig 

through the faith in the of him blood, to declare the 

per fidem in ipsius sanguine, ad demonstrandam 

6ixa.io<fCvrig aurou, ^la <r>;v cr'otpsfl'jv <rwv ifpoysyoMorcAiv 

righteousness of him, for the remission of the past 
justitiam suam, per remissionem quoBantecesserunt 

a/xapTrjjxarwv, (26) 'Ev tj) ctvop^]^ tou ©soVf 

sins. Through the forbearance of the God, 

peccatorum, Per tolerante ^ Dei, 

flT'po^ svSsi^iv Tr,g 5ixaio(fCvr]g auTou iv Tui vuv 

for to declare the righteousness of him at the present 
ad demonstrandam justitiam suam present! 

xaipw' s)g TO g/vai aurov ^ixajov, xal Sixctmvra, rov 

time; that might be he just, and the justifier of him 
tempore; ut sit ipse Justus, et justificans eum 

ix '!(l(fTSug 'Irjcfou. 
which believeth in Jesus, 
qui est ex fide Jesu. 



214 THE PRINCIPLES OF 



ROMANS V. 6-12, 18, 21. 

{6yETi yap Xpttfro^, ovtwv tj/xwv dc^ff/wv, xara xaipov 

Yet for Christ, being we weak, by time 
Adhuc enim Christus,existentibus nobis infirmis, in tempore 

vifsp dtJ's^oJv difs&avs, (7) MoXig yap uirip dixaiou 

for the impious died. Scarcely for for righteous 

pro impiis mortuus est. Vix enim pro justo 

*rig d'n'o&avsTTai • vifsp ^dp rou dya&ou ^^ys^ ''"'S 

person will one die ; for yet the good (man) possibly one 

quis moritur; pro enim bono forsitan quia 

xa« roXfAa d-TTo^avsrv. (8) SuvjVriifl'j ^s T'J^v laurou 

even would dare to die. Commendeth but the of himself 

et audeat mori. , Commendat sed illam ipsius 

ayaiCf^^ slg >?|xaj o 0so^, oV», ' IVi d/xaprwXwv 

love unto us the God, since, yet sinners 

charitatem in nobis Deus, quoniam, adhuc peccatoribus 

ovrc-jy 7;|xo3v, XpKfrog v'ffsp tjjxojv d'jfi&avs. (9) IIoXXw 

being we, Christ for us died. Much 

existentibus nobis. Christus pro nobis monuus est. Multo 

ouv fxdXXov, Sixaiu&ivrsg vuv ^v <roj ai'/xari aurou, 

therefore more, being justified now in the blood of him, 
igitur magis, justificati nunc in sanguine ipsius, 

(fu&riifoixs&a, Si' auTou d*o Trig opyrjg. (10) E< yap 
we shall be saved by hirfi from the wrath. If for 

servabimur per ipsum ab ira. Si enim 

i-xPpQt ovrsg xarriXkayriixsv tw Ge^ Sid r&u 

enemies being we were reconciled to the God by the 
inimic existentes reconciliati sumus Deo per 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 215 

davarou tou uIou auroiJ, "jroXXoj fxaXXov, xaTaXXa^s'vrej 
death of the son of him, much more, leing reccnciled, 
mortem filii ejus, muUo magis, reconciliati, 

(fu6ri(f'j^s&(X iv TV] ^(jjr) avTQV, (11) Ou jxovov 

shall we be saved by the life of him. Not only (that) 

servabimur in vitam ipsius. Non solum 

6=f* ctXXa xai xau;)^i)|xsvoi ^v toj ©ew 5iol TouKupiou 

and, but also (are) glorying in the God through the Lord 

autem, sed etiam gloriantes in Deo per Dominura 

^jitwv, 'Irjfl'ou Xpitfrou, 61' 06 viJv rr}v xuraXkayriv 
of us, Jesus Christ, by whom now the reconciliation 
nostrum, Jesum Christum, per quem nunc reconciliationem 

iXa^oixsv, (12) Aia TouTo ojo'-TTEp 6»' ivog av^pw-n'ou rj 

we have received. AYh'/efure as by one man the 
accepimus. Piopierea sicut per unum hominum 

ajaapria slg tov x6(fixov sl(f'y}yJSf xcti 6toL rrjg aiiaprlag ^ctvaTO^, 

sin into the world came, and by the sin the death, 

peccatum in mundum venit, et per peccatum mors, 

KCLi ouTug slg -ravraj dv&pC^<rovg 6 6a,va.rog Sir^Xdsv i(p' 5 flrocvrfg 
and so upon all men the death passeth, for that all 
et sicii-f in omnes homines mors pertransit, in quo omnes 

^fiapTov. 

have sinned. 

C 
peccaverunt. 

(18) *Apa ouv u)g Si' ivog -rapaifTUfxaTog slg 'jravrag vLvSpCiffov^ 
Therefo'e as by one ofTencc (came) upon all men 
Igitur sicut per unamofTensam in omnes homines 

* Translate the 5s before ou — 5s oi3 fAovov, &c. 



216 THE PRINCIPLES Of 

sV xoLTaxpixoL * ouTw xal (5j' ivls 5»xaioJjL/ia<ro^, 
unto judgment; so also by one righteous (the free 
in condemnationem ; sic et per unum justitiura. 

sis ifccvras dv&pC^'n'ovg slg 8ixaiu(fiv ^w%. 

gift came) upon all men unto justification of life. 
in omnes homines ad justificationem vitas. 

****** 
(21) "Iva uxf'n'Sp i^a<fi\sw(fsv t) a/xapr/a iv rw^avarw, outw fcal 
That as hath reigned the sin unto the death, so even 
Ut sicut regnavit peccatum in morte, ita et^ 

7} X^P'^ ^a(fi\su(fy\ dia 6ixalo(fCv7]g slg t[(*iV^ 

the grace might reign through righteousness unto life 
gratia regnaret per justitiam in vitam 

a/wviov, 6ici ^lri(fov XpitfTov r:b X:jpkj Tjfjuwv. 

eternal, by Jesus Christ the Lord of us. 
seternam, per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum. 



OuVw yap Tjyaitritfsv b Qsog rov xoVjuiov u)(fTS rov vlov avrov 
So for loved the God the world that the son of him 
Ita enim dilexit Deus mundum ut filium ejus 

Tov /X0V0VSV7J eSuxsVf j'va rfoig o 'n'KfTSvuv els avrov 

the only begotten he gave, that all who believe in him 
unigenitum dederit, ut omnes qui credunt in eum 

not might perish but have life eternal. — John Hi. 16 
Eon pereant sed habeant vitam seternam. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 217 



SCRIPTURE TEXTS ON DIFFERENT SUBJECTS. 

AsuTS "TTpof jtAS 'rroLvrsg o\ xo<jriC!)vr£g xa 'jrscpoprKf. 

Come unto me all (ye) that (are) laboring and are icavy 
Ven.te ad me omnes qui fatigati et onerati 

/Lievoi, xa'yC) ava'n'aiirfu i^fxacr. 

laden, and I will give rest to you. — Matthew xi. 28. 

estis, et ego dabo requiem vobis. 

Ka/ xa^' * oVov aitoxsirai TaTg f dv^pW'jrojj anfoL^ d'To^avSM/, 
And as it is appointed to thees men once to die, 
Et sicut statutum est hominibus semel mori 

acrcL 8c TouTo xplcfis • OvTug 6 XpiCro^ a':ra| -TTporfsvp^^E/g 

after however the judgment ; So the Christ once oflered 
■post vero hoc judicium; Ita Christus semel oblatus 

sis TO flfoXXojv dvsvsyxsTv ajxapTi'aj Ix Ssuripov X^P'^ 

fur the many to bear the sins for a second time without 
niultorum attollere peccata secundo absque 

cLfxaprlag o(p&Yi(fsrai ToTg aurov d'TrexJep^oiu-svoi^ s]g tfwryipi'av. 
sin he shall appear to those looking for him unto salvation, 
peccato conspicietur eis expectantis eum ad salutem. 

Hebrews ix. 27, 2S. 

Tec yap o4/Wv»a Trig a^Laprlag ^avarog", to bz yap\(i[kaLrQv 

The for wages of the sin (is) death, the but gift of the 

Nam stipendia peccati mors, at donatio 

©sou P(jiri aiCiv\og iv Xpifl'Ti^ 'Ir.tfou toj Kupi'w yjawv. 

God life eternal through Christ Jesus the Lord of us. 
l)ei vita aeterna in Christo Jesu Domino nostro. 

Romans ti, 23. 

* Contraction of xa^c^^, conjunction. 

t The&i men — the Priesthood of Aaron. 
19 



I 



218 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

(6) To ^ap (ppov»)/xa <rrig (fapxog doLvvAog, ro Se 

To be for minded of the flesh (is) death, to b out 
Nam prudentia carnis (est) mors, at 

9pov*)fxa rov ievsCiJ.aTog ^w^ xai £?p^v»j. (7) Ators <ro 
minded of the spirit (is) life and peace. Because the 
prudentia spiriti (est) vita et pax. Propterea 

(ppovyjfAa rris (fapxog g'x^pa slg Gsov, Tw yap v6ix(fi 

mind of flesh (is) enmity against God. To the for law 

prudentia carnis (est) inimica in Deum. Nam legi 

Tov Qsov ovx V'T^otOLddsrai, ou(5s yap SCvaron, (8) OJ 
of the God not is subject, neither indeed can (it) be. Those 
Dei non subjicitur, nee enim potest. Qui 

6s Iv (fapxt ovTSg, , ©£0J apsdai ou 5uvav<rai. 
but in the flesh being, God to please not can. 
at in carne existentes, Deo placere non possunt, 

Romans viiL 6-8 

(38) nsV^Kf/xai yap oVi ours &a\arog, outs ^w^, outs 
I am persuaded for that neither death, nor life, nor 
Persuasus sum enim ut neque mors, neque vita, neque 

ayyiktHf o'urs dpp^a/, outs 6uv(X|xs»g', outs svstfTwra 

angels, nor principalities, nor powers,nor things present, 
angeli, neque principatus, neque potestates, neque instantia, 

OUTS (xs'XXovra, (39) Outs u^yW/xa, outs /3a^og', 

nor things to come. Nor height, nor depth, 
neque futura, Neque altitudo, neque profunditas 

OUT? r[g xri(fig Ir^pa, Svvr}(fsiai ^i^^ois ■)(0)pi(fai 

nor any creature other, shall be able us to separate 
neque aliqua creatura alia, poterit nos separare 



I 



GREEK GRAAIMAR. 219 

drro rrig dyaifrig <rou 0tou, Trig iv XpiCfrCi 'Iy](j'ou tco 

fron the love of the God, which (is) in Christ Jesus .he 
k charitate Dei, qua3 (est) in Christo Jesu 

Kupi'w 'Jjfxwv. 

Lord of us. — RomaTis vizi. 38, 39. 
Domino nostro. 

(10) 2u 6s T» xplvsig Tov a6sX(po'v <fov ; ^ xa/ tfu 
Thou but why judf^est the Irother of you? or also thou 
Tu autem cur judicas fratrem tuum ? autetiamtu 

ri i^ov&svsTg tov dSsXcpov tfou ; <7ravTf j ydp 'jra.pag"i^(f6p.e&a 
why set at nought the brother of you ? all for shall stand 
cur pro nihilo habes fratrem tuum ? omnes enim sistemur 

To3 jS-yjfjLaTi <roj XpitfToiJ, (11) Tiypccffrcci JoLp, Zu 
at the tribunal of the Christ. It is written for, (As) live 
tribunali Christi. Scriptum est enim, vivo 

iyu, Xsysi Ki^'pio^:, oVi ^(xo/ ycuix-^st toiv yo'vu, koi 
I, saith the Lord, that to me shall bend every knee, and 
ego, dicit Dominus, ut mihi flectet omne genu, et 

flraCa yXwo'o'a s^o|xo> o'^rj(j'£Ta» t'Z 0sw. (12)*Apa ouv e'xao'To^ 
every tongu e shall confess to the God. So then every one 

omnis lingua confitebitur Deo. Itaque unusquisque 

»j|xwv 'n'Spl lauTou "koyov 6C)(f£i rd ©soj 

of us concerning himself an account shall give to the God 
nostrum de seipso rationem reddet Deo, 

Romans xiv. 10-2. 

(9) Tov 6} ^pp^ Ti cr-ap' ayysXou^ r;XaTTWjUL/vov f^.Xi'jroix 

The but little than (the) angels made lower we sec i 
Ilium autem breve quid pro) angelis minoratum videmua 



220 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

Jesus, for the suffering of the death, with glory and honor 
Jesum, propter passionem mortis, gloria et honore 

erfTg(pavw|xevov, oVwj X^P'"^' Gsou virip 'n^avrog ysudt]- 

crowned, that by the grace of God for every one should 

coronatum, ut gratia Dei pro omnibus gus- 

rai &olv6ltov, (10)"E<7r'pS'n'£ yap aurw, 61* ov to, 

taste death. It became for him, for whom (are) the 

taret mortem. Decebat enim eum, propter quern 

ravra, xal ^»' ou tol -ravra TToWovg uloug 

all (things,) and by whom the all (things are) many sons 
omnia, et per quem omnia multos filios 

B]g 5o|av dyayovTa, rov dp-^r]yov rrig (fwrriplag aurwv 
unto glory in bringing, the captain of the salvation of them 
in gloriam adducentem, auctorem salutis eorum 

5ia cr'a^Ti/xaTwv reXsMtfai. 

through sufl^erings to make perfect. — Hebrews ii. 9, 10. 
per passiones consumare. 

Ka< d'K'aX'koi^if] rovTovg oVoj (po?^ ^avarou 

And that he might free those who through fear of death 
Et liberaret hos qui timore mortis 

5iol 'jroLVTog Tov ^r\M g'vo^oi ^tfav ^oxlKsiag, 

during the whole of (their) life held were in servitude. 

per omne vivere obnoxii erant in servituti. 

Hebrews ii, 15. 

'Ev u) yap iriifw^sv , aWog ifsipad&elg, 

In that for hath sufl^ered he himself being tempted, he 

In quo enin passus est ipse tentatus, 

hiMOLrai T^iig •n'Sipa^w/xfvoi^ ^orj^Tjtfaj. 

is able them that are tempted to succor. — Hebrews ii, 18. 

potes* illis tentatis auxiliari. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 221 

(26) TdioCto^ ya.^ Jjjalv bifpsifsv dpyispsvg, orf/of, ccxaxo?, 
Such for us became high priest, holy, harmless, 
Talis enim nobis decebat pontifex, sanctus, innocens, 

dtxiavro^, xep^wpKfjxsvoj dnro tum ajxaprwXwv, xal i-^rfkorepog 
undefiled, separate from the sinners, and higher (than) 
impollutus, segregatus a peccatoribus, et excelsior 

rwv oupavwv ysvojuievof. (27) "O^ oux sxst xad* ^jjuispav ctvayxrjv, 

:he heavens made. Who not hath by day need, 

cobHs factus. Qui non habet quotidie necessitatem, 

u)(f<ifsp 01 dp-)^iSpsTc:, irporspov C-rep twv j5iwv ajxapriwv 

as those high priests, first for the his own sins 
quemadmodum pontifices, prius pro propiis peccatis 

6v(flag dva(p£ps»v, tVeira twv tou XaoC • raCro 

sacrifice to offer up, then (for) those of the people ; this 
hostias ofTere, deinde populi; hoc 

yap f<;ro/>]fl'ev iipaira.^ laurov dvsviyxag, 

because he did once himself when he offered up. 
enim fecit semel seipsum offerens. 

Hebrews viz. 26, 27. 

(3) 'AXX' iv avraTg dva^j^vr^dig ajaapTiwv 

But in those (sacrifices) a remembrance of sins 
Sed in ipsis commemoratio peccatorum 

xar' Evjaurov. (4) 'A^uvarov ydp 

(is made) every year. Impossible (it is) for 

(factum est) per singulos anno5?. Impossibile enim 

a/|m,a TaJpwv y.al Tpaywv dt^aipzTv 

(that) the blood of bulls and of goats should take away 
sanguincm taurum et hircorum auferre 

afjLttpTi'aj (5) Aio e<Vspp^o(xsvo^ slg tov ^(^oViaov, X:Ve», 

sins. Wherefore coming into the world, he saith 

peccata. Ideo ingrediens in mundum, di^it, 

19* 



222 THE PEINCIPLES OP 

G)v(fioi,v xai >}fpQ(f(popaM oux ry^gXTjtfa^, (foj/xa 6a 

Sacrifices and offering not tliou wouldst, a body but 
Hostiam et oblationem non voluisti, corpus autem 

xa,rriprl<fu fz-oi. (6) 'OXoxauTW/xaTa xa«' crsp/ ajxapri'ag 
hast thou prepared me. In burnt offerings and for sins 
aptasti mihi. Holocautomata et pro peccato 

oux ev5ixri(fag, (7) ToVs s/Vov, 'I(Jou ^jxw, 

not thou hast had pleasure. Then I said, Behold I come, 
non approbasti. Tunc dixi, Ecce venio, 

(Iv xs(paXl8i ^iQXm yiypa.'Trrai ifspt ^jxou,) 

(in the volume of the book it is written concerning me,) 
(in capite libri scriptum est de me,) 

rou «ff'o»^(fai, G)sog, <ro WkrwhO, tfou. 

to do, O, God, the will of thee. — Heh, x. 3-7. 

ad faciendum, Deus, voluntatem tuam. 

'Ev w ^sXyji^art r,'yia(fiii\/oi Ict'/josv oj Sia, (rr\g «rpoo'(popa^ 
In which will sanctified we are thro' the sacrifice 
In qua voluntate sanctificati sumus per oblationem 

Tou (i-^\y.oiTog roiJ 'Itj^oC Xp/o'ToO' zcpo.ifrx^, 
of the body of the Jesus Christ once. — Heh. x. 10. 
corporis Jesu Christi semel. 

(24) lildTSi Mwo*^^ [y^iyag ysvo^^vog^ T/pvyycfaro Xiystf&ai 
By faith Moses grown up being, refused to be called 
Fidi Moses grandis factus, negavit vocari 

uio^ &vyaTpog *apaw. (25) MaXXov ^Xo/xsvog 

ihe son of the daughter of Pharaoh. Rather choosins: 

filius filiae Pharaonis.* Malis eligens 

(fuyxoiXov/sTcfQai rw Xaw row <Bsov, rj 'n'p6(fxaip')v 

U) suffer affliction with the people of God, than for a season 
aflligi cum populo Dei, quam temporanara 



GRTiZK GRAMMAR. 223 

(■)(^£iv o-ixapT'o^ tt'rroXauo'jv. (26) Ms/^ova crXouTov TjyTjfl'afjLevoj 
to have of sin the pleasure. Greater riches esteeininor 
habere peccati eiriolumentam. Majores divitiasacstimans 

Twv iv A\yC'K'TU 6r,(fa.vpCJv <rov ovsj^Kfinov rov XpicTrou* 

(tnan all) the in Egypt treasures the reproach of the Christ ; 

jEgypti thesauris improperium Chrisii, 

wrcs^Xeirs yap £]g rr,v jaiC^a'jroJofl'jav. 
he had regard for unto the recompense. — Heb, xL 24-26. 
aspiciebat enim in remunerationem. 

(2) 'A(popwvrej e/g rov <r% ifltfrsus dpyriyov xai 

Looking unto the of the faith (our) author and 
Aspicientes in fidei auctorem et con- 

TsXeiCAiTriv 'Iritfouv,* og avri rr,g crpoxEijaevrjj aCrw p^apa^, 
finisher Jesus, who for the set before him joy, 
summatorem Jesum, qui pro proposito sibi gaudio, 

CirSfAeiv? Craupov, al(f'xCvr]g xaTa(ppovr}(fag^ Iv ^^^'* 

endured the cross, the shame despising, on the right hand 
sustinuit crucem, confusione contempta ad dextram 

rs TQU ^povou Tou ©sou ixa&icfsv. 
and of the throne of the God is set down, 
que throni Dei sedit. 

(12)Aio TOig flrapsijULs'vaj '^(sTpag xal ra 'jrapakeXvfx^i'a 

Wherefore the which hang down hands and the feeble 
Ideo remissas rrtanus et soluta 

yovaroL avop^wtfars 
knees lift up. 
genua erigite. 

* Transposed — it reads, 'Aqjopwvre^ sig 'ItfoCj/, t6v ^ipxny'"^ 



224 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

(16) Mt] Tis -n'opvofT, rj (SiQrikoSy wj 'HCotu 

Lest (theie be) any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, 
Ne (sit) quis fornicator, aut prophanus, ut Esau, 

0^ avTi (3pu<fsus f//ia^ d'ji^idoTS tol flrpwroToxia avrou, (17) 
who for morsel one sold the birthright of him. 
quipropter escam unam vendidit primogenita sua. 

*I(J'ts yap oVs xa/ iisriifsira GiXuv xXT^povo/x^tfai tyiv 
Ye knew for that also afterward wishing to inherit the 
Scitis enim ut et postea volens haereditare 

suXayiav, d'n'£SoyAiia(f&y\ • fjiSTavoja^ yap to-tTov 

hlessing, he was rejected ; of repentance for place 

benedictionem, reprobatus est ; poenitentiae enim locum 

oup^ svps^ xttjVsp |X£m 6axpuwv ix^riTy](fag auT^v. 

no he, found, although with tears seeking it. 
non invenit, quanquam cum lachrymis exquirens earn. 

(18) Ou yap w'poo'sXTjXu^aTS %J^7]Xa(pw|xsvM 

Not for are ye come unto the that might be touched 
Non enim accessistis tractibilem 

ops*, xai xsxaujL/vSvw irvpi, xal yvo(pw, xai 

mount, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, and 
montem, et incensum igne, et turbinem, et 

tfxoTW, xai &viXkrif (19) Ka/ tfaX-riyyo^ ^XV^ ^^^ 

darkness, and tempest. And of a trumpet the sound, and 
calignem, et procellam, Et tubaj sonum, et 

(pwvvj ^prjfxdrcov, ^j oi dxou(fav<rss 'n:oLpy}T7)(favro i^y) 

the voice of words, which they hearing entreated not 
Vocem verborum, quam illi audientes deprecati noa 



)0V 



flTpoCTS^^^vai avToTg Xoyov. (20) (Oux s(pspi 

\o set befDre them the word. (Not they could endure 

proporR. eis sermonem (Non ferebant 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 225 

yap TO ^jatfrfXXojU-evov • Kav Ariplov 

for (that whict (was) commanded ; And if (even) a beast 

enim :jui mandatusest; Et si bestia 

touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or with a dart it 
tetigeret montem, lapidabitur, aut jaculo 

career o^Bv6r,(f£Tai. (21) Ka/\ oCrw (po^spov ^v to (pavra^- 

jhall be thrust through. And, so fearful was the sight 

configetur. Et, ita terribile erat appa- 

c/xsvov Mwrfyj^ eiVsv, *Exq}o§oV eV' ^^^ £vrpo|Xoj*) (22) 

(that) Moses said. Terrified I am and (I) quake ;) 
r€ns(ut) Moses dixit, Exteritus sum et tremebundus ;) 

AXXa ^pQ(feXrik6&ar6 2iwv opsi, xai croXe» Oeov 

But ye are come unto Sion mount, and to the city of God 
Sed accessistis Sion montem, et civitatem Dei 

^wvTO^, 'Itpouo'aXiifX fVoupavjw, xai jULupiatfjv dyyiXuvj 
the living, Jerusalem the heavenly, and myriads of angels, 
viventis, Hierusalem coelestem, et myriades angelorum, 

(23) UavYiyvpsi xai ixxk7i(fia, •n'pcjroro'xcov ev 

To the general assembly and church of the first born in 

Frequentiam et ecclesiam primogenitoruni in 

oupavoij d']fo'ysypay.i\uv, xai xpiTvj Gs-Z "Travrwv, xa/ 'KvsCrra(fi 
heaven written, and to the judge God of all, and to the spirits 
coelisscriptorum, et judicem Deum omnium, et spiiitus 

6»xajojv TSTsXsjWjULs'vwv, (24) Ka/ oiYi&Yixrig y/iag 

of just (mer made perfect. And covenant of the new 

justorum perfectorum, Et testamenti novi 

(xstfiVii 'lyitfou, xai aifxari 'pavTj(j'jULo~ xpsiV- 

the mediator o Jesns, and to the blood of sprinkling better 
mediatorem Jesum, et sangninem aspersionis pro? 



226 THE PKINCIPLES OP 

rova XaXouvri rapa tov "A^sX. 

things speaking before the Abel. — Ileb xii. 2, 12, 16-24 

stantiora loquenten prie Abel. 

(1) '0(p£tXo/x£v 61 hl^iig ol Svvarot ra. ao'^gv^fxaTa tojv 

Ought then we that (are) strong the infirmities of the 
Debemus tunc nos qui (sunt) potentes imbecillitates 

<i5uvaTwv /^atfroc^siv, xai fjiig lauror^ ctpsVxsiv. (2) "Exatf- 

weak to bear, and not ourselves to please. Let every 

impotentum portare, et non nobis ipsis placere. Unus- 

q-o^ yap -Jjfxojv Tw ctXtjo'jov dpso'xsVw ei^ ro dya^ov flfpog 

one therefore of us the neighbor please for his good unto 
quisque enim nostrum proximo placeat in bonum ad 

edification. — Romans xv. 1, 2. 
aedificationem. 

(22) Tiypa'n'TUi ydp oV* 'A^pad|x 8vo movs efl'X^^* ^'^* 
It is written for that Abraham two sons had ; one 
Scriptum est enim ut Abraham duos filios habuit ; unum 

ix rrig iraiS'Kfxrigf xai sva ix rrig sXsD&ipUi, 

of these by a bond maid, and one of these by a freed woman. 

de his ancilla, et unum de his libera. 

(23) 'AXX* 6 jxsv ix rrjg ifa.iSl(fxy)g, xara, (fapxa 

But the one (that was) of the bond maid, after the flesh 

Etiam qui (erat) de ancilla, secundum carnem 

yeyivvrirar b 6s ix rrig iXsv&s png Sta. 

was born ; he but (who was) of the freed woman, (was) by 
natus est ; rui autem (erat) de libera, (erat) per 

rrjg iita.yyski'xg. (24) "A T»vd idriv dXkYiyopoviisva* auras 
the promise. Which things are an allegory; these 

promissioneTi. Quae sunt allegorizata ; haec 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 227 

yap £jV»v a] i'Jo 6ia&r]'<ar (xia ^^v difo opovg 2»va 

for are the two covenants ; the one from the mount Sinai, 

cnim sunt iuo testamenta; unum a monte Sina, 

eig SovXsiav yevvwCa, r,Tig Bdrh "Ayap. (25) To 

unto bondage which gendereth, which is Agar. This 

in servitutem generans, quae est Agar. 

yoip" Ayap^ 2iva opog idTiv iv tjI 'Apa§/a, tfutfroip^er 8s <r>j 
for Agar, Sinai mount is in the Arabia, answereth and to 
Nam Agar, Sina mons est in Arabia, respondet autem 

vUv 'lepoufl'aX'Jifjt. 6ovXsjei 6s /xstcc <rwv 

the now Jerusalem (which) is in bondage and with the 
nunc Hierusalem (quae) servit et cum 

rixvuv a\jTr,g. (26) *H 5s avw 'lepoutfaXiiix 

children of her. The but (which is) above Jerusalem 

filiis suis. Ilia autem (est) sublimis Hierusalem 

iXsvdipa itfrlvf ring icfrt f^V^ip iravTCJv tjjjlojv. 

free is, which is the mother of all of us. * * * * 
libera est, quae est mater omnium nostrum. 

(29) 'AXX' Cj(f'jtsp TOTS 6 xarcl dcipxoL yswri^slgy 

But as then he after the flesh (that was) born, 

Sed quomodo tunc ille secundum carnem genitus, 

E^i'wxe <rov xaroL -rvsCfxa* oCto xai vCv. 

persecuted him (born) after the spirit; so even (it is) now. 
persequebatur hunc secundum spiritum ; ita et (est) nunc. 

(31)''Apa, a^eXcpo/, olx ^tf/xsv "TraiiiVxrjj T-exva, 

Therefore, brothers, not we are of the bond woman children, 
Nempe, fratres, non sumus ancillai nati, 

aXXtt Trig iXs-j&ipcxg, 
but of the (ree.—Galatians iv. 22-26, 29, 31. 
sed libeiae. 



228 THE PRINCIPLES OF 

(2) 'AXXvjXwv TO- (3aprj (Badra^srs, xcci ovrug dva'jr\YipCi(fcx,rt 
One another's burdens bear, and so fulfil 

Alii aliorunj onera portate, et ita complete 

Tov voaou Tou XpKfrev, (3) Ei yap SoxsT Tig slvcti 

the law of the Christ. If for one imagine himself to be 
legem Christi. Si enim videtur quis esse 

ri, iiriSh wv, laurov (ppsva'B'aTtt. (4) To 

something, nothing being, himself he deceiveth. The 

aliquid, nihil existens, seipsum animo fallit, 

6s I'pyov laurou 6ox;/jloc^£Vw 'ixadrog, xa/ tots s]g laurov 
but work his own let prove every one, and then in himself 
At opus suum probet unusquisque, et tunc in seipsum 

aovov TO xoLvyri^kOL sfsj, xa/ oux s'lg tov IVspov. (5) 

alone rejoicing shall he have, and not in an other, 
solum gloriationem habebit, et non in alterum. 

"ExarfTo^ yoLp to 7(5jov (popTJov ^adradzi. 
Every one for the his own burden shall bear. — Gal. vi, 
Unusquisqe enim proprium onus portabit. [2-5. 

(14) Ajo \iysi, "Eysjpai 6 xa^su^wv, xa/ dvag'a 

Wherefore he saith. Awake thou that sleepest, and arise 

Ideo dicit, Surge dormiens, et exurge 

Ix Twv vsxpwv, xa/ STc'icpavcfsi doi 6 XpitfTo'^. (15) BX^.- 

from the dead, and will give light to thee the Christ. See 

a mortuis, et illuminabit te Christus. Videte 

itSTS ouv -rrw^ dxpi§wj 'n'spi<ifarsTrs, fAi^ ug ci(focpoij 

therefore that circumspectly ye walk; not as fools, 
itaque quomodo accurate ambuletis; non quasi insipientes, 

aXX ug (focpor (16) 'E^a^opa^o'fxevoj tov xa/pov, oV/ a! vyfji/pai 
but as wise; Redeeming the time, because the days 

sed ut sapientes ; Redimentes tenipus, quoniam d^ea 



I 



gheek grammar. 229 

rovTipaj e/V«. (17) Aid. toCto julo^ 'ylvs(f&s «(ppov?c:, ciXXA 
evil are. Wherefore not be ye unwise, but 

mall sunt. Propter hoc non estote imprudentes, sed 

(fivisvTBg <rj CO ^e'XTjfxa tou Kupiou. (18) Kai (j.^ 

understanding what tlie will of the Lord (is). And not 
intelligentcs quaj voluntas Domini (est). Et ne 

' yi66C(fx6(f&s o7vw, Ev w ig'iv d(fuTia,dWa'n'X7ipov(f&8 

be ye drunk with wine, in which is excess, but be filled 
inebriamini vino, in quo est luxuria, sed implemini 

iv Uvevixarr (19) Aoikovvrsg kavroTg -^OLkiioTg koi 

with the Spirit; Speaking to yourselves in psalms and 
Spiritu ; Loquentes vobismetipsis psalmis et 

I'fAvoicr, xoCi Ci^aTg <K\zv[ioirixa.Tg • cidovrsg xa.i -^aWovTSg 
hymns, and songs spiritual; singing and making melody 
hymnis, et canticis spiritualibus ; cantentes et psallentes 

^v rjj xapSicf, tju-wv <roj Kvpit>r (20) EvympKfrovvTcg 'ttccvtots 
in the heart of you to the Lord ; Giving thanks always 
in corde vestro Domino; Gratiasagentes semper 

vifsp <jravT6Jv, £v ovojxarj tou Kupfou ^fjiwv 'iTjtfou Xpio'Tou, 
for all (things), in the name of the Lord of us Jesus Christ, 
pro omnibus, in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 

TOJ 0£w xal TTarpj • (21) -*T'?roTa(j'fl'o'|xsvo» 

unto God and the Father; Subjecting yourselves one 

Deo et Patri ; Subjecti alii 

ffXXyjXojj iv (po'/3oj Qsov. 

to another in the fear of God. — Ephesiajis v, 14-21. 
aliis in timore Dei. 
20 



230 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



[Note. — Tha tvvo fallowing Chapters from M&tlliew, can ne 
easily translated into English, from a previous knowledge of the 
form of Gh'eek and Latin words, gained by a thorough perusal 
of the preceding chapters and passages ; and a reference to the 
common English Testament for such parts as appear difficult or 
obscure. It would be advisable, however, to refer to it as seldom 
as possible — only when necessity requires. The following will 
aiFord a pleasant and agreeable exercise for the student.] 



MAT0AIOT Kscp. tS'. 

1 'Ev s'xsjvw TW xaipw -^xeuo'sv 

'Itjo'oG'. 

2 Ka/ SiVs ToTg ifaKfiv aurou* 
OvTcis idriv 'Iwavvj^j 6 BaifrKf- 
^Tjg' a'oro^g riyip&ri d^o tojv vsxpojv, 
xai ($ja TouTo ai dvvaiieig ivspyov- 
tfiv iv aurii. 

3 'O ydtp 'HpW(5y]j ypaT7)(fagTov 
*Iw«,vvy)v, sd'r}(fsv aurov, xai b&st'o iv 
(puXaxvj, ($»a *Hpw($;a,6a rrjv yvvaT- 
xa ^iki<jritov tov d^sXcpov aurofJ, 

4"EXsys yap eeurw o 'Iwawig^* 

5 Ka< ^s'Xwv aurov ot'iroxrervaj, 
icpoQyjdr} rlv op^Xov, oVi w^ -rpofp'/j- 
CTfjv aurav s/p^ov. 

6 Fsvstfjwv (5s (x^o|xsvwv rou 
'Hpw(iou, wpp^^'^tfaro ■jj ^uya<r7]p 

•sypstfs Tw 'Hpw5>j. 

7 "O^SV jX£^' opxou oj/xoXay/jcfsv 
o/Jt^^ ^ouvai idv aWri(fyiTOLi, 

8 *II (5s, -TTp ^i^ao'^s J (frt C-TTn TTjj 
v.^Tpog auT'/jcr, ^oj jjboj, (p7],(j'iv, cjos 
i'TT/ 'n'lvaxi tyjv xsopak^v 'Iwdvvou 
rou HwrfrKfTov. 

9 Ka<' iXu^ryj^i^ o ^adCkzug, 
6ia, 6s TouV s'pxouj xa/ rouj (fuvav- 
•txsi/xg'vouf, ^xsXsua's ^o6>]vai. 



MATTHtEUM cap. XIV. 

1 In illo tempore audivit 
Herodes Tetrarcha famam 
Jesu. 

2 Et ait pueris sais : Hie 
est Joannes Baptista : ipse 
surrexit a mortuis, et propter 
hoc efficacise operantur in eo. 

3 Nam Herodes apprehen- 
dens Joannem, vinxit eum, 
et posuit in custodia, propter 
Herodiadem uxorem Philippi 
fratris sui. 

4 Dicebat enim ille Joannes 
Non licet tibi habere earn. 

5 Et volens ilium occidere, 
timuit turbam : quia sicut pro- 
phetam eum habebant. 

6 Natalitiis autem agendis 
Herodis, saltavit* iilia Hero- 
diadis in medio, et placuit 
Herod i. 

7 Unde cum juramentc 
spopondit ei dare quicquid 
poslulasset. 

8 Ilia vero prsDinstructa a 
matre sua: Da mihi, inquit, 
hie in disco caput Joannia 
BaptistsB. 

9 Et contristatus est res: 
propter vero juramenta, et si- 
mul accumbentes, jussit dari. 

* Danced. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



231 



10 Kai iri^x-^ag d'jfsxs(paki(fs 
rov 'Iwtxvvrjv iv <rrj (p'jXuxjj, 

11 Kai rj\/S-)^&r) 7} x£(pa.\ri a'jrS 
iiri mivaxif xai idodr] tw xopaCio)* 
xa/ T^vsyxs t>5 fxirrp/ auT>;c:. 

12 Ka/ <TrpotfEX^ovT£j ol fxa^rj- 
ra/ uvTov ji^olv to tfojfjLa, xa/ t'^a- 
■sj^av auTo* xa/ sX^ovtej a-rrj^^e*- 
Xav rcj 'Jritfou. 

13 Kai dxoj(fag o 'IrjtfoCcr, av:- 
p^wpyirfiv fxeuJsv £v "ttXoIw sjc: t'pr]- 
fAov TO'TT'ov xar' /(ii'av. Ka/ axou- 
(favTSc: ol o'X^ot, r,xo\o(:&'i](iav olv- 
ru) m'Si^Y} ct'ffo <rwv "TToXswv. 

14 Ka/ i^eX^wv 6 'IrjCou^, £?(5s 
coXOv op([Xov* xal S(f<:tXay)(yi(f&'t) 
fV auToJ^, xa/ £^£pa';:£uO's <roCg 
appcijo'Touc: auTWv. 

15 'O-vj^iajr 5s ysvofJLt'vr;?, 'T'pcO'viX- 
^ov auroj ol [}.a&r^Ta.l au-rou, Xe'yov- 
rff • "EprjjxoV sCtiv o TOTrocr, xal rj 
c5pa ^'(5y) -TraprjX^sv ot'TroXuo'jv toOc: 
c')(X>ig, I'va a-rsX^o'vTSjr £i j Tcic: xw- 
aaj:, a^opatj'wo'jv kavroTg €'pw|aa7a. 

16 'O (5i 'Jr/CToC^ slirsv aoTolf, 
Ov p^psiav ^-^ovcfiv a'TTsX^sFv* (JoVg 
auTor^ ijf.<-£k: (pa^s/v. 

17 Oi .(5s Xs'^oucfiv auTW, Oox 
ep^ofASv dj()s £» (XT! ffc'vTS apTOL/^ 
xa/ (5(^0 l-^&oac;. 

18 'O 5i £/';r£' 4^£'p£Ts' juioi a:o- 
Tovg oj(5s. 

19 Ka/ xEXf^^tfac: to'jct o-)(\ovs 
dvaxXi&Yivai iiri roue: p^oproucr, Xa- 
jSwv ToC^ «rivT£ apTouj:, xa/ <roOg 
66o j^^jaj, dvattX£'N|/Ocr Els' <rov 
oijpavov £ljXoyyi(fi' xal xXao'ac:, 
e(5wxs roTg iiaQriraTc: ToOf aprouj* 
01 6i jaa^r;Ta/ Tore: o-^oig. 

20 Ka/ tqjayov <av-r£cr, xa/ i- 
P(^opTao't1r]0'av* xa/ rjpav to 'rrSpKf- 
tfEiJov Twv xXatf^jLOL^wv 5wc)cxa xo- 
^ivouf irXToeig. 



10 Et mittens decapitavit 
Joannem in custodia. 

1 1 Et allatiim est caput ejus 
in disco, et datum est puellae: 
ct attulit matri suae. 

12 Et accidentes discipuli 
ejus, tulerunt corpus, et sep- 
elierunt illud : et venientes 
nunciaverunt Jesu. 

13 Et audiens Jesus secessit 
inde in navicula in desertum 
locum privatim, et audientes 
turbcc sequutoe sunt eum pe- 
dibus de civitatibus. 

14 Et exiens Jesus vidit 
multam turbam, et visceribus 
adectus est erg-a eos, et cura- 
vit aenrrotos eorum. 

15 Vespere autem facto, ac- 
cesserunt ad eum discipuli 
ejus, dicentes, Solitarius est 
locus, et hora jam prnsteriit: 
absolve turbas, ut abcuntes 
in vicos, mercentursibi escas. 

16 At Jesus dixit eis : Non 
usum habent abire : date illis 
vos manducare. 

17 Illi autem dicunt ei : Non 
habemus hie si non quinque 
panes, et duos pisces. 

18 Iile autem ait: AfTerte 
mihi illos hue. 

19 Et jubens turbas diseum- 
bere super foena, accipiens 
quinque panes et duos pisces, 
suspiciens in coEh]m,benedix- 
it ; et frangensdedit discipu- 
lis panes: at discipuli turbis. 

20 Et manducaverunt om- 
nes, ct saturati sunt, et tuler- 
unt redundans fragrr.entorura 
duodecim cophinos plenos. 



232 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



xwv \at i: aid i(jjv. 

22 Ka»' £\jdiu)S Yjvayxacfsv o '!>]- 

£;V TO 'n'Xorov, xai -Trpoaystv auTov 
e)j TO crs'pav, swg ou d'^okLKfji rovg 
o')(Xovg, 

23 Ka/ a-TToXutfaj tolV opj^Xoucr, 
dvs^rj o/V TO opof xaT* i^i'av ';rpo- 
tfeu^arf^ai. '04^»aj 6s ysvo^xi- 
vigg', fjiovoj ■^v ixsT, 

24 To (5s 'jrXo rov -^(Jii jxsVov rSj^ 
6a'ka(f(fYig ^v, /3a(J'av*^oiy.svov u-tto 
Twv xu/xocTwv -^v yap svavrio^ o 
avsjao^. 

25 TsTap<r>) §5 (puXax^ t>j^ vux- 
To^ diryiX&s irpor aurou^ 6 'iTjtfou^, 
flTSpjcrarwv ^-tt/ t^^ ^aXatftfyj^. 

26 Ka» Idovrsg aurov oi jxa^y;- 
Ta» sV/ TT^v ^aXac/rfav <r£pi<7raTouv- 
<ra, i'Trapap^^irjO'av, Xs'^ovts^, "Otj 
(paavTao'fxot irfTj* xa/ d-jro tou 
(p6§ou sxpa|av, 

27 Eu^s'wg 5s ^XaXTjo'sv auror^ 
b 'lo^tfoiJj, Xe'y'^v, ©apCsrrs* iycJi 

28 'A'n'oxpi&sig 5s aCroj o lEs'- 
fpog, siitz' K^^pjs, s) tfu s/, xs'Xeu- 
tfov fi-s 'Tpo'^ tfs s'X^srv e^< TO. 
Coara. 

29 'O 5s sf^sv, 'EX^s. Ka; 
\a<ra^dg ditl ro\j 'jrXoiou b Usrpog, 
•rfpjS'jrotTTjo'sv S'n'/ to, u^ara, sX- 
^sn/ -TTpoc; Tov 'lyicfovv, 

30 BXsVwv 5s Tov avs^ov jtf^u- 
pov, stpo^Tj^T)* xa/ dp^af;.£voc: xaT- 
DiitQVTi^S(fQai, sxpa^s, Xsyt^iVj Ku- 

pis, tfOJrfOV |XS. 

31 E.v&iug 6s 'jT^tfoC^ sxTSivaj 
T/i'^ X-'iP"' ^'?!'£'^ d§£To a-jTou, xa/ 
\sysi avTc^' 'OXjyoVjtfre, gj^ ti 



21 At edentes fuerunt vir: 
fere quinque millia, praiter 
mulieres et pueros. 

22 Et statim compulit Jesus 
discipulos suos ascendere in 
naviculam, et prsecedere eurn 
in ulteriora, dum absolveret 
turbas. 

23 Et absolvens turbas, as- 
cendit in montein privatim 
orare. Vespere autem facto, 
solus erat ibi. 

24 Verum navicula jam me- 
dium maris erat, vexata a 
fluctibus: erat enim contra- 
rius ventus. 

25 Quarta autem vig-ilia 
noctis, abiit ad eos Jesus cir- 
cumambulans super mare. 

26 Et videntes eum discipuli 
super mare circumambulan- 
tem, turbati sunt, dicentes: 
Quod phantasma est, et pree 
tiraore clamaverunt. 

27 Statim autem loquutus 
est eis Jesus, dicens: Confi- 
dite, ego sum : ne metuatis. 

28 Eespondens autem ei Pe- 
irus, dixit: Domine, si tu es, 
jube me ad te venire super 
aquas. 

29 Ipse vero ait : Veni. Et 
descendens de navicula Pe- 
trus, ambalabat super aquam, 
venire ad Jesum. 

30 Intuitus vero ventum va- 
lidum, timuit: et incipiens 
demergi, clamavit, dicens: 
Domine, serva me. 

31 Statim vf ro Jesus exten- 
dens manum, excepit eum, et 
ait illi : Exiguae fidei, ad quid 
dubitasti ? 



GREEK GKAMMAR. 



233 



32 Ko.< ^jx^avrojv atrwv elg to 
rXoFov, ixoVarfev 6 avefxocr. 

33 Oi S: iv Toj "TrXoiw, iX^ovrgj 
rfp^tfsxCvricfav aoTW, Xs'yovrej, 
'AXr^^wc: ©sou uiof £<• 

34 Ka/ iiaTrfpatfavrecr, i^X^ov 
s)s TT^v y'))v FsyvrjCTapsV. 

35 Ka/ ^-TriyvovTsc: auTov ol av- 
^ps^ Tou T6<7rou ^Xci'vou, ci<iti(fTSi- 
Xav £j$ oXr.v ti^v <r£pip^wpov exej- 
VTji/, xai 'n'po(3'r;v£yxav aurw ':rav- 
raf Touf xaxwc; sp^ovracr. 

36 Ka/ crapexaXouv aiTov, 5'va 
jtAovov a%]^0JVTai <rou xpatf'ffEV^ou <rou 
IjxaTiou auTou* xai otfoj >)v|/avTo, 

MAT0AIOT Ke^. x5'. 

1 Kai i^cX&'Jjv 6 'IsCoCf sVo- 
psosTo ct-Tro TOU ifpou, xai "TTpoCT^X- 
dov ol fAa<3r,Tai a'^Tou J-TrK^er^ai 
auTW Tttc: o'ixo(5ojw-ac: toIj iFpoiJ. 

2 'O (5i 'Irjtfouc: E/Vsv auTorj* 
Oi3 /^XsVfTS -TravTa TaCTa ; ajuii^v 
X?yw ujULa/, ou jUL^i a(p£^v) wJc Xi^of 
irl X;^ov, 6'^ ob fxi^ xarako&y^ds- 
Tai. I 

3 Ka^ri,a£'vou ^5 auTou fV? tou ; 
opouc: Twv sXajwv, <rpo(T'>;X^ov auTw 
ol {kadr^ral xar I6iav, XiyovTSg' 
E/Vs r,^Tv, rrors ravra ^'tf-rai, xai" 
T« TO tf^ifxerov rr,c; (fr^c, 'rapoutfiaf, 
jfOi T^,g (j'uvT£X£«ag Tou al'ojvocT ; i 

i 

4 Ka/ a-Troxp/^E/V o 'I^jCfoCf , £/- ] 
irev al/ToIf BX£VeT£ jut-r^Tjj u/naj 
irXavr;0'>3, 

5 IIoXXo/ yap ^XfuVoVTttJ l-Tf/ TOJ 

ovojxaTj fAou, X£yovr£cr* 'Eyw £/(ji,i 6 

XpifTo'cr, xa/ -roXXoOc: «jrXav7;(j'ou(j'i. 

6 M£XXy;(j'£T£ (5s axo;^£iv ifoXi- 

UiOuj xa ctxoac iroXs'fxwv opaTg 

' 20* 



I 32 Et ingressis illis in navi- 

gum, quievit ventus. 
j 33 Qui autem in navigio, 

venientes adoraverunt eum, 
I dicentes: Vere Dei Filius es. 

34 Et transferentes vene- 
runt in terram Gennesaret. 

35 Et cognoscentes eum viri 
loci illius, miserunt in univer- 
Bam circumviciniam illam : 
et attulerunt ei omnes mal5 
afTcctos. 

36 Et appellabant eum, ut 
vel solum tangerent fimbriam 
vestimenti ejus: et quotquot 
tetigerunt, preservati sunt. 

CAPUT XXI\. 

1 Et egressus Jesus [bat 
de templo : et accesserunt 
discipuli ejus ostendere ei 
a;dificationes templi. 

2 At Jesus dixit illis: Non 
intuemini licec omnia? Amen 
dico vobis, non relinquetur 
hie lapis super lapidem, qui 
non dissolvetur. 

3 Sedenfe autem eo super 
montem Olivarum accesse- 
runt ad eum discipuli privat- 
im, dicentes: Die nobis, quan- 
do hacc erunt, et quod signum 
tuoe pra}sentia3 et consumma- 
tionis seculi ? 

4 Et respondens Jesus, 
dixit eis: Videte nequis vos 
seducat. 

5 Multi enim venient in no- 
mine meo, dicentes: Ego sum 
Christus: et multos scducent. 

6 Futuri eslis autem audi- 
re bella, et rumores bellu- 



234 



THE PRINCIPLES OF 



7 'Eysp^^o'srai yap h^voj eTti 
e^voi, xal I3a(fiksia iti (Bcccfrks- 
iav ' xa " I'tfovTaj Xj/xo/ x a/ Xoiixoi, 
<al ind^m xara, Toiro-jg. 

8 IlavTa (5s Tuvra dp-^Y\ ddi- 
vwv. 

9 Tots flfapa^wo'ouo'jv Cju^aj s<V 
^X»-yl/<v, xai d'n'oxrsvov(fiv u/xaj* 

i^VWy ^jdl TO ovo^cc /xov. 

10 Ka? TOTS (fxavSa\Kf&rj(fovTai 
9roXXo<', xa/ aXXyjXouj itapabC)- 
(foutfi, xa< |m<n;'ri(roLi(j'<v dXX^jXou^. 

11 Ka/ 'ffoXXo/ •v]^£u5o'rpocp^ra< 
iysp&7](fovTatf xai flrXav^o'ouo'i 
•roXXouj. 

12 Ka/ ^icc TO ifXri&vv&rjvai tyjv 
avofjoi'av, '^vyy}(fSTon v) dyccm'Ti toov 
flToXXwv. 

13 *0 ^5 V'Tfoixslva.s sis '^^'Xog, 
ovTog du&ridSTai, 

14 Ka/ xrip\j-)(&7)(fSTai tqvtq to 
BvayyiXiov Trig ^ad'iKslag sv 
o'hy) Tj) o<xoujuis'v>j, stg fxaprupjov 
flTcco'i To?^ e^vstfj* xa/ tots ri^si to 
TsXog. 

15 "Otuv ovv I'^TjTS TO ^dsXvy- 
aa TT^g ipriihuxjSCjjg, to 'p''1^=v Sid 
AavirjXTQU <n'pQCp7iTov, ^rfTW^ sv to- 
itcji dyi(^' 6 ctva^'ivwo'xcjv vosjtw 

16 Tots oj iv ttj 'loudaia, cpsv- 
•^^Twtfav hiti TO- oprj. 

17 'O i'rri tov d^ix(x,Tog, ixrj 
xaTu^aiviT'jj apai ti ix Tr^g o]xl- 
tcg avTov' 

18 Kai 6 sv TW a^fw, /x')i S'tt'i- 
iTTps-vLaTW O'TTO'w apoi to- J^aTja 
cciroC. 



rum: Videte ne turbemini: 
oportet enim omn.a fieri : sed 
nondum est finis. 

7 Excitabitur enim gens in 
genlem et regnum in regnum: 
et erunt fames, et pestilential, 
et terrsemotus secundum loca. 

8 Omnia autem haec ini- 
tium dolorum. 

9 Tunc tradent vos in trib- 
ulationem, et Occident vos: 
et eritis odio habiti ab om- 
nibus gentibus, propter no- 
men meum. 

10 Et tunc offendentur mul- 
ti: et invicem tradent, et 
odio habebunt invicem. 

11 Et multi pseudoprophetae 
excitabuntur, et seducent 
muhos. 

12 Et propter multiplicati 
iniquitatem, refrigescet cha- 
ritas multorum. 

13 Qui autem permanensin 
finem, hie servabitur. 

14 Et prsedicabitur hoc E- 
vangelium regni in universa 
habitata, in testimonium om- 
nibus gentibus: et tunc ve- 
niet finis. 

15 Cum ergo vid eritis abomi* 
nationem desolationis effatan: 
a Daniele Propheta, stans in 
locosancto: legensintelligat. 

16 Tunc qui in Judasa fugi- 
ant ad montes. 

17 Qui super domum, non 
descendat toliere quid de asde 
sua : 

18 Et qui in agro, non re- 
vertatur retro toliere vestem 
suam. 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



235 



19 Ovni 51 raTg iv ya.g'pl i^^^' 
H'jLig, xai <; aFf &r]ka^oii(fcug iv sxsl- 
vai.c I'ctTg vjjxs'pai^. 

20 ripocfsC-^sctds 8c j'va fx>) yi- 
V7)Tai r) (pvyy} u/xwv p^£»/xwvoj, ^xriSa 

21"Eo'Ta» yap tots &\i-^ig |x£- 
yoCkriy o'lOL ou ysyoMSv dir^ ^PX^ff 
xoVjaou iug rou vuv, ou6' ou jxi^ 
y£v>)Tai. 

22 Ka/ £i fXTi lxoXo§oj^>)0'av ai 
■rjjuispai ^xsTvai, oux av eVw^Jr) -jratfa 
tfapl* (Jio, (5= Touf ixXsxTO'jff xoXo- 
^w^y^tfovTai al >j|X£pai exsn/aj. 

23 ToVs iav rig vi^Tv shfTjU^'I- 
Sov, u5s 6 Xpirfroj, ^ wcJs* fjiig 

24 'E^ep^^tfovrai ydp -^su^o- 
p^pitfToi xa/ ■v]y£uJo'7rpo9>j7ai, xal 
^wtfootfj tfi^fxera ixsycika. xal ts- 
para, wa'r£ 'jrXavvjO'aj, ei (Juvarov, 
xai" TObj exXexTo:^^ . 

25 'l6ou, "Trpos/pTjxa u/xrv. 

26 'Eav ouv slVwtfjv Ujuirv* 'Ir^oi), 
ev T>3 fp^/^y fVr/, fxii s^iX6rirsf 
i6o\j, iv ToTg <ra/x£ioi^, |X')i 'n'Kfrso- 
(friTS. 

27 "nrf-Trsp ^ap ->; dcfrpairri s^sp- 
p^eraj otTro ava-roXwv, xa/ (paivs-rai 
£wc: ^utfjuiwv ouTwcr faVTai xa< -Jj 
itapoxjd'iOL Tou uiou tou av^pcijcrou. 

28"0':rou ^ap ^av fi to TtrC^ika^ 
ix2i (i\)VOL')(Pr](iQvron ol ocstoj. 

29 Y^h^si^g 5i fxera rriv SXinJ^ji/ 
rwv rjuiepwv ixeivwv o -j^Xjoc: (fxorKf- 
^rjtferai, xa/ >) tfsXrivii ou 6C)(fsi <ro 
(ps'^^oc: a''7>;cr, \a/ oi dg'spsg "ttsCouv- 
rai d'xo TOU oupavou, xa/ ai Juva- 
fiStg TWv oupavwv tfaXEu^rjtfovTaj, 

33 Kat TOTS cpavTiffsrai to <fy]- 
usfov Tou uiou (x^&Q'^<n'Q\) iv rw 



19 Vae autcm in utero ha- 
bentibus, et lactantibus yi 
illjs diebus. 

20 Orate autem ut non fiat 
fiifra vestra hyeme, neque in 
Sabbato. 

21 Erit enim tunc tribulatio 
ma<Tna, quails non fuit ab 
initio mundi, usque, mode, 
neque non fiet. 

22 Et si non contracti fuis- 
sent dies illi,non esset servata 
omnes caro : propter autem 
elcctos contrahentur dies illi. 

23 Tunc si quis vobis dix- 
crit: Ecce liic Christus, aut 
illic : ne crcdite. 

24 Excitabuntur enim pseu- 
dochristi et pseudoproj)hetce, 
et dabunt signa magna et 
prodigia ita ut seducere, si 
possibile, et electos. 

25 Ecce, prcedixi vobis. 

26 Si ergo dixerint vobis: 
Ecce, in descrto est, ne exe- 
atis: ecce in conclavibus, ne 
credatis. 

27 Sicut enim fulgur exit 
ab Orientibus, et apparet us- 
que Occidentes, ita erit et 
pra3sentia filii hominis. 

28 Ubicunque enim fuerit 
cadaver, illuc congregabun- 
tur aquilae. 

29 Stalim autem posttribu 
lationem dierum illorum Soi 
obscurabitur, et Luna non 
dabit lumen suum, et stellce 
cadent de coclo, et eflicacice 
cGclorum concutientur. 

30 Et tunc parebit signum 
filii hominis incoclo: et tunc 



236 



THE PRINCIPLES OP 



ol/pavw* xat tots )co-^ovTa» itadai 
ol\ (pvXa.1 Trig yy]Si yccti o-\^(i\irai 
Tcv Liov rw oLvSpuirov ^pp^oasvov 
£«7r/ Twv v?(psXwv rov cupavou, /xstoI 
^i/vafAec;f xa/ ^of>]? -ttoXX^ct. 

31 Kal d'jTog'sXsT Tovg dyyiXag 
OLVTov jut-S-m daJkitiyyog (p(*)VYjg ^j^s- 
yakrig, xal sVitfuva^outf* touj ^jc- 

, /.SJcToij^ auToC ix TOJv TStftfapwv 
dvs/x6Jv, ctT* oLxpuv oupavwv ew^ 
otxpwv auTWv. 

32 'A';ro 6s <r^^ O'ux^s' fxaSsrs 
vov flrapo.^oX'/jv oVav -^^tj 6 xXa- 
6og alryjg yivr]Tai a-ffaXoV, xal 
roi (pi^XXa sxcpurjf yiMddxBTS on 
iyyug <ro ^e'pog'. 

33 OuVoj xa/ ufxer^, oVav 'iSrirs 
irdvTOL ravra, yivudxSTS bVi iyyvg 
Bdr'iv iitl S:upaij. 

34 'A/xo^v Xsycj il|xrv, ou jXO^ 
'n'apiX&Y) 7] ysvsd ctuT>], i'co^ otv 
wavTa ravTa yivsrai, 

35 *0 oupavoj xa/ >j y^ 'Tr'ap?- 
Xsutfovrar ol 6s Xo'^oj (xou ou ^i^ 
^rap s'Xdwo'u 

36 JJspl 6c T7)g Yji^spag ixslvrig 
Kul Trig wpa^, ovdsig, o/6sv, ov6s 
ol dyysWoi twv oupavwv, si /x'>5 6 
'Ttarrjp fjoou /xo'voj. 

37 "ri<J''r£p 6s al rjiiipai tS Nws, 
ouTw^ sWaj xai r} 'jrapovtfia tou 

uioU TOU dv^pW-TTOU. 

3S"Qo''3rsp yap ■j^o'av sv rar^ »j;js'- 
pai^ Targ- crpo tou xaTaxXurffxou 
i(pC)yovTZg x^ <Kivo\<rsg, yaixovvrsg 
KCcl 6xyaix,i^ovTSg, d;)^pi ijg rjixspotg 
e)(fri\&s Nws slg Triv xjS'wtov* 

39 Ka/ oux gyvcoa'av, sw^ ■^X^sv 
6 xaTaxXu^jyvOg, xa< i^psv d'vr'av- 
raj * ouTwj stfTtti xai 7} if a poutf/a 
rou ujou Tou dv^pW'n'.'U. 

40 ToVs 61/ 9 sVovTot sv rw dypC\' 



plangent omnes Jribus terrae, 
et videbunt filiam hominis 
venientem in nubibus ca'li, 
cum efficicia et gloria mulla. 

31 Et legabit angelos suos 
cum tuba vocis magnae, et 
congregabunt electos ejus a 
quatuor ventis, a summis cce- 
lorum usque extrcma eorum. 

32 A vero ficu discite para- 

bolam: quum jam ramus ejus 

fuerit tener, et folia s^ermi- 

_«» . . . . ° 

navBTint, scitis quia prope 

asstas. 

33 Ita et vos, quum videritis 
hsBc omnia scitote quia prope 
est in januis. 

34 Amen dico vobis, non 
prasteribit generatio haec do- 
nee omnia ista fiant. 

35 Coelum et terra praeteri- 
bunt : verum verba mea non 
prasteribunt, 

36 De autem die ilia et hora 
nemo scit, neque angeli cce- 
lorum, si non Pater meus 
solus. 

37 Sicut autem dies Noe, 
ita erit et adventus Filii ho- 
minis. 

38 Sicut enim erant in die- 
bus ante diluvium, comeden- 
tes et bibentes, nubentes et 
nuptui tradentes, usque quo 
die intra vit Noe in arcam: 

39 Et non cognoverunt do- 
nee venit diluvium, et tulit 
omnes: ita erit et praesentia 
Filii hominis. 

40 Tunc duo erunt in a^ro : 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



257 



• Sig cr'apaXafji.^avsra/, xai a sig 

41 AvQ dX'Tj&ovG'ai h- to) h,'j\u:vi' 
Ilia. <7rapaXa/Xtoav£-7ai, xal jxi'a 
acpierai. 

42 TpriyopsTrs ouv, oVi oCx o'/- 
^are "ttoio, oapot b xJpioj C^wv t'p- 

43 'Exervo 51 'yivC)(fxsrs, oVi si 
■^(Jsi b o)xc5s(J''7r6T>]j -ro/o, (puXaxot 
b xXiirTt]^ tpp^srai, i'ypy]'y6pyi(f£v 
av, xa? oux av el'aa's ^jopur^vaj 
rjjv o/xi'av OLvrov, 

44 Aja roijTo xa/ Ujasr^ 'yivs(f&s 
fVojpLoi* oTi, »; ojpa ou ^oxerre, 6 
ulo^ ToiJ otv^poj-TTou tpp^sraj. 

45 TiV «pa i(;'r?v o cTiC'Toj (Joj- 
Xoj xa/ (ppovjfxocr, ov xaTc'tfrrjCsv 6 
xupioc: ai^Toiji i'Ti Tr,g ^cpa-rei'ttj: 
aoToC, Tov 6i66\/ai avroTg <r/^v 
rpo(pT9v iv xaipCJ ; 

46 Maxapiof 6 SovXoc; ixsTvog, 
dv eX^oJv 6 xi;p«of aurou cup^o'sj 
woioCvTa ouVwc:. 

47 'Ajui^v Xsyw ujxrv, 6Vi sV/ 
flrao'< Tor^ U'?rap])^ouo'jv olvtou xclt- 
adTrjdzi aurov. 

48 'Eav (5= £/Vt9 xaxocT ^oCXo^ 
IxsHvog iv rji xap(5ja a.vrou' Xpo- 
vi'^ei 6 x;^pjo<: jxou sX^sn/. 

49 Kai ap^-/]Ta» TO-n'rejv to'jc: 
fl'uv(^o;JXoucr, etf^j'ejv 6= xa/ crivfjv 

50 "llffJ 'o xjpiocr Tou (5o;^Xou 
sxEi'vou ev r,[kipcL j) ov rpoCtJoxa, 
xa? iv ojpa f} Du yn"Jj<J'xsi. 

51 Kai (5ip^-;<roja'/;C£i aurov, xa? 
ro fie'poj: auTcJ /xfra twv u-Troxoi- 
rwv ir;(fsi' ixS tCrai 6 xXau^fXO^ 



unus assumitur, et unus re" 
linquitur. 

41 Duce molentes in mola: 
una assumetur, et una rclin- 
quetur. 

42 ViVilate ergo, quia nes- 
citis qua hora Dominus ves- 
ter venit. 

43 Illud autem scitote, quD- 
niam si sciret paterfamilias 
qua custodia fur venit, vigi- 
laret utique, et non sineret 
perfodi domum suam. 

44 Propter hoc et vos estote 
parati, quia qua hora non pu- 
tatis: Filius hominis ventu- 
rus est. 

45 Quis putas est fideh's 
servus et prudens, quern con- 
stituit dominus suus super 
familiam suam, ad dandum 
illis cibum in tempore? 

46 Beatus servus ille, quern 
veniens dominus ejus, inve 
nerit facientem sic. 

47 Amen dico vobis, quoni- 
am super omnibus substantiis 
siiis constituet eum. 

48 Si autem dixerit malus 
servus ille in corde suo: Tar- 
dat dominus meus venire. 

49 Et copperit percutere con- 
servos, edere autem et bibere 
cum cbriosis: 

50 Veniet dominus servi 
illius in die quo non expectat, 
et in hora qua non scit. 

51 Et dividet eum, et par- 
tem ejus cum hypocrilis po- 
net: illic erit flelus, et stridor 
dentium. 



238 T IE PlINCIPLES OF 



ANALYSIS OF 3REEK VERBS— Matthew II 

Prep. J.u§. Root ind.imp.3pl. Prep, Root. Ifut.St. 

1. "Trap £ ^'£v ovTo. 12. f| aXsurfs Tat. 
Around did come they. Out come shall one. 

Root. 3 5. ind.pr. Root. 1 fut. 3*. 

2. stfr I V. 13. iroiiiav sT. 

Is he. Protect shall who. 

Root. 1st pi, Aug. Root. 1 aor. ind. 3 s 

3. £i5 o/xsv. 14. r) xpiQu ds. 
See we. did inquire he. 

Jlug. Root. Ist pi. Root. 2 aor. 3 s. 

4. 7] ^6 ofji-ev. 15. £/V 5. 
Have come we. Say did he. 

Prep. Root. inf. Prep. Root. 1 aor. imp 2 pi 

5. ifpo(f xvv ^jtfai. . 16. £| STarf ars. 
Before fall to. About inqure do ye. 

,^ug. Root. Pas. ind. 1 aor. 3 s. Root. 2 aor. sub. 2 pi. 

Was troubled he. Found ye shall have. 
jlug. Root. c.v.ind.imp.Zs. Prep. Root. 1 aor. imp. 2 pi 

7, i flTuv^av s ro. 18. a-if ayysiX are. 
Did ask he. Back bring word do ye. 

Root. c. V. 2 fut. mid. 3 s. Prep. Root, (a s) 1 aor. sub. 1 s 

8. ysvv Si Tat, 19. crpotf xvv tj <f u. 

Born he should be. Before fall may I. 

Root. 2 aor. Z pi, Aug. Root. 1 aor. dtp. Z pi, 

9 F<V ov. 20 i -ropsu 4 rj tfav. 

Said they. Depart did i hey. 

Red. Root. Pas. inJ. perf:Z s. Root, imper. 3 $, 

10. ys ypaif rat, 2 .. U ov. 

Written it has been Behold thou. 

Root. 2d g. Root. 2 aor. 3 pi. 

11. £ T, 22. r,s ov. 

Art thou. Seen had they. 



GREEK GRAMIIAR. 239 

Prep. Root. 2 aor. 3 s. Root. imp. pr. 2 s. 

23. <\>o rcf s V. 35. IVd I. 
Before led it. Be thou. 

auS'Root. 2 aor. ind. 3 «. Root. s-ib. 2 aor. 1 s. 

24. t (fT 7]. 36. el* w. 

Stood it. Call I. 

Root. ind. imp. 3 t. Root. ind. pr. 3 f. 

25. ri V. 37. txsXk 6i. 
Was it. Is about 

wfwg. i?oof . 1 aor. ind. 3 p/. Root. inf. pr, 

26. ^ x^P "^ ^^^' ^^' ^^"^ ^"^^ 

Rejoice did they. Seek to. 

Root. 2 aor. ad. 3 pi. Prep. Root. 1 aor. inf 

27. Sup OV. 39. OLITQ Xs rf ai. 

Found they. De stroy to. 

Prep. Root. 1 aor. act. 3 pi. Prep. Aug. Root. 2 aor ^ . 

2S. "rpotJ* s xuv >) (fav. 40. -rap s Xa^S g. 

Before fall did they. Up took he. 

Prep. Aug. Root. 1 aor. 3 pi. Prep. Root. 1 aor. 3 *. 

^9. 'Tpofl' 11 vsyx a V. 41. avs p^wp y) tf fv. 

Before did bring they. Back went he. 

Prep. Root. 1 aor. inf. Root. 3 s. 

30. ava xafA-r tf ai. 42. -^ v. 
Back turn to. Was he. 

Prep. Aug. Root. 1 aor. a. 3 pi. Root. sub. 1 aor. pas. 3 *. 

31. av s ^ojp »} (fav. 43. irX>)p w '4 ■*]. 
Back went they. Fulfilled might be it. 

Root. ind. pr. 3 s. mid. Aug. Root. ind. 1 ao". 1 t, 

32 (paiv g Tttj. 44. i xaks tf a. 

Appears he. Called I. 

Prep. Root. imp. 2 aor. 2 *. i?oo/. 1 ao". pass. ind. 3 s. 

33. 'n'ap a Xtto £. 45. iv-'n'aix ^ I* 
Up take (do) thou. Mocked was he. 

Root. imp. 2 s. Aug. Root. ind.l aor. pas. 3 s 

34. (psuy f. 46. i dujx w d ^. 
Flee (do) thou. Enraged was he 



240 



PRINCIPLES OF GREEK GRAMMAR. 



Root. 2 uor. ind. act. 3 s. 
47. av ti X s, 53. 

Killed he. 

jSug.Root. laor.ind.aci.3s. 

4S. rj ycpiQ Q (f e, 54. 
Enquired had he. 

Aug. Root. laor. ind. jpas. Z s. 

49. e i(K.r\p Oi 6 ri , 55. 

Fulfilled was it. 

Aug. Root. 1 aor.ind.pas.3s. 

50. Y) Xoi (f & 7}, 56. 

Heard was it. 
Aug. Root. imp. ind. 

51. ^ 6s\ g. 57. 
did will 

Prep. Root. 1 aor. pass. inf. 

52. -rapa xX t) ^>] vau 58. 
Consoled to be. 



Root. ind. pres. 3 pi' 

Are they. 
Root. ind. pr, 3 s. mid, 
cpcf.iv 6 «ra». 
Appears he. 

Prep. Root. imp. 2 Aor act, 

crapa Xa/3 s. 

Up take (do) thou. 

Root. imp. pr. 2 s. dep 

flTOpJU OU. 

Depart thou. 
Red, Root. ind. act. per/. 3 pi. 

TS &vy}X OL (fl. 

Dead are they. 
Aug. Root. 3 s. imp. ind, 
7) X& s V. 
Did come he. 



NUMERALS. 



1 sTg, unus, 

2 Svoj duo, 

3 TpsTg, tres, 

4 TsWaps^, quotuor, 

5 flfivTff, quinque, 

6 g|, ^ sex, 

7 l-n'ra, septem, 

8 OXTW, octo, 

9 svvs'a, novem, 

10 Ssxa, decern, 

11 svSsxcc, undecim, 

12 6C)5cxa, duodecim, 

13 rpKfxaldsxoi, tredecim, 

14 TStfrfapstfxal^sxa, quotuorde 

15 'rrsvTSxaiSsxaj quindecim, 

16 sxxciidixoL^ sexdecim, 



17 l'n'Taxa,l8sxcx,, septemdecim, 

18 oxTCjjxaiSsxa, octodecim, 

19 svvsoLxaidsxa, novemdecim, 

20 sixotfi, viginti, 

21 s'ixo(fi sTj, viginti unus, 

22 slxoCi (5uo, viginti duo, 
30 Tp/axovra, triginta, 

40 TsCtfapaxovrajquadraginta, 
50 irsvTrjxovraf quihquaginta, 
60 IfrjxovTa, sexaginta, 
70 l(35oixr]xovra, septuaginta, 
80 o/cJojx^xovTa, octoginta, 
90 svvsvTjxov-ra, nonaginta, 
100 ixarov, centum, 
200 6iax6(fioif ducenti, 
300 Tpiaxotrjoi, trecenti. 



PRINCIPLES 

OF THE 

GERMAN, SPANISH AND FRENCH LANvSQAGES. 



'A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

II 

I 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 



P 

Q 

R 
S 
T 
U 
V 

w 

X 
Y 

z 



S3 I 
Gc 

Gc 
5f 

3i 

3{ 
^f 
?I 
5}? in 

D 

Q q 
91 r 

3:t 
u u 
55 » 



2B w 

JC. 

* The former of these 
always final. 



ah 
hmj 

Uay 

day 

a 

hah 

6e 

i/ot 

hah 

el 

em 

Cll 

6 

•pay 

huh 

air 

ess 

tay 

00 

foxo 

vay 

eex 

ipselon 

tsett 



THE ALPHABETS. 

BPAMSn. 



A 
B 

c 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 



P 

Q 

R 

S 

T 

U 

V 



ah 
hay 

thay 

day 

d 

a/a 

hay 
d-chay 
ce 

hotta 
hah 
a- lay 
d-may 
d-nay 
5 

imy 
hoo 
d-ray 
d-say 
tay 

00 

vay 



X d-hrys 
Y cejrccdjah 
Z thater 
k etc. 
characters is initial or 

21 



A ah 

13 hay 

C say 

J) day 

E a 

F cff 

G zjay 

H aush 

I ee 
J zjce 
K haw 
L ell 
M em 
N en 
o 

P pay 

Q huh 

II err 
S ess 
T tay 

ue 
vay 



U 
V 



X eex 

Y ecrjrech 
Z szed 
& etc. 

medial; the latter 

211 



242 THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 



There are also^ in Spanish — 

Ch LI {Ijy) N {Ny) Er 

chay tiilyeay any cay air-ray 

[Note. — Let the student remember that the name, ha-a nothing to do 
with the pronunciation of a letter ; no reliance will, therefora, bo 
placed on the alphabetical cognomen of a letter for its iound.'\ 



PRONUNCIATION OF THE GERMAN. 

51 — like a in far. 

51a — protracted sound of a; as ba^ §aar, the hair. 

33 — At the commencement of syllables, it is like h in lend; 
but at the close of a syllable, it sounds much like j) ox pb) as 
gclb, yellow. 

fQi — enunciate both consonants; as leBt, Qeht) lives. 

S — before e, i, a, o, u, X), like ts; as ber dirfel, ilie circle. 
Before a, 0, U, and the consonants, like h; as bai3 (Concert, the 
concert. 

d^ (^Tsay-hah) before a, c, U, sounds like k; also at the 
commencement of a syllable, and before the consonants. After 
vowels and consonants, and before e and t, in French and 
Latin words, has a peculiar guttural sound, difficult to repre- 
sent in English. Observe the position of your tongue while 
enunciating the consonant k, in the word kind — move the 
tongue back towards the throat a little distance, force the 
breath audibly, without the intonations of the voice, through 
he aperture between the tongue and the roof of the mouth, 
find you have the sound as' exactly as it can be made by a 
foreigner. This sound occurs in such words as ba^ Znd), the 
cloth; bie ^ild), the milk; &c. It has the sound of sh n 
3(6, /; reic^, rich, &c. &c. 

(S()g — like x; as bcr Dd)S, the ox. 

(^! — like k; as bicf, thick. 



THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 243 



I) — This letter approximates more closely to the sound of 
t or TIL The tongue is placed against the teeth (instead of 
the roof of the mouth), a Utile above where it is placed for 
Tii; closing the aperture between the roof of the mouth and 
the tongue — the breath is emitted with the intonation of tho 
voice, forming the sound of the German t>. 

G — long, like a in mate; as I^abe, have: short,* like e in 

e.t ; as \iK[i Cube, the end. 

v£e — protracted e. 

% — like / in from, for, fount, &c. 

%\ — a little heavier sound than f single. 

© — like rjk; as cjut, <jood, ; grop, great, &c. At th'.' end of 
Byllablcs, g has a sound similar to vli; as tcr 2l>cc^, tlie way. 
Also, sometimes in the middle of syllables; as tcr 3icgcn, tht 
rain. 

^ — aspirates vowels, when placed before them ; as bcr ^im* 
mcl, the heaven. It is silent, and prolongs the vowel, when 
placed after it; as bad '^\i{)x, the year ; )va()Icu, to choose; tie 
lU)r, the watch, &c. 

3 — long, like c in me: short, like i in jnn. 

3 (0— like y; as \a, yes. 

M — like Ic; as bad ^inb, the child. 

2 — like I ; as bad ?amm, the lamb. 

^ — like 771 ; as bcr ^J^iann, the man, 

9? — like n ; as ncu, new. 

9]g — like n(j ; as \\ix{C}^, yoinuj. 

SD — long, like in no ; as obcr: or short, like u in tub; an 
eft, often. 

5) — =1 ike jo; as )?rcj|'cn, fo prms. 

^l) — like/; as bcr '»Pvcvt)ct, the prophet. 

£^ — like q; as bic Cual, the torment. 

* A short vowel maintains its original sound, but is pronounced 
quicktr, and a little more compressed. Vowels before iouble letters 
are short, ar cine 5!afK, a cup. 



244 THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. 



dl — like r ; as ba^ ^^^, i^^G heart. 

(5 — like 6" ; as \>a^ ©^(3, the salt. 

<B6> — like sh ; as bie ©c^iucj^er, the sister. 

% — like i; as ber ZaQ, the day. 

In words of foreign derivation, terminating in tion, the t\ 
is pronounced like tse; as Sou^ention, convention: ^ — like Is 

U — like 00; as ber ^ut, the hat: short, like w vol full; ta 
ber ^unb, ^Ae dog. 

35 — like /; as ijott, from. 

2C — like v; as tx»al)r, ^rt^e. 

3^ — like x; as bie 5l):t, <Ae ao^e. 

g) — like i ; as ber ©t^t, ^Ae s^^/^. 

3 — like is ; as 3el)n, ^e?i. 

51 — like ai in ZtaiV, or e in men ; as ber 33ar, ^Ae 2>ear. 

£) — like e in Z^er; as fd)Ott, hcautiful.^ 

U — similar in sound to the French u. In English, we have 
I > such sound. Observe the position of the lips in saying 
oC : with the lips remaining in this position, pronounce e long; 
draw the tongue slightly backward, and you will have the de- 
sired sound. Bear in mind that this is a compressed sound : 
notice that in saying we^ you first enunciate 00 (^w'), and after- 
wards e ; manage so as to pronounce the e at the same moment 
with 00 (zo), the tongue being drawn a little backward, and 
pressed firmly against the upper double teeth, and you will 
encounter little difficulty in pronouncing the letter correctly. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

5Iu — like ou; as baiS ^au^, the house. 
5U — like i in pine ; as bcr 'URdi, May. 
5(9 — like i in jpine. 

* This is as near as this sound can be represented by the English 
vowel. The sound is a little more open than e in Ker; the tongiie 
is mo'^ed further forward. The best way to get this sound, is to 
eatch it from a German, or some other acquainted with it. 



THE SPANISH LANGUAGE. 24 J> 



Si — like i in pine. 

(£9 — like I in j)ine. 

5lu — like 01 in noise (compressed sound), 

Su — like oi in noise (comptressed sound), 

3c — like ce in feet. 

(SI — like { in 7ni;ie. 



OF THE SPANISH. 



A — is pronounced like ah ; as la cara, iJie face. 

11 — like h; as honitOj 2>^^ffJ/- 

C — before c, i, like ih in think ; as el pincel (ei peenthdil)^ 
the pencil. Before a, Oj u, like /j; as cual (kooal), which. 

D — see German T). 

E — like a; as me (may), 7nr, Short, like c in hen; aa 
el, the. 

F — like /; as cafd, the coffee. 

G — like h before <?, ?*; as genio (ha-neo), genius. BiVore 
a, o, Vj before consonants and after all vowels, like g in go ; 
as grandc, great. 

H — is always silent. 

I — like e in me ; as el vino, the wine. 

J — like h, in all cases; as, Jos^ (Ilosay), Joseph. 

K — like Ik ; as kali, seaiceed. 

L — like I; as el papel, the jiaper. 

M — like m ; as maiiana (manyana), to-morroio, 

N — like n ; as no, not^ no. 

— like ; as con gusto, with pleasure. 

V — like p ; as pan, bread. 

Q — like h; the subsequent u is not pronounced; as quo 

(kay), what. C is now generally used in the place of <^. We 

write cuiil (kwal), instead of quill, which. 

li — soft like r in bar, far, <fec. : hard, like rr in parrar, to 

21* 



246 THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. 

extend. The soft sound is represented by a single r; the hard 
Bound, by double rr. 

S — like s in so; as sendr (sainydr), sir. 

T — very similar to the German bj ten go, IJiave. 

U — like 00 ; as su (soo), i/our. 

V — like v; as el vino, the wine. 

X — occurs but seldom; pronounced the same as x in 
English. 

Y — -IfKe ee, or y; as muy (moo-^), veri/; y, and. 

Z — like ih in throne; as el lapiz (lapeeth), the pencil. 

Ch — pronounced in all cases like ch in church ; as el chal6co, 
thi vest. 

LI — ^like 12/ ; as bello (bailyo), beautiful. 

N — like ny ; as seiiorita (sainyoreeta), Miss, 

Rr — see R. 



OF THE FRENCH. 

A — is pronounced like ah; as alezan (al-zang), hay or sorrel 
horse, Paris, &c. : short, like a in hat; as datte, date, a fruit. 

B — like b; as le bal (leh bal), the ball. 

C — like k before a, o, u, I, r, t, in the same word ; as calcul, 
calculation; clou (kloo), nail, tack. Before e, i, y, like s; 
likewise, with the cedilla ( , ) under it, before a, o, u, is pro- 
nounced like s; as §a (sah), this, that. 

Ch — like Iz; as chlamyde, a cloak. Like sh; as un cheval, 
tt horse. 

D — like d; as done, ?Aen. 

E — [unaccented], like e in her. Often silent. See Gcr 
man ij. 

4 — [aceented], like d long; as cafe (coff-ay), coffee. 

h — like a in am; as le pere, the fatlier. 

S — same as h but longer ; as tete, the head. 



THE FRENCn LANGUAGE 247 



F — like /; as for, iron. 

G — like (J ; as gant (gang), ^Zoi*e: like zli; as g^'sir, to llej 
he buried. 

H — like h. Often silent. 

I — like e in English; as petite (pettit), little: short, like i 
in pin; as ici (isy), here. 

J — like s in measure; as jamais (zhama), never; jour 
(zlioor), da?/, 

l^ — like k ; as kynancie, quinsy. 

L — like 1 : 11 like If/ or l-f/uh. 

^^ ,.,^ ' [ A guttural sound, somewhat similar to nok. 
N— like 71.* J ^ 

0— like 0. 

V — likcp; as pain, hrcad. 

Ph — like f ; as phare, lijlU-liouse. 

Q — like Spanish q; as que, that. 

II — like r. Silent where it terminates a word, if preceded 
by e. 

S — like s or z. Often silent. 

Sc — like s before c, i, y : before or, o, w, ?, r, like sh. 

T — like ^. It has also, before la, ze, I'ew, I'o/i, a sound like 
is or c; as tial, tion, tieux, &c. Often silent. 

Th — like /, in all cases. 

U — like German it. 

V— like V. 

X — like A.-S, cjz^ ss, Z-; (before c), and z. Silent. 

Y — like ce. 

Z — like z and s. 

DIPHTHONGS, &c. 

Ai — is pronounced like ai in hair: also like ay in day. 
Ey — is pronounced like ry in prey. 
Ei — is pronounced like ai in hair. 

*^ The sound of the French wa^cr/^ (m, «), can never be learnei 
except thej are /ica-c? repeatedly. 



248 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 



Ay — is pronounced like ai in hair. 

Ai; aie, ais, ait, aix, oi, like ai in hair^ but longer. 

Oi — like wa m water : in a few wordS; like ai in hair ; aa 
fjan§ois, void, affoiblir, &c. 

Au, eau, aux, eaux, aud, auds, ao, ault, aults, auex, aut, 
aats, €■}, oc, ocs, ods, oh, op, oqs, ot, 6t, ots, oth, oths, are 
each pronounced like o in no. 

le — like yea, 

NASALS.* 
Am, an — nearly like ang ; as ambition (angbissvong), amhi- 
turn; ancre (angkr), anchor. 

Aim, ain, ein, em, en — nearly like short ang. 
Om, on — nearly like ong. 
Um, un — nearly like ung. 



THE DEJ'INITE article. 
GERMAN. 

SINGULAR. 
NoRi. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. 2)er, be^J, t>em, ben* 
Fem. S)tc, ber, ber, ble» 
Neut. !Da^, be^, bem, ba5» 

SPANISH. 

SINGUTAR. 
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Fem. La, de la, 4 la, la.f 
Mas. El, del, al, el.J 
Neut. Lo, de lo, a lo, lo. 

FRENCH. 

. SINGULAR. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. Le, du, au, Je. 
Fem, La, de la, d la, la. 



PLURAt. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Aca 

2)ie; ber, ben, bie» 

li a (( a 



a u 



t( 



u 



PLURAL. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Aoc. 

las, de las, a las, las.§ 
los, de los, a los, los.|| 
No plural. 



PLURAL. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Aea 

Les, des, atix, les, 
ic a a (t 



* If the m or « is followed by a vowel, it ceases to be nasal; but 
if it precedes a consonant, or terminates a word, it is a nasal. If it 
terminates a word, the next word commencing with a vowel, there is 
a sound of n after the nasal. 

I Or, 4 la. X Or, d el. ^ Or, 4 las. \\ Or, i lo«. 



DECLENSION. 249 



[Note. — V»'licn the French article, in the siogular, prBcedca 
another WDrd commencing with a vowel or silent h, tlie final vowel 
of the article is dropped ; as I'oncle, the uncle, for le oncle ; I'^tude, 
tht study, for la dtu4.e ; I'honeur, the honour, for le honeur.J 



THE INDEFLMTE ARTICLE. 
GERMAN. 

SINQUIAR. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. (Sill; eineiJ; cincn, ciucm. 

Fern Ginf, cincr, cincr, einc. No plural. 

Neut. Gin, iwKi, ciucm, cin. 

SPANISH. 

BINQULAR. 

Nom. Qcn. Dat Ace, 

Mas. Un, de un, a un, un. No plural. 

Fern. Una^ de una, a una, una. 

FRENCU. 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Aco. 

Mas. Un, d'un, ii un, un. No plural. 

Fern. Une, d'une, h, une, une. 

THE FRENCH PARTITIVE.* 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Nom. Gen. Dat. Aeo. 

Mas. Du, de,f ^ du, du. des, de,f h, des, des. 

Fern. Dc la, def, ^ de la, de la. 



DECLENSION. 
GERMAN. 

The German noun is subject to certain terminal mutations, 
which, when they are arranged and classified, are denominated 
Declensions. Of these Declensions, some authors recoirniso 
eight, five, or four, while many accord that there are, in fact, 
but three. 

For the sake of simplicity and brevity, we shall arrange all 
the German nouns into three separate heads or declensions — no 
more; and in following out this arrangement, we shall class 

* Translate :3, iomr, of sone, (S:c. j Or, d' 



250 DECLENSION. 



all the singulars first in order, and afterwards the plurals, in 
their own place, on the plan of Le Bas and Regnier. 

The Declensions arc determined by their mode of termina- 
tion. 

SINGULARS. 

First Declension. — All nouns of this declension are either 
masculine or neuter, and make their genitive in g, e^, and en^, 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

!Der ^immel,* be^ ^immcTi?, tent ^immel, ben ^immeL 
In like manner are declined all masculine and neuter nouns 

terminating in el, em, en, er; neuter, in n, &jin, lein, &c. &c. 
Nouns which already terminate in ^, 3, gt, f , ^, take an e in 

the genitive before the g, for sake of euphony ; as 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

S)a0 ^ar3,t be^ ^arje^, bem ^axiX ba^ ^arj. 

Many nouns, also, take e, in this manner, when the final let- 
ter produces too close a sound to admit of an immediate sub- 
sequent g» These nouns are of various terminations, as follows : 

Da^ Sanb, the land ; bag ^inb, the child; ber WiCkXiXi, the 
man; ber ^\xt, the hat; ber SBein, the wine, &c. 

Nouns in ett^, 

Nom. Gan. Dat. Ace. 

£)er Sun!e,§ beg %vixiitn^, bent guttlett, ben gunlem 
Second Declension. — This declension comprises none but 
masculine nouns. The genitive termination is n or en* All 
the other cases of the singular and plural are like the genitivo 

singular. 

^ c r ^na^t, the hoy. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc- 

^er ^xi^t, beg ^naBen, bent ^naBen, ben ^naBen. 
Most of the nouns of this declension, terminating in a con • 
sonant, make their genitive in cn» 

* Heaven. — [Note. — The German noun always commences "with a 
capital letter.] 

f The rosin. % Or, ^axiC* 

g Formerly, and occasionally at the present day, g'unfcn- 



DECLENSION. 251 



X) e r S8 a r, tlic hear. 

G.'n. Dat. 

!Dcr 33ar, 'tti 53iircn, bcm 53arcn, ben 53areit. 
Third Declension. — All the nouns of this declension are of 
the feminine gender. It t'lkes no inflection in the singiilur, 
nor does it terminate in any fixed letter. 

^ r a u, a woman. 
T)ie %xa\x, ber iSxan, bcr ^rau, tic ^mu. 

PLURALS. 

The various terminations of the nominative plural are e, 
Jt, en, iXXi, or like the nominative singular. 

AVhen the nominative plural ends in n, all the other cases 
are the same. 

When the nominative plural does not end in n, the dative 
alone takes an n, and the genitive and accusative are like the 
nominative. 

No inconsiderable number of nouns change a, 0, U, and au, 
of the singular, into a, o, ii, and aw. 

Masculine and neuter nouns, of the first declension, in ct, 
er, en, lien, have their nominative plural like the nominative 
Bingular, and add n for the dative. 

2) e r 51 b I e r, the eagle. 

PLURAL. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

X)ie ^Iblcr, ber Siblcr, ben Slblern, bie %Wx. 
!D a 3 Qxto^tl, the seal. 

PLURAL. 

'Lit (SteijeT, ber Siegcl, ben (Biegcl, bic (Bie^eT. 
The greater part of the masculine nouns of the first declen- 
Bion take e, in the nominative, genitive, and accusative, and n, 
in the dative plural ; as 

2) c r 5 ^ c wi ^ ^ ^ ^^ 9/ '^^^ stranger. 

PLURAL. 

2)iei5rcmblin9e,bcr 5remblinii|e,ben 5i'cn^bt{n^en,ber ^^remblin^e^ 
Feminine and neuter nouns in ip, also take c j as 

T) 0.^ G) e I) e t m n i 0, tlie secret. 
^ic03e^cimnij]"c,ber(^cl)cimni|fc,bcnG)c[)e{mni|Jen,bie(yct)c{inui|ye. 
[NoTK — When ^ comes between two vowels, it is changed into ff.J 



252 DECLENSION. 



A great number of nouns of the third declension in the 
singular also are declined in the same manner in the plural; 
so also are nearlj^ all neuter nouns, v/hose initial is the particle 
ge, and whose terminative is in any letter other than e, I, or tx, 
in the nominative singular; as, singular, bci^ ©tjd)en!j plural, 
tie ®efd)en!e, the gift, the gifts. 

Thus, also, are declined all neuter nouns terminating in 
ntent ; as (Saframent, ©aframente, &c. There are, also, man j 
neuters, whose distinctive features cannot be established. 

All such nouns of the first declension as ending properly 
in e, are often terminated by e or en ; all nouns of the second 
declension, which take e in the genitive singular, and all 
feminine nouns in e(, e, ee, ie,* form their plural by adding an 
XI to the nominative singular. 

All nouns of the second declension, whose genitive ends in 
tn, as S3ar, 33arett; all feminine nouns not noticed hitherto, in 
this description of the plurals ; and especially such as termi- 
nate in enb, ei, ^ett, in, feit, fd)aft, ung; and those derived 
from foreign tongues; also a number of masculine nouns, the 
nouns ^ett, bed; ^emb, shirt; ^er3, heart; £)1)x, ear; and 
nouns in ox, incorporated from the Latin language; and a 
greater part of the nouns in ttr, are all declined by adding eu 
to the nominative singular termination. • 

All masculine and neuter nouns in tijum, as (sing.) ber 
fRt\d)t^nm, the fortune ; (plu.) tie dldd)ti)mMX, the fortunes; 
(sing.) ba^ ^evJogt^um, the dukedom; (plu.) t»ie ^er3ogtI)umer, 
the dukedoms. All such neuters as have not been included in 
the preceding explication, terminating generally in. a mute, or 
the letters g, ft, fd) : as (sin^.) ba^ 33ilt), the image; (plu.) bic 
S3ilber, the images; (sing.) ba^ ^orf, the village; (plu.) bie 
2)orfcr, the villac/ts ; and the following masculine nouns: — 
23ofewid}t, 2Dorn, ©eift, ©ott, SeiB, 9)tann, Drt, 3flanb, 2)0vmunb, 

* With the exception of Mc 9}iuttcr, mother; bic Scd)tcr, daughter, 
which make their plural with the llmtout (")/ bic ^uiUx, bie S Center, 



DECT.ENSTON. 



2o3 



SDalb, SCnrm, all make their plural in cr, at tne same time 
placing the Umlaut (") over the vowel or diphthong, in the last 
eyllable in the word; as 03ott, 0i)tter, God; '^\c^xin, Sluinncr, 
man; .f)aui?, ^ciufcr, home, kc. kc. 

We have been thus prolix with the German noun, in com- 
parison with the general brief style of this work, that tho 
student might have no room for doubt ; and for the sake of 
simplifying in a degree the preceding pages on the German 
noun, we submit, in one general view, a table, so arranged as 
to comprehend all the entire terminations in a body. 



Ifit DKCLENSTON. 
Masculine and Neuter Nouns. 


2d dp:cl'n. 

Masculine 
Nouns. 


3d BECLKNSIOX. 
Finiiuine Nouns. 


i 

o 

00 


N. 

G.— (e) 5 
D.-(e). 
A. 


- (e)n. 

- (e) n. 

- (0 n. 


• 


J 
P. 


xN.— e. 

G.—c. 
D.— en. 
A. e. 


-(n). 


— er. 

— er. 

— em. 

— er. 


— en. 

— en. 

— en. 

— en. 


— (e) n. 

— (c) n. 

- (e) n. 

- (e) n. 


— (e) n. 

— (e) n. 

— (e) n. 

— (c) n. 


— e. 

— en. 

— e. 



SPANISH — FRENCH. 

The Spanish and French nouns are indeclinable. They 
merely add an s for the plural, (a few exceptions) ; but their 
terminations never vary for the case, which can only be deter- 
mined by the article or adjective prefixed, or by its syntactic 
relation. 

[Note. — The genders, in German, are three, masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. In Spanish, three, but the neuter in Spanish includeg 
only a few adjectives, used in the sense of nouns, and not limited in 
their extension; as lo titil, the useful; it has no plural. In French 
there is no neuter — nouns are either masculine or feminine, accord- 
ing to usage, or as the termination of the word denotes.] 
rLUR.\LS OF NOUNS. 

German. — The method of forming the plural of German 

nouns has been shown in the preceding Table of Poclension. 

IS^anish. — AVhcu the Spanish noun is terminated by a short 

22 



254 THE ADJECTIVE. 



vowel,* the plural is formed by adding an s to the termiLation 
of the singular; when the noun terminates in a lonfj vowel or 
a consonant, the plural adds es to the singular terminative : 
e. g. first, carta, letter; cartas, letters; ^adre, father ; padres, 
fathers : second, verdad, truth ; verdades, truths ; tribii, tribe ; 
tribiies, tribes. Nouns which terminate in 2;, change z to ces; 
as lapiz, jpewa7; lapices. The plural of adjectives is formed 
in the same manner. 

French. — The plural of French nouns is usually formed by 
the addition of an s; but when the noun (or adjective) ter- 
minates in Uj preceded by one or more vowels, the plural is 
made by adding x ; as beau, beaux ; also nouns ending in a?, 
ail, not followed by e final (ale, aile), make their plural by 
changing a?, ai7, into aux ; as travail, travaux ; mal, maux. 
These nouns, ciel, ceil, aieul, also make their plural in x; 
cieux, yeux, aieux. These rules are also applicable to the 
adjective. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 
GERMAN. 

When the adjective is employed as an attribute, it is inde- 
clinable, but when it occurs in a qualifying phrase as an 
epithet J it becomes declinable ; so that the same adjective is at 
one time indeclinable, at another, declinable. We say, ter 
SSater gut ift, the father is good; fcie 3}?utter gut i(l, the mother 
is good ; ba^ ^inb gut ift, the child is good, &c. &c. But when 
it is employed as an epithet, it is declined as follows : 

1st. If the adjective immediately precedes the noun, and is 
not itself preceded by either the article definite or indefinite, 
or any other declinable word, it is declined thus : 

SINGULAR. 
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. ®uter,t gutej^ (guten), gutent; guten* 
Fem. ©utc, guter, guter, gute, 

Neut. @ute0, gute^ (gwten), gutem, gute^» 

* An accented vowel (d, 1 6, &c.) is long; unaccented, is short, 

j- Good, of goody &c. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 255 



Mas. Fern. Neut. Ciiute, filter, f^utcn, (^ute. 
2(1. When the adjective is preceded by the definite article, . 
or Bom^ other determinate word; it is declined as follows : 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Oca. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. (53ute, gutcn, gutcn, Qukn* 
Fern. 0)utc, ijutcn, gutcn, gute. 
Neut. (yute, iiutcu, gutcu, gute, 

PLURAL. 

Mas. Fern. Neut. (i)utcu, c^nkn, gutcn, gutcrt, 
3d. When preceded by the indefinite article, cin, or any of 
the possessive pronouns, meiu, mi/ ; tein, ih^ ; fein, /i'"s, Jier ; 
linfcr, oitr; eucr, ^a^/-; i()r, their ; and !cin, a??j/, it is declined 
in this wise : 

PINOULAR. 

Nom. Gon. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. (Whiter, gutcu, 0"^''"/ Q^ikn* 
Fern. Ohitc, ijutcn, gutcn, gutc* 
Neut. CN5utci?, ^utcrt, jjutcit, gutci?. 
B@* Participles are declined in the same manner. 

SPANISH FRENCH. 

The Spanish and French adjectives are indeclinable, and 
only form their plural in order to be of the same number as 
the noun to which they are attached, according to the rules 
laid down on page 253. 

The Spanish and French participles conform to the same 
■rules as their adjectives. 

N. B. The adjective must be of the same gender, number , 
and case as the noun to which it is attached in all the three 
tongues. 



OF THE ADJECTIVES USUALLY CALLED DEMONSTRATIVE 

PRONOUNS. 

Gp:rman. 

X)tefcr, t>{cfe, bicfci?, (hie, hcec, hoc, Lat.; ojroj, avrr, t-oCfo, 
Gr.) thhy these ; declined like guter. 

Scncr, jeitc, jcnci?, (ille, ilia, illud, Lat.; ^xufo?, — »7, --o, Gr.') 
iJiaf, those; declined in the same manner. 



256 INTERROQATIVES. 



'Dtr, bie, ta^, used as a pronoun, instead of biefer, in imita* 
tion of tJie Gre3k (see page 153, Gr. Gram.), is thus declined: 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. !Der, beffen, bem, ben* 

Fem. Sjic, beren, bcr, bic» 

Neut. T)a^, beffen (bef,) bent, bag* 

PLUEAL. 

Mas. Fern. Neut. !Die, beren (berer), benen, bie* 
^crjenigc, thisj that, those; berfelBe, thesamcj are compounds. 
The first part of the words, ber, follows the declension of the 
article, while the other part follows the declension of the 
adjective. 

©olc^er, svjch, lihe, declined like blefcr* 

SPANISH. 

Este (mas.), esta (fem. sing.), this; indeclinable. 
Estos (mas.), estas (fem. plu.), these; indeclinable. 
Ese (mas.), esa (fem. sing.), that^ indeclinable. 
Esos (mas.), esas (fem. plu.), those ; indeclinable. 
Also, esto (neut. sing.), this, this thing, any thing; indeclinable. 
And eso, (neut. sing.), that, that thing, any thing; " 
[Note. — All these adjectives are indeclinable, and follow the 
general rule in forming their plural to agree with their nouns.] 

FRENCH. 

BINGTJLAR. PLURAL. 

Mas. Fem. Mas. Fem. 

Ce, cet, cette, this; ces, these. 

Celui, celle, that; ceux, celles, those. 

Celii-15., celle-15., the former ; ceux-15;, celles-lk, the former, 

Celai-ci; celle-ci, the latter; ceux-ci, celles-ci, the latter. 

INTERROGATIVES. 
GERMAN. 
3B e I c^ C r, who, which, what; thus declined : 

SINGULAR. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. 2GcId)cr, mld)^&, Ji?elcl)cm, n?eld)Crt» 
Fem. 2Betd)e, iueld)er, tt>eld)cr, jrcld)e. 
Neut. 2Be(d)e^, ii?eld)e^, mldjtm, m\d)c^. 

PLURAL. 

Mas Fern. Neut. 2ii3eld}e, n)e(d)er, n?clc^crt, tvel^e^ 



PRECONJUNCTIVES. 257 



2B c r, who ? n? a ^, wliat? thus declined : 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Aco. 

Mas. Fern. 2Ber, tt)ej[en (meg), mm, tven. 
Neut. 2Ba^, wajJ* 

SPANISH. 

Qiiien, que, who? which? &c., is declined by being placed 
after the same particles as the definite article el. 
Cual (sing.), cuales (plu.) both genders, tchich? 
Q\i6 (both genders and numbers), what ? 

FRENCH. 

Quel, quelle, quels, quclles, which ? what ? declined by placing 
oefore it the same particles that arc placed before the article 
fc, la. 

Qui (of both genders and numbers), declined in the same 
manner. Quoi, ichat ; like que. 



PRECONJUNCTIVES.* 
ger:man. 
2CcId)c5, which, that; declined same as tt?etd)e^» 
2Ca5, whichf what ; like \va&* 
So, whoy whom; indeclinable. 

FRENCH. 

En, iV, them, so; indeclinable. 

Y, it, so ; relating to something before it ; indeclinable. 

Le, it, &c., indeclinable. 

Ce qui, that which ; thus declined : 
Nom. Ce qui, that which. Dat. Ce ^ quoi, that to which. 

Gen. Ce dont, that of which. Ace. Ce que, that which. 
[J'ai oublie ce dont vous me parliez, / have forgotten that 
}/ which you were spealciiij to mc.^ 

SPANISH. 

The pronoun cvj/o is used as a preconjunctive or interroga- 
tive. It always agrees with the thing possessed (not with the 
possessor), in gender, number, and case. [ ]Yhose 2)e7is are 
tJiese ? I Cuyas sou ostas plumas ? — Whose hook is this 9 ; Cuyo 

es cste libro ?] 

* Relatives. 
2:i» 



258 PRONOUNS. 



PRONOUNS. 
GERMAN. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Sing. 3^, I; trteine', my, mine, of me ; mix, me, to me; mic^, me. 
Tlu.^ix,ive; unfer, our, ours; nn^, us, to us; un^, us. 

T)U, thou. 
Sing, ^it, tJiou ; betlter, ihine, of thee ; bir, thee, to thee ; bic^, thee. 
Plu. ^^x, you, ye; tutx, yours, of you; tu^,you, to you; md),you. 

dx, fie, t§, he, she, it. 

Nom. Gen. Tat. Ace. 

@r, he; feiner, his ; xl)mf him, to him ; \i)x\., him. 
(5ie, she ; i^xtx, hers ; \^x, her, to her ; fte, her. 
a^fif; feiner, zVs; xf^in, it, to it ; xi)n, it. 

PLUHAL. 

©ie, they; i^rer, theirs; tl)nen, them, to them; fie, them. 
The reflective pronoun Uas no nominative, and is thus 
declined : 

Gen. Dat. Ace. 

Mas. (Seiner, of one's self; jtd^, to one* s self ; fic^, one's self 
Fern, ^xtx, of one^s self ; ^\i&j, to one's self ; [\6), orie's self. 
Neut. (Seiner, of one^s self; fic^, to ones self; fic^, one's self. 

PLURAL. 

^\)XtX, of themselves ; fid), to themselves ; fid), themselves. 

[Note. — The word fctOfi, or feU>cr, often added to the personal pro- 
nouns, and answers the place of our word self ; as icl) fclOji, myself^ 
&c.] 

The pronouns '^Mi, one; 3ctttant», some one; Alternant), no 
one, take e^ in the genitive, and en in the dative and accusa- 
tive. Occasionally,,^ also, they are used indeclinable.- 

(StJVCl^, something ; 5^id)t^,- nothing, are indeclinable. 

Slner, some cne; ,^einer, any one, are declined like i.ho ad- 
jective, guter. 

SPANISH. 

Yo, /. 

Nom. Gen. ' Dat. Ace. 

M. F. Yo /; de mi, of me; d mi, to me; 6, mi, me. 



PRONOUNS. 259 



Mas. Nos, nosotros, we; de nosotros, of us; d nosotros, nos, 
to us ; d uosotros, nos, us. 

Fern Nosotras, we ; de nosotras, of us; d nosotras, nos, to us; 
d nosostras, nos, us. 

Tii, tJiou. 

M. F. Tii,* tJiou; de ti, of thee; d tf, te, to thee; d ti, tc, ^Aec. 

PLDRAL. 

Mas. Vos,* Yosoiiosy ye, you; de vosotros, of you; d vosotroa, osj 
to ^OM ; d vosotros, os, you. 

Fern. Vosotras, ye, you ; de vosotras, of you ; d vosotras, os, 
to you ; d vosotras, os, you. 

El, he; Ella, s7ie. 

Mas. El, he; de ^1, of him ; d <j1, le, se, to /ii?7i ; d 61, le, lo, him. 

Fern. Ella, s/ic; de ella, of her ; d ella, le, se, to /icr; d ella, la, her. 

PLDUAL. 

Mas. Ellos, they; de cllos, of them; dellos, les, se, to ^/t€w; d 
ellos, los, them. 

Fern. Ellas, they; de cllas, o/ them ; d ellas, les, se, to them; 
d ellas, las, ^Aer/i. 

The reflective pronoun has no nominative, and is thus de^ 

clined : 

Noiu. Gen. Dat. 

De sf, ofone^s self; d si, se, to one's self; d si, se, on^s self. 
N. B. Plural is declined like singular. 

FRENCH. 

Je, moi, I. 

Je,f moi, J // de moi, of me, my, mine; d moi, to me ; me^ 
moi, me.'\ 

PLURAL. 

Nous, me ; de nous, of us, ours; d nous, to us; nous, i«. 

* Tti, vos, are seldom used in Spanish. Usted, (abbreviated U ) 
takes its place, except in very familiar conversation. 

f Used in all cases before the verb. 

X Used, 1st, After an intransitive verb ; as e'est moi, it is I, for 
c'est je ; c'est lui, it is he, instead of c'est il ; ce sont cux, it is they^ 
or, they are. 2d, After an imperative mood, if it is affirmative, in- 
stead of me ; as donnez-moi, give me ; Ifeve-toi, raiet thyself; but if the 
imperative is negative, it follows the general rule and takes me; as 
ne me donnez pas, do not give me ; ne te 16ve pas, do not raise up. 



260 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



Tuj toi, thou, 
Tu,* loi^f thou ; de toi, of thee ; \i toi, to thee; id, io\,'\ thee. 

PLURAL. 

VouS; youy ye; de vous, of you; a yous, to you; vous, you. 

II, elle, on, he^ she, one. 

Mas. II,* lui,")" he ; de lui, of him ; h, lui, to him; le, lui,'}' Aim. 

Fern. Elle, she ; d'elle, of her ; ^ elle, ta her ; la elle, Aer. 

Neut. On, one, they, he^ somebody , anybody, (indefinite — ind^ 

clinable). 

PLURAL. 

Mas . IlS;* eux,*!* they ; d^eux, of them ; leur, h eux, to then ; 
les, eux, them.. 

Fern. Elles, they ; d'elles, of them ; h, elles, to them; elles, them,. 

The pronoun reflective, soi, is declined by adding the pre- 
position a and de. 

N. B. In imitation of the German and English, we fre- 
quently find meme attached to the personals, which we 
translate self; as moi-meme,' myself, &c. 



OP THE ADJECTIVE, COMMONLY CALLED THE POSSESSIVE 

PRONOUN. 

GERMAN. 

Wtxn, my. 
50?ein, my; nteine^, of my ; tneinem, to my; nteinen, my. 
Wtmt,my; mcintt, of my ; mdntx, to my ; mtinc, my. 
9}Zein, my; meine^, of my; tneinem, tomy; mtint, my. 

PLURAL. 

fJTceine^ my; jneiner, of my ; metncit, to my ; ntcine, my. 

Unfer, unfere (or, unfre), unfer, our, ours. 

!Dein, beine, bein, thy, thine. 

©uer, euere (or, cure), cucr, your, yours. 

©ein, feine, j^in, Ms, her, its. [Used when the 
name of the possessor is masculine or neuter]. 

^^x, t^re, it)r, his, hers, its. [Used when the 
name of the possessor is feminine]. 

3^r, it)re, i()r, their, theirs. [For the plural of 
fp.in and \^Xj and for all the three genders]. 
* Seo anilf (note f, p. 259). f See antl^ (note |, p. 259). 



*! 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 261 

When the adjective 7ninc relates to an antecedent, or agrees 
with a noun previously mentioned; as this is your hat^ hut 
where is mine? the word mine is represented in German by 
metner, mcinev, mcinci?, or by bcr, tie, t)ai3 mcinicjc* 

9}?cincr, niciuc, mcine^, minc^ that of mine. 

Unfcrcr, unfcrc, unfereiJ, oursy that of ours. 

T)ix, V\t, baiJ incinicjc, mine^ that of mine. 

Xicr, bie, bai? unfricjc, ours, that of ours. 

!I^cr, tic, la5 bcini^e, thine, that of thine. 

^cr, bie, baiJ curicjc, yours, that of yours. 

!Dcr, bic, bav? fciniijc, his, her, its. [Used if ^ho 
name of the possessor is masculine or neuter]. 

!l)er, ble, baiJ il)r{ge, his, her its, theirs. [Used 
if the name of the possessor is feminine, or if the substantive 
for which they stand is plural]. 



SPANISH. 

JMi, my. 
Mi, my ; de mi, of my ; d mi, to my ; mi, d mi, my. 

PLURAL. 

Mis, my ; de mis, of my ; d mis, to my ; d mis, my. 
Tu* (sing.), tus* (plu.), thy ; declined as above. 
Su (sing.), sus (plu.), his, hers, its; declined as above. 
Nuestro, -a, -os, -as (mas. fem. plu.), our ; " " 
Vuestro, -a, -os, -as (M. F. sing, plu.), your ; " " 
Su (sing.), sus (plu.), their ; " " 

The Spaniards, like the Germans, use some of these adjec- 
tives with the definite article prefixed, thus : 

Mas. El mio, mine; del mio, of mine; al mio, to mine; el or 
al mio, mine 

Fem. La mia, mine; de la mia, of mine; d la mia, to mine; 
la or d la mia, mine. 

* In all gcad society, and ordinary conversation, the Spaniard 
makes use of de uated, or de usted^, (abbreviated de U.), instead of 
tUf tus, &c. 



262 POSfeESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



Mas. Los mios, mine ; de los mios, of mine ; d los mios, to 
mine; los or a los mios, mine. 

Las mias, mine; de las mias, of mine; d las mias, to 
mine; las or u las mias, m^ine. 

And el tuyo, la tuya, thine; el suyo, la suya, his^ Tiers; 

el Euestro, la nuestra, ours ; el vuestro, la vuestra, yours ; el 

Buyo, la suya, theirSj with their plurals ; los tuyos, las tuyas, 

thine ; los suyos, las suyas, his, hers ; los nuestros, las nuestras, 

ours ; los vuestros, las vuestras, i/ours ; los suyos, las suyas, 

theirs, are all declined the same as el mio. 

FRENCH. 

Mon, my ; ton, thy; son, his, hers, its; notre, our ; votre, 
your ; leur, their ; are indeclinable, and add s to form the 
plural. Mon, ton, son, though masculine, are used before 
all feminine nouns commencing with a vowel or mute h ; as, 
mon heur, my hour ; ton ignorance, thy ignorance ; son assu- 
rette, his or her assurance. 

Mien, mine, is declined by prefixing the definite article, 
mienne (fern.), miens (mas. plu.), miennes (fem. plu.); tien, 
thine; sien, his, hers, its; notre (mas. and fem. sing.), notres 
(mas. and fem. plu.), our, ours ; votre (mas. and fem. sing.), 
votres (mas. and fem. plu.), your, yours ; leur (mas. and fem. 
sing.), leurs (mas. and fem. plu.), theirs, are all declined in the 
same manner as mien, and cannot be used in any case without 
the article. In imitation of the Germun, these adjectives re- 
late to an antecedent noun, with which they agree in gender, 
number and case. 



MOOD AND TENSE. 



263 



Prea. 

Ger. -e. 

Sp. -o. 
Fr. -r, re. 

Eng. do- 

Ger. -c. 
Sp. -0. 
Fr. 

Eng. may. 



en. J 



TABLE OF MOOD AND TENSE SIGNS. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Imp. IVrf. Plup. 1st Fut. 2a Put 

tc. f)aOc gc? ^atte gc? n^ecte. -en raerte. 

gc-t ()Q() 
baj'^^ia,! he,*habia.f Labia, r. habre — do. 

ai(ions,^ a,'^i,fu,^ai. avals, eus. cr. aurai. 

iez.f) 
-ed. have. had. shill. shall have. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, 
(c) tc i)ahc c\i: f)attc c\c= wetbe. Like Indio, 
ase,*iese. All others like Indicative. 
Like Indicative, 
might. may have, might have, shall, shall have. 



CONDITIONALS. 

PRESENT. PAST. 

Ger. tuurt'e — en. ^ tvurbc c\c — t ^aten. 

Sp. Ist, aria,* eria.f iria.^ 2d, ara,* 1st, habria. 2d, hubiera. 

iera,f ie.se, f ase.f 

Fr. rai- (ions,^ -iez.J) aurai, aasse, -6. 



Eng. 


should. 






should have. 


Gor. 


2a. 




IMPERATIVE. 
sa. let. 

-c, er. -en wir. 


2a. Sd. 

-t. -en fic. 


Sp. 


-a 


id 


-e61. 


-mos noso- 
tros 


-d vos- -en ellos. 
otros. 


Fr. 


-e. 




qu'il --e. 


-ons. 


-er. qu'ils -nl 


Eng. 


do thou. 


let him. 


let us. 


do ye. let them. 


Pres. 


German. 

-en. 


INFINITIVE. 

Spanish. French. English, 
-ar, -er, -ir. er, ir, oir, re. i-z. 


Perf. 


hahm. 


haber 


-do. 


avoir. 


to have. 








PARTICIPLES. 




Pres. 


-cnb. 


-do. 




nt. 


-ing. 


Past. 


-t. 


habiendo, -do. 


6. 


-d harlng 



PERSONAL TER.^IINATIONS. 

Sing. PIu. Sing. Plu. Sing. Plu. 

1st. c. cn. Q, a, e, i. mas. The personal terminations of the 
2d. jt. t/ cn. s, stc. is. French are numerous, and are 

Sd. t, cn. en- a, c, o. an, en. determined by the pronoun. 



• l8t Conjug. t 2d Conjug. 

t 2d person plural. 



2 3d Conjug. 



f 1st person plunu. 



2()4 MOOD AND TENSE. 



INFINITIVE. 

©cin ; ser (or) estar ; etrc, to be. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

@Ctcnb (or) tDcfcnb ; siendo (or) estendo ; (jtant, beinff. 

INDICATIVE MOOD.— PRESENT TENSE. 

Ger. 3cf) (nn, t>u tuft, cr i\x, voit finb, if)r feib, fie finb. 
Sp. Yo soy, tti eres, el, la es, nosotras somos, vosotros sois, ellos sod, 
iSp. Yo estoy, tu estas, el, la esta, *' estamos, '* estais, " estdn, 
Fr. Je suis, tu es, il, elle est, nous sommes, vous etes, ils, elles sent. 
JEnff. 1 am, thou art, he, she, is, we are, you are, they are. 
IMPERFECT TENSE. 

3fd) war, bu tt)ar(e)^, cr max, mv waxen, tl^r R)arfc)t, fie warcn. 
Yo era, tu eras, el era, nosotros 6ramos, vosotros erais, ellos eran. 
Yo estaba, tu estabas, el estaba, nosotros estabamos, vosotros estiibais, 

ellos estaban. 
Yo fui, tu fuiste, el fu^, nosot. fuimos, vosot. fulsteis, ellos fueron. 
"Estuve, "estuviste, **estuvo, **estuvimos, "estuvisteis, "estuvieron, 
J'etais, tu 6tais, il etait, nous ^tions, vous ^tiez, ils ^talent. 
Je fus, tu fus, il fut, nous fiimes, vous fiites, ils furent. 
I was, thou wast, he was, we were, you were, they were. 

PERFECT TENSE. [&C. 

SSin gctt)cfcn,* 6ifl C5C«jcfcn,tftgcrcefen,fint) gett»cfcn,t!)rfetb, &c., fiefmt). 

He sido, has sido, ha sido, hemos sido, habeis sido, han sido. 

He estado, has estado, ha estado, hemos estado, habeis estado, han 

estado. 
Ai 4;t6, as ete, a ^t^, avons 6t^, avez 6t6, ont 6i6. 
Have been, hast been, has been, have been, have been, have been. 
PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

835ar(5Ctt)cfcn,tt>Qr(c)ft,&c.,tv)ar,&c., n?Qrcn,&c.,n?ar(c)t,&c., roaren^&c. 
Hube sido (or) estado, hubiste, &c., hubo, &c., hubimos, &c., hubis- 

teis, &c., hubieron, &c. 
Y"o habia sido (or) estado, hablas, &c., habla, &c., habiamos, &c. 

habiais, &c., hubian, &c. 
Avals (or) eus ete, avals, eus, &c., avait, eut, &c., avions, eumes, &c 

aviez, &c. &c. &c. 
Had been, hadst been, had been, had been, had been, had been. 

FIRST FUTURE. 

ffScrbc fcln, rctrft fein, mxt) kin, n?crbcn fctn, tt?crt>ct,&e., njcrben, &c. 
Sere (estar^), seras (estaras), sera (estard), seremos (ester^mos), 

ser6is (estar^is), seran (ester^n). 
Serai, seras, sera, serons, serez, seront. 
Shall be, shalt be, shall be, shall be, &c. &c. 

SECOND FUTURE. 

SKerbc gcwcfen fcirt, tvirft, &c., mxt, &c., rocrbcn, &c., njcrbct, &c.^ 

tucr^cn, &c. 
Habr^ sido,f habriis sido,f habrd sido,f habr^mos sido,f habr^is 

sido,f habr4n sido.f 
Aurai 6t6, auras 6t6, aura 6t6, aurons 6i4, aurez 6t6, auront 6t6. 
Bhall have, shalt have, shall have, shall have, &c. &c. 

* A repetition of the pronoun is unnecessary. f Or estada 



EXPLANATIONS. 265 



EXPLANATION OF THE TEXT AND OF THE FIGURED 
PRONUNCIATION. 

The text is not encumbered by too much literalism ; 
and great pains have been taken to use correct expressions. 
Those words connected in a brace belong to one phrase, and 
are for the most part idiomatic expressions. All the notes to 
the references through the text — explaining expressions, etc.— 
will be found at the close of each part. The small figures are 
guides to the literal translation : thus enabling a person ac- 
quainted with onCj to translate correctly the other three languages. 

Inasmuch as there exist certain sounds in the foreign tongue* 
which we do not have in English, the following table will bo 
vofy important to him who has no teaclier. 

GERMAN. 

6^, d^ (guttural), represented in fig. pron. by CH. 

d)) (like sh), " " " sh. 

eC) (like k), " " " h. 

t), '* " " oe. 

U, « " " ue. 

5a, at), ei, et?, " « " i. 

%\x, eu, " " " oi. 

SPANISH 

N, represented in figured pronunciation by ny. 
LI, " " " '' ly. 

FRENCH. 

TJ, represented in figured pronunciation by ue. 

Eu, " ^' « '' 

The nasals " " '^ 

Oi, oix, &c. " ♦' " icaio. 

J, " " " '' zh. 

The accents have been arranged according to the actual pro- 
nunciation. This (") over a vowel denotes the vowel to be 
long; (^) is short; and (") is the Droad accent. Where it 

^vas thought necessary, the word has been divided into syllables. 

23 



oe. 
ng. 



CONVERSATIONS IN 

GERMAN. SPANISH. 



3»n cincm Suc^taben. 

SBte* nennen* ®ie^ biefe^^? 
Vee nen^n see de&esf 

Ase ist ine shdhl. 



Vee feel ist der prise ? 

Tsane dollars. 

5BeI(^e^ (Sinlaufe^ MltXi^ (5ie* 
Velcha ine-koi/d^ hah-hen see 

in° Sonbott^ gemac^P? 
t7i LUndun gemdCRt ? 

3(J)^ laufte^ eine^ 3Iu0n)aI)I*, 
isA kowftd Ind owswdhl 

fUn spitserij henderUy musd- 
Mn^^, linsy 

JcdlicoSy wolenstofen, 

ttnb*'i?on*^5)arti3^^einen*^35atIen^^ 
oondfUn Paris men hallen 

fcer^« fd)onften=°, unb^* 
der shoensten, oond 

reid)flen=^ 3;ud)er^, ^aftmir^^, 
rishe-ten taecher, kasemerSy 

.^aBen^'3 ©ie^ (Sonnenfd)lrme* ? 
Ilahhen see sunenslieermd ? 

3c^* ^aBe^ fet)r^ fd)i)ne= (Soniten* 
JsA halihd sdre shoend siLncn- 
fdjirme^ sheermd 
9M 



Tienda de pano y di liemo. 

; Como* se^ llama'^* eso^? 
Komo say lydhmah dso f 

Es oon chal. 

I Cual^ es^ eP precio^ ? 
Quahl es el prdtheo? 

Diez* pesos*'. 
De-dth pdsos. 

I Que* articulos^ ha^ comprado* 
Ka drticoolos ah comprado 

U.* en^ Londres^ ? 
Oosted en Londres ? 



lie comprado*' 2 un' surtido* 
A comprdhdo oon soortiao 

de^ encages'^, cintas^, museli- 
dd encdhes, thintdSy moosdlte- 
nas^; nds, 



zaraza^, lana merina*°, 
sarasaj Idn-ah mereenah 
chales"; chaldse; 

yi3 ^qiz Paris" un*^ cantidad*^ 
e dd Pdris oon cantedad 

de*7 panos^ y casimires^*, rouy 
dd fanyos e casemeres, mwy 

bcrmosos^° j^ muj ricos'^, 
ermosos e mioy rekosy 

etc.''^ etc.'^^ et cetera^. 

^Tiene*'^ U.^ quitasoles*? 
Te-dnd oosted kitasoles ? 

Tengo*'*^ quitasoles® muy* her- 
Tengo kitasoles mwy er« 
mosos^ mosos 



CONVERSATIONS IN 

FEENCH. ENGLISH. 



Magasin le draps. 

Comment* ceci^ s'appclle*-t-il ?a 
Comdrif/ ses^ s'dpel - t-il ? 

C* esf" un' schale*. 
S* ate uwj shdl. 

Quel* en ^ est'' le' prix* ? 
Kel dng a luhpree? 

Dix* piastres^ 
Dee pi/astr. 

Quelles* emplettes'' avez^'-vous'* 
Kel - z-ang-plet dvy - voo 

faites' h? Londres^ ? 
fat ah Londr ? 



J'ai achct<S*' '^ nn' assortiment^ 
ZKd dshtd ung asortirtiang 

de* dentelles^, de nibans'^, de 
dull ddngtcl, dull mchajig, duh 
mousselines*, moosleeuy 



de calicos^, d'6toflfes de laine'°, 
duh calico, d'etqf diJi lan^ 
de schales"; duh shal ; 

et" 5," Paris", le*« plus^o beau^^ 
d ah Pdri/j luhjplne ho 

et^ le plus pr^ieux*^ choix*^ 
a luh plwQ presi/OQ shwaw 

de draps^, de casimirs^, 
duh drahj duh casimeevy 

etc." etc.26 etc.2» 

Tenez^''-vous' des parasols*? 
Ten?/ - voo ddpdrdsul? 

J'* enc ai*^ de^ tr^s^-beaux' 
Zhang a dvh trd - ho 



At a dry-gooda ttort. 
What* do» you' call* this* ? 

It* is'^ a' shawl*. 

What* isnhe' price*? 
Ten* dollars'. 

What* purchases' did^ you* 
make* in* London^ ? 

I* bought* an' assortment* 
oP laces®, ribbons^, muslins', 

prints^, de-laines*°, shawls**; 

and*^ from*' Paris**, a*^ lot** 

of*' the*^ most*^ beautifu)** 
and^* 

rich=2 cloths^, casimeres'*, 

&c.=* &C.26 

Do* you' have' parasols* ? 



I* have' some' very* fine^ para- 
sols" 

207 



268 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



tsoo i-nem scire nee-drizhen pri-sd. 

JSahben see Jianeld ? 

Yah, soil ish e-nen velchd 
geigen^? tsihenf 

3aS rotten'' g^cmetl^ 
Ya\ roten flannel. 

3(^* M^t^ nur^ ii?e{pen^ 
Ish kahbd noor vise-sen. 

O, das gdiiuezht nisht. 

3(^* mug^ etwag* rot^^en^ l^a'ben^ 
is7i moos etwds roten haliben. 

(Sie* fonnen^ i^n* ju^ etnem^ 
/See JcOQnen een tsoo i-nem 



A7 



^ equita- 
dkitor 



a' un° precio" muy 
ah oon prdtheo mwy 
tivo*°. U-vo. 

^;Tiene* U.^ bayetas* (frane- 
Te-dndoostedi hah-ydtas (frdne" 
las)? a las?) 

Tengo^'^algnnas. ^Le mostra- 
Tengo, algoonds. Ld mostrah^ 

xi^ d U.^ algunas''? 

rd ah U. algoonds f 

Si*, las de^ rojo^. 
See, las dd roho. 

No^ tengo*:^ mas que^ blancas* 
No tengo mas kd hldnkds. 



No^'3 me^ bastaIl*'^ 
JVo md hahstdn. 

Necesito*'*^'^ algunas* rojas^ 
Netheseto dlgoonas rohas. 

Puede^ U.* llevarlas^* aP'^ 
Pwddd oosted lyd-vdrlahs al 



Ferher hringen, oond een gd- 
^ikxW^^tl^mmtXl^.ferhthdkomen. 

"Da^* iviirbe'^ ju* foftfpieltcj^ 
Da^ vuerdd tsoo kostspeelizh 

oond tsoo muesdm sine. 



Gootj so vee see dse vuen 



fd)cn.« 3ft' fonp nod)" Sht)a^^°'"Q 
shen. 1st sonst noCR etvds 



tiDtorero'', y^ hacerlas^'*" 
teentordro ^ hdtherlahs 
tenir**. td-nyeer. 

Esd^me costaria^'^-* demasia- 
Aso md costdreeah ddmahseah- 
do^, doy 

y^ seria*^ tambien demasiado 
e seryah tambyen ddmahseahdo 
tedioso''.^ torde-oso. 



Muy* bien^; sea^ como* lo qui- 
Mwy hyen, sd-ah homo lo kee* 
ere^ U.^c erd U. 



^Quiere*'' U.*^ algo 
Kee-erd oosted algo 



9,10 



FRENCH. 



ENGLISH. 



2C9 



il^ tr^s"-bas*° prix" 
ah trd-bah jprec. 



af a* very^ low*" price". 



AvGz^-vous" de la'' flancllC? 
Avay-voo dull lah^Jland? 



Have* you" any^ flannels* ? 



Oui. Vous® en^ montreraP-' 
We. Vooz - aiif/ monjtrerd- 
je^ ? zhuh? 



I* have". Shall^ I* show* you* 
some^ ? 



Oui*, de la" rouged 
Wcy cV la roozli, 

Je^n'^ai" que^ de la blanche*. 

Zhuh ml kuh d' la hlaiuji^h. 

, . _ — ^ 

Oh*, ce"u'est pas mon affaire. 
O, sah n\l pah nioiKj a/arc. 

Je* veux'^'^ de la* rouEre*. 

O 

Zhuh VOQ d* la roozh. 



Vous* n'avez" qu' ii la* porter^ 
Yoo n\ivi/ h' ah lah pond 
chez-^ shd 

Ic" tcinturier'',e et^ la*° fiiire^ 
luh taiujtxxQri/d, d lah fare 
teindre'*. tamjdr. 

Ce* serait^'^ trop* couteux* et" 
Suh sitrd tro cootoo d 



Yes*, some" rcd^ flannel*. 
I* have' only' white*. 



0*, that" will' never* do"" 



I* must" have" some* red*. 



You^ can" take' it* to^ a" 



dy er^,and^ have' it*' coloured**. 



That* would" be' too* expen- 
sive* 



trop ennuycux^. 
tro enue-yGQ. 



and'' troublesome''. 



Soit. f A votre plaisir'''*'*'^ 
JSicuh. Ah voir p/tZ^eer. 



Very* wclP, just' as* you' 



I)csircriez**-vous" autre'' 
Ddzcer-er-ya-voQz o-tr 



choose". Is^ there^ any thing 



10 



28« 



270 GERMAN. SPANISH. 



wag" ©ie" ^cute^^ ^ben mod)- mas" hoy *^? 
vdhs see hoitd hahben moech- mas oy? 
tcti^*? an? 



^eute" 5^i(^ts\ mein ^err', id^* Nada* mas* aliora^,d senor,* 

Moitd nix J mme hevy ish Nahdahmdsah-ordhjSain'i/orf 
bail!c^3^nett®; c^dnkd eenen\ 

aBcr^ i6)^ Jucrbc^ in" etnigen*'*'" gracias*'*'^; pero'' volvere^~** 

dhher ish verdd in i-nizhen grdihee-as ; j)dro volvd-rd 

%a^tn^^ tviebcr" ctnfprci^en^^'"* en*^ pocas*^ dias*^. 

Tahgen veeder ine-spreshen. en pokas de-as. 

S{^* ttjerbe'' S^itcn^''' fe^r* Quedar^*'^^ muy* agradecido* 

Ish vSrdd S-nen sdre Ka-ddhrdmwydgrdhdd-tli&<l6 

ijcrBunben^ fcin^ mein ^err*» a^ U'^. 

ferhoonden sine, mine her. ah oosted. 



£)*, nic^t^ im^ ©eringftenV mein No hay de que.e 

Oy nisht im geringsteny mine No i dd kd. 
.^err.^ Mr. 

©uten*' Zd^'^, vxdxi^ ^reunb^ Buen^ dia'^, amigo^ mio*. 

Gooten tag, mine froind. Bwen de-ahy ame-go me-o. 

©uten* ZaQ\ Buen* dia^. 

Gooten Tag. Bwen de-ah. 



2Bot(en^(Sie'^mi(^*einige''^aIifog^ ^Hagame ver^"^ algunas'^ 

Vollen see mish i-nizhd Icalikoes Ha-gahmd ver algoonas 

fe^en^'^ lajfen'', mein ^err^? telas pintadas^ senor^r 

sd-dn las sen y mine her ? tdlas pintah-daSy sainyor ? 

^it* tiem^' groften^ 3Sergniigen\ Con* muchisimo^'^ gusto*. 

Mit dewj groesten /ergnuezhen. Kon moochisemo goosto. 

SGic »iel* ij^'' ber^ ^reig* ? lA' como vende U. eso ? g 

Vee feel ist der prise ? ' Ah homo vendd U. dso ? 

5Die* ^^reife*^ ftnb^ t)erf(^ieben*, Los* precios'' son' varios*, 

Dee pri-sd sind fersheeden, Los prd-the-os son var-e-oSy 

if^xcf ©iitc^ entfprec^enb^'^.f en razon de^'^^ svJ cualidad*. 

ee-rer ^ue^ zntsfreshend. enrah-thonddsooqitahl-e-dad. 



FRENCH. KNGLISn. 271 

chose*"' " en ce moment" f g else" that*^ you" wish'* t?- 
shoze an(j suh momCi'ig ? day*^? 

Rion*, aiijourd' hui^, monsieur,^ Nothing* to-day'', sir*, I* thank* 
R^dn<j, dzhoortV^cCj mii)>i/oe, 
jc* vous° zhuh voo 



remercic*; mais^ j'aurai soin you"; but^ P will^ call*'* in" 
remerse ; md zh'Ord sicawng 



de repassci-*"*^ sous peu"~*°.li again*^ in" a** few*^ days*^ 
dull repdssd soo ^oe. 

Vous m'obligerez beaucoup*~',i I* shall'' be^ much* obliged* 
Voo 711* obleczherd bo/coo^ 

monsieur". to^ yo^^ sir®. 

musi/OQ. 



Oh*, il n'y a pas de quoi-' 3' -"^k 0*, not» at^ all*, sir*. 
0, il 71 Ve ah pah duh quaWy 
monsieur*, viusj/oc. 

Bon^-jour^, mon* ami^. Good" day^, my® friend^. 

£onr/ zhoorj moiig nammy. 

Bon*-jour'. Good* day^ 

Bong-zlwor. 

Voudricz*-vous^ bicn me* faire® Will* you" }et^ me* look' at" 
Yood-ri/d voo hi/ang muh fare 

voir^ des'' calicos", monsieur® ? some-^ prints®, sir° ? 
vioaw dd JtdUkoj muiiijoQ ? 



Avec* le'' plus grand 4 plaisir*. With* the^ greatest' pleasure*. 
Avck luhplue gramj ^j/a^cer. 

De quel* prix* sont-ils^ ? m "What* is= the® price* ? 

Didi kU pree songt-v. ? 

Lc* prix" varie''* The* prices' are* various*, 

Luh jjree vdree 

suivant''" la' qunllt6''.n according^ to" thcir^ quality*. 

siccc-uang lah kcVdC-id. 



272 GERMAN. SPANISH. 

i)itx^ ifl^ cin' ©tiicf*, fc^r* fc^on^ Aqui^ esta" una^ pieza*, 

Meer ist lae stnekf sdre shoerij Ak-ke estah oonah pyd-thahf 

bellisima^^, helUs-e-mahj 

, • , , . ^ 

\t\xO im ©eweBc^, unb^ baucr* de tegido^, nmy Undo'', y^ 

Jine im gd-vdhdy oond dower- da td-he-doy mwy lindoy i 

l^aft^°, fiir" nur" jmei*^ (Sdnit* durable*";por"solaraente"dos*' 

lidfty fviQr noor tswi skill- doordble, por solah-mentd dos 

Inge" itnb" fec^^^ (Ecnt^*^. chelines** y" seis centavos.** 

ingd oond sex sents. chelinenes e sd-is ihentahvos 

SCirb^ cr'^ !DerBIei(i)en^ ? ^Perdera su color*''^^?! 

Veerd der ferhllclien ? Perdd-rah soo kolor f 

0\ nein^ ic^^ ^aBe* it)n^ felBfl^ 0^, no^, la^ he* probado* yo« 

Oj ninej ish hahbd een selhst 0, no^ lah d pro-hah-do yo 

gcproBt^* (Ste* fonnen'' fe(^5^c'^tt^ mismo7 Corteme*"^k 

gd-prdhpt. See koQuen sextsdne mees-mo. Kor-td-md 

Stlett^ aBmejfen*'', Uttb'' i^tt^ tn*° diez y seis^ varas^ , y' 

elen dhbmesserij oond, een in dee-aith e sd-is varas, e 

meinc"2Bo^rtung'^5^o»*^(3a:^0 envielas^'^ a^^ mi" casa^^, 

mind vo-nungy nummero (tsahV) enve-d-lds ah me cdsdhj 

42*4 Paulus^s calle*7 de San^^ Pablo*« 

tswi-oond-feerf-sig Powloos kald dd San Pdh-lo 

strassd sliiken. Noomd-ro quahr-enfah S dos. 

• I— — » < 

®r* foII''fogretd)*flief(^i(ft*ltJcrben^ Le^enviere*^'* a U. al punto*.! 

der sol soglishe gdshikt verden. Ld enve-ard ah U. allpoonto, 

Sd)* ^a^t^ mlr* S^i'^li® ^^^'' He^'^ comprado' hilo^, 

Ish hahbd meer tsveern oond d komprah-do e-ld^ 

^Rabeln", cinen^ gingerl^nP, agujas^, dedal*", 

Nahdeln^ i-nen Jing-er-hooty ahgoohaSj dd-daly 

2Ba(^g*^ ©c^eeren*"', vlmV* fcl)r*^ cera^, unas tijeras*^, 

VdXj shd-ren, oond sdre thd-rahj oonds te-her-aSy 

, . , 

fetnctt @tcff 5U ^embeu*^ y** telas*^ muy*^ finas*', 

fl-nln stoff tsoo hemden e td-las mwy fe-nds^ 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 273 



Voici^'^ une^ pi6ce* fort^ bcUc^, Here* is' a^ piece*, very* 
Vwaivse ue?i 2^e-ds for hdj 



tr6s fine'', d'uu grand usage*", beautiful®, fine'' texture^, and^ 
trd Jiiif d un<j yrangd uezosA, 

^" deux" chclines" durable^", for" only*^ two** 
ah doe shdiii siiillings** 



six sola'', net.o and^* sixpence^® (six cents.) 

sec sol J nd. 

La couleur — passera*'^-t-elle''? Will* if^ fade^ ? 

Jjah cooloer — -passd-rah-t-el? • 

Oh*, non'', j'^en® ai* 0*, no', P have* tried* it" 

O, noiKj zliaiKj d 



fait r^preuvc*. Donnez-m'en*~* myself.'' You* may' 
Jul/ CuhproQv. Don-nd-m^ ang 

seize* aunes®, measure^ ofi"* sixteen* 

sdze on, 

et" envoyez^-les^ i\*° ma** yards®, and'' send^ it^ to*° 

c ang-voyd - Id ah niah 

residence*', rue*^ saint** my** residence*', No.*^ 42** 

rese-ddngs rue sang 

Paul*®, numero*^ 42** St.** Paul*® street*''. 

Polcj nimidro harangt-dls. 



Je vais vous les envoyer de- It* shall' be^ sent* imme« 
Zhuh vd voo Id-z-angvoyd duh diately*. 
suite*.? swif. 

Je* vieus^ de m'^ acheter^ du* I* have' bought^ me* 
Zhuh vydng duh m'dshtd d\iQ 

fil®, des aiguilles*, un" de*°, some* thread® and^ needles", 

Jil, dd - z - dgicil, ung ddj 

do la** cire*', une paire de aUhimble*°, some**beeswax*', 
d* lah seer, ucn pare dd 

ciseaux*', et** de** tr^s*® belle*" scissors*^, and** some*^ 
tiz-o, a duh trd bd 



274 GERMAN. SPANISH. 



gefauft^ para camisas**.ni 

gd-kowfL pdrah kdmesas. 

SO^ein* 33rui ix"^ ^at^ etn^ neue^^ Mi^ hermano^ ha^ comprado* 

Mine brooder hat ine no'ii/es Me ermdhno ah Jcom-prado 

^aar^ ® am a fc^ en''' ^ gefauft** un^par^de^polaynas^nuevas.* 

^ahr gd-mdslien gd-kowft. oonjpdhrddjpold-^nasnoo-d-vds. 

SO?eitte* Zaxiit^ '^ai^ fo eBeu"* Mia^ tia" acaba^-'^n de com 

Mind tdhntd hdht so aben Me-dh te-dh dk-ahhdh dd kdm- 

ctnen^ f(^6nen^ neuen^ ^ut^ prar^un^sombrero^hermoso^y 

\-nen shoQnen noi-i/en hoot prahr oon s6m-brd-r6 er-mo-so e 

tlht^^ einer" fteinen^ Btauer^^ nuevo^, con^° una" garzoti- 

mit i-ner kli-nen blow-er nwd-vOj kon oonah garthotG' 

(^eber^* ge!auft^ )i?el(^e^" fte^^ cai2, w ^zul^^ que" la^^ embell- 

fd-der gd-kowft, velches see kah dth-ool kd lah pnbel- 



owf i-nd sJioend art tseert. e-thd moo-chis-e-mo. 

3(^* tt>urbe^ mi(^ nic^t^ lijunbern* No^ seria^'^ sorprendido^o si^ 

Ish vuerdd mish nisht voon-dem No sd-re-ah sor-pi'en-de-do sS 

ttJCtttt^ t^r^^.^^Scmant)^''' fetnen^° alguno^''' la^*^ cortejaria^-^i; 

ven eer yd-mdnd si-nen dlgoo-no lah kor-td-hdr-yah ; 

Stntrag" mai^tc^' ^ ; ungeac^tet^* aunque** sea"'^^ una^^ don- 

dntrUg mdCRtd; oongd-dCRtet ah-oon-kd sd-ah oonah don- . 

pe" etne*^ gans^^attei^Sungfer^^ celliduenaiS' 2° — Perdone- 

see i-nd gants dltd young fer thelye-doo-enyah — Per-do-nd/' 

ifl'^— 3(^'' Bitte^^ urn (Entfc^utb- me^i-^s _ Querias^'^s 

ist — Ish bittd oom ent-shoold- md — Kd-re-ah 

igung*^ — 1(^24 j^tefne^^ ^ fe^^r^^ decir^^ muy^^ adelantada®» 

igung — ish -mi-nd sdre dd-theer nfiwy ddeldntahda 

toorgeriicfP im^^ $Mter^» ' en^s anos^". 

fovgdi^UQht im a Iter. en dnyns. 



FRENCH. 



ENaLISH. 



275 



toilc pour fairc dcs chemises'^ 
twawl 2)oorfdrc dd s/unis. 

Mon* frt^re*' a^ achetC*^ une' paire^ 
Mon(j /rare ah a&lity ue/i '^dre 

de'' gcutres^ ncuvcs^. 
duJi (joQtr noQv. 

Ma* tante'' vient^-* d'achctcr* 
Mah iamjt vi/aiujt d'ashtd 

un^ bcau^ chapcau^ ncuf •*, 
laif/ ho shajy-o noc/j 

orii6 d'-° unc" plume** blcuc" 
ornd d' ue/i ^j/ue77i llua 

qui" la*^ rend*^' ** 
Are lah rang 



ivhs jolie*9'2o,2i, 
trd zholy. 

Je* ne' serais" point' dtonnd*, 
Zhuh nuh serdpicawngi d-ton-dj 

que^ quclqu'° un'' lui** " 
huh kclk^ umj lice 



fit la cour^~"; quoiqu'** 
ye lah /coor; kicaick 

elle** soit*° surannde^^* "° q — 
el swaw suo'-dn-d — 

Bien des pardons^^"^ r — 
£i/dng dd pardon g — 

Jc'^ voulais*^^ dire'^, 
Zhuh voo-ld deer J 



very*" fine*'' shirtiiig*^ 
My* brother'^ has' bought* 
a* pair® of^ new^ gaiters^ 

My* aunt'' has' just* 
purchased^ a" beautiful^ 
new« hato, with*o a" little*^ 
blue" plume" that*^ sets** 
her*7 off" in*8 fine^" style«. 
I* shouldn't^*' wonder* if* 
some° one'' were" paying'' his** 



addresses** to*'' her*'; not- 
withstanding** 

she*^ is*° quite** an*^ old*® 



maid^" — I^* bcg'^ pardon"*— 
I"* should*^^ say=^, quite^ 
advanced'^ hj"^ life'"*. 




276 GERMAN. SPANISH. 



3>n cincn @d)ncit*crUbcn. Con un Sastre. 



©uten* ZaQ^, mein ^err\ Huenos* dias'^, senor*. 

Gooien td(j, mine her. jBwd-7ios de-ds, sainyor. 

J^aBen^ ^k^ 5locf e^ in^ tterlaufen"? i Tiene^ U.^ vestidos" que ven- 
IIdhhenseeroekdtsoofe7'kowfenf Te-dnd U. veste-dds kd vert- 

der^* ^? der ? 



^0},mt\nS)txx^,i6)^^a^t^'Si'Mt^ Si*, senor'', tengo^'* vestidos* 

Yaliy mine her, ish hahbd 7'oe-kd JSe, sain-yor^ tengd veste-dos 

»Ott''aIIen7©orte^ SSelc^e^^Irt*" de« todos^ generos^ ^ Que^ 

/Un alien sortd. Velchd art dd todds hendros. Kd 

iJOtt" diod^^ foU** t(^** 35nen*^ genero*" de" vestidos*^ \q j^og. 

yzlTi roeZ; sol ish ee-nen hendro dd veste-dds Id mds- 

geigcn^s ? tsiken f trare^^-^s a U.*7 ? /^.^^^ aA f/:? 

9^un*, tXxitXi^ fc^tvarjen* ^rad^ Bien*, un^ vestido fino^^, y 

NooUy i-nen shw arisen frahh^ Byen^ oon vestedo fe-no^ e 

Uon feinem Xuc^e' — 3(^"'ten!e'' negro*. Creo^'^este^'^ vestido 

jfun Jl-nem toochd — ish denkd nd-gro. Krd-6 estd vestedo 

ba^^ ift^ am*° ntobcrnflen"* de modo". 

das ist dhm m^odernsten. dd modo. 



3c^t^ nt(^t* ^OiXif fo^ tnobern* No* es tan^ de modo* aliora* 

Yetst nisht gants so modern JVd es tan dd modo ali-d-rah 

Ci\i^ ber'^ UBerroiJ^ — UBerrocf e^ como^ eP saco^ — ^los sacos^ 

alsderuober-rdck — uoher-roakd komo el sdko — Ids sdkds 



jperben*^ mc~^r" getragen^^ son*° muy de modo"'*^. 

verden mdre gd-trdh-gen. son mwy dd mddd. 



®ut*'^, \)tnn^, jctgen ©ie* mtr* Muy* bien^, enseneme*** 

Gootj den, tsi~ken see meet Mwy hyen^ ensdin-yd-md 

einen^ UBcrrod^ ' un'' saco^. 

i-nen ueher-rdk. oon sdko. 

.Ipicr* ifl^ elner' — ic^* benfc^ ba^ Aqui* esta" uno^ que" viene^ 

Heer ist i-ner — ish denkd das Ah-ke estah oo-no kd ve-end 

er« ^i^ntn'^ pa^t\ bien d U.» p 

are eenen j>dst. hyen ah oosted. 



FRENCn. ENGLISH. 277 

Avcc un Tailleur. At a Tailor-ahop, 

Bonjoiir* ^. monsieur.* Good* morning", sir^ 

BoiKj-zhoor^ mus-^oo. 

Avez*-vous'* des^ habits* Ji* Have* you'' any^ coats* to* 
Avy - voo del- z-abe-z- ah sell"? 
vendre®? vaiujdr? 

Oil i*,monsieur''J'ai3'*des habits* Yes*, sir^, P have* coats* Df* 
Wcy mus-i/OQf zh'd dd-z-ahe 

de'' toutos^ esp6ce^. Quelle^ every'' description.^ What" 
didi toot - s - esjjes. Kel 

sorte*° d'habit^* " vous*^ mon- kind*" of " a" coat*» shall" I" 
sor d'abe voo moni/- show*^ you*''? 

trerai-je**~*^ ? trerd-zhuh ? 



Eh bicn*, un" noir* de beau drap^ Well*, a" broadcloth' — black*, 
Eh byaiKjyUnijnwawrduh bOdrd. 

Celui-hV me^ serable^ plus*° frock* — I^ think^ that" is* 
Selwt-ldh muh sdiKjbl jjImq-z- 

^ la mode**. most*° fashionable**. 

ah lah mod. 

Pas*autant^que^le''paleteau^ — Not* quite" so^ fashionable* 
Pah-z-o-taiKj kd luh pdUto — 

les paleteaux^ sont*° now* as® the'' sack* — sacks' 

Id jndctd song 

plus d'usage**'*". are*** much** worn*". 

pl\iQ d'ue-zazh. 

Eh bien**", donc,^ faites moi Very* well", then', show* aae* 
Uh byanj, douijkjfat micaw 

voir^ un^ paleteau.'' a® sack''. 

vwaw-r-umj pdlclo. 

En voici*'" un'', qui" vous^ Here* is" one'' — I* think* 
Ang vwawfit/ iing, IcS voo 

siera^'O, je* pense*. it° is'' your' fit° 

«3 erahj zh uh pangs. 

24 



278 GETIMAN. SPANISH 



0\ neitt, Qan^ un'D gar nif^t^^,& 0^, de ninguna mariera^*; es**^ 

Of nine, (jants oond gar nisht, 0, dd neeii-goond mdndrah^ es 

er^ ift*' 'okV ju^ gro^^ — cr^'^ n?irb" demasiado''' ^ ancho^' ^, 

di'e 1st feel two grOse — are veerd dd-mds-e-ah-do dnchoj 



nte^^ geniigen^^ no me ira jamas*2,i3 ^^ 

nee gd-nMQzJien. no ma e-rah lidmds. 



^m^ tft^ e:n anbern^, eiti Aqui^ esta^ unotro^ — 

Heer ist me anderuy ine Ah-he estah oon-o-tro — 



Iteinerer* — ^erfuc^enSie^biefen^ mas pequeno'*, praebela^'^ U.* 
kli-nerer — -fersooohen see deesen. mdlispdkdnydfproo-d-hdlah U. 



S)tefer* ip Bej^er^ — er '^a^i^ fel)r* Es^'^ mejor^ — va muy bieIl^~^ 

Dee-ser ist hesser — aerpdst sdre Ase md-hor — vah mwy hyen. 

gut\ 2Bag7 ben!en*° ©ie» iQvlq? le parece»-^° de*^ eso*^, 
goot. Vds denken see Ka la pard-tlid dd dso, 

baritBer"'^, ©(^neiber^^ ? senor sastre"? 

ddrneher, shni - der ? sainyor sastrd f 



®r fit^t 3t)nen^~=^ fcl)r* gut^ Va muy bien^'^. j^uy^ bien^, 

Are sitst e-nen sdre gooty Vah mwy hyen ; mivy hyerij 

ti?at)rlid)^ 5^ro(^tig'' — 5^t(^t^^ ciertamente^. Nada^ pue- 

vdhr-lish. ProQslitizJi — nix tlie-ertamentd. Nali-dali pwd^ 

!onntc^° Bcjjer^ ft^en^\ da*^ ir^ mejor*^. 

koentd hesser sitsen. dah eer mdhor. 



SBa^Mft^ bcr^ ^rct^^ ? ^A como le vende U. ? 
Vds ist der prise f ^ Ah komo Id vendd oosted f 

er^Bttracjt^nur^bretje^tt^^^otfar^^ Solamente'' trace* pesos*. 

Are hetregt noor drltsdne dollars. Sol-ah-mentd trd-thd pd-sos. 

3:)a^^ tfl^ O^axif Bttl{(^^ Es^'^ muy^ de barato*. 

Das ist gants hillizh. Es mwy dd harahto, 

3(^^ i)er!aufc= aUt^ meine* ^leiber^ Vendo^- ^ todos^ mis* vestidos^ 
hh /erkow/d alld mind kll-dcr Vendo iodos mis vestedos 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 279 

Oh*, lion", point' du' tout*. II' 0^ not'' at' all'; it* 
Oy noiKj, pwaw)i(j d\xQi too. 11 

a" trop* d'ampleur^.s Cela^° is^ quite'' too^ large'' — ^it*° 
ali tro cV amj-^^locr. S'lah 



ne me va pas"~". will" never" do". 

null muh vah pah. 

En voici*'^ un autre' Here* is" another'^ 

Ang vwawsT/ ung-n-otr 



plus 6troit^, essayezMo". smaller* — try* this^ 

plue-z-etrwaWf essay -a -Id. 

IV va^ t mieux^ II sicd i\ nier- That* is" better' — very* fine* 
11 vah mi/OQ. 11 syd'd-ah mer- 

veillc'*-". u Qu'7en"'«penscz'°- fit^. What^ do^ you^ think*® 
'vCdi/uh. K' an(j paiujsd- 

vous", monsieur le tailleur'' ? of** it*", tailor*' ? 
TOO, inu>ii/OQ luh (dl-yocr ? 

II sied i\ merveille'"' — ^ mer- Very* fine" fit'. Very* fine*, 
ll syd ah mervCdyuh — ah mer- 

• > /• * ; > / 

vielle*'', en verite^. C'est un indeed.^ Admirable'' fit*. 
vdlyuh, ang veretd. jS'd-t-iuig 



chcf-d'ocuvrc,v — on ne^ saurait*° Nothing** could*" sit** better**. 
shf/'-d'ocvr — oiig nidi sO-rd 

rien^ vous fuire de mieux'***". 
ryavjj voo fare duh myoc. 

Quel* en esf^ le' prix*? What* is" the* price*? 

Kel ang d luh pree ? 

Ce' n'est" que' treize* piastres*. It* is" only' thirteen* dollars*. 
Sidi 11 d kidi trdze pe-astr. 

C'*cst" bien h bon marehe^. That* is" quite' choap*. 
>S"rt hyaixg ah hong marshd. 

Jc* vends" tons' mcs* habits* I* sell" all' my* clothes* 
Zhuh vang too md-z-abe - z- 



280 aERMAN. SPANISH. 

Intlig^ T)k&'^ ift^ ber^ baratismos^. Aqui^ csta* 

hillig. Dees ist der hardtismos. Ak-ke estah 

ti?oI)Ifeih^° Saben^^ la^ tienda^^ baratisima^'*. 

vdle-Jl'ld laden. lah ti/enda hardtUemah. 

^m^ ift^ ba^^ ©elb^^ — tc^* Aqui^ esta*" su^ dinero*. 

Ileer ist das geld — ish Ak-ke estah soo de-nd-ro, 

benfe^ es^^ ift^ r{d)ttg^» Amiparecer^'''es'''^equitativo^, 

denkd dse ist rlsh-tlzh. Ah me pdrdther es dkitahievo. 

®anj*rt(^t{c5^,nte{n^err^;foirten* Si^'^ senor^ Cuando* neoe- 

Gants rish-tizh, minejier; solten JSe, sdinyor. Quando nd-tho' 

(Sie^ irgcnb'' Stlt»a^^ me^r^ gu*° sitaiV*^ alguna'' cosa% 

see eer-kend etvahs mdre tsoo setdrah dlgoonah kobahy 



meinem ®efd)aft"*^li Belangenb, hagame el favor de darme 
mi-nem gd-she/t hd-long-endj hdgdmd el fahvor da ddrmd 



QeBraud)en^ fo laffen ®ie e0,un^ la preferencia.^^-is 

gdhivwcnen, so Idsen see dse oons lah pre/erenthedh. 
ii?i[fen*^^~^^ vissen. 

3c^^ lx»erbe'' e^* i\)\xxi^, mein^err*^ Lo* hare^-^, senor». 

Ish verdd dse toon, mine her. Loh dh-rd, sain-yor, 

^^xi^Xl^ 3}Zorgen^ Buen^ dia^. 

Gooten morken. Bwen de-ah. 

^ahm^ (2ie^ 33etn!Ie{bcr^ ? i Tiene^ U.^ pantalones* ? 

Hahen see hine-kli-der f Tyd-nd U. pdntdlo-nes f 

3ct, {(^^ t)aBe'^ S5etn!Iciber* Tengo*'^ pantalones^de* todas* 

Yah, ish hah-hd hme-kli-der Tengo pdntdlo-nes dd todas 

ijon'* jeber' 5lrt® unb'' ©iite^ calidades^ j^de todos gencros^ 

f'lin ydder drt oond gnetd. kaledades e dd todos hend-ros, 

2Ba^* forbern'' (Ste^ fiir^ biefc^® ^Cuanto* qaiere*^'* U.^ por* 
Vdhs furdern see fixer deeses Qudnto ke-erd U. par 
^aav"^^ pahr ^ este'^par^? estapdhrf 

(SieBcn* !Dol'arg^ Siete^ pesos^. 

Seeben dollurs. Se-dtd pd-sds. 



rRENcn. 



ENGLTSn. 



281 



ii bon marclio". C'^est^ 
ah bong marshd. S'd 



le^ magasin" au bon iiiaRhe^". 
luh majCtzany o h6n(j marshd. 

Vous voici^'2 r^argont* — 
Voo vwaics)/ l-arzlion<j — 

C'^ est* just'' — n'est ce pas?w 
S'd zhucsf — ii'd sulipali? 

O'estbien'*'^, monsieur^ Quand* 
Sd hyanQj mus?/0Q. Kamj 

vous' ddsircrez" quclquc^ 
voo dd-serd-rd kdk 

chose^ de^° notre** resort", 
slioz duh ndtr rcsoVy 



veiicz nous voir,"~^''x 
vend noo vicaivr. 



cLeap^. This^ is= 

the^ cJieap^^ store^^. 
Here* is*^ the* moneys 



I^ thiuk« that" is« right®. 



All* rights, sir^. Whea^ 



you' want^ any^ things 



morc^ iD*° my" line**, 



give" us" a*' call**. 



Je n'y manquenii i)as, M'' ' I* sLall^ do' so"*, sir*. 
Zhuh 71 d man<j-ker'l pally M. 

Bonjour°'7. Good^ morning''. 

Bomj-zJwor. 

Avez*-vous* des' pan talons* ? Have* you'' any' pantaloons*? 
Avd - voo dd pang-ialon(j ? 

Te* ticns'' toates' sortes" de* I* have'' pantaloons' of* all 
Zhxdi tyang toot sort duh 

pantidons', et'' d'unc grande kinds" and'' descriptions^ 
paii(/-ta-/ong, d d'loig gfo.^g 
varietd^. vare-etd. 



Que* voulcz-vous''"^ de' cettc^ What* do** you' ask* for* this" 
Kd voold- voo ^uh set pair^ ? 

paire'' ? pur f 

Sop*,* piastr33«. Seven* dollars'. 

^<Z pc-dstr 

24* 



282 GERMAN. SPANISH. 

T)a^^ ift^ ^u^ ijieK Es^'^ demasiado^'*. 

Das ist tsoo feel. Es dd-mahs-e-ddo, 

91ic6t\ mnn^ ©ie^ bie^ ©iite^ No*, S'-, si^ se^ ha de juzgar* 

Nicht, veil see dee cfxxQta No^ Sr.^ si sd ah da hooth-gar 

be^''-^ 3:u(^eg9 uxiV^ ben*^ der la* calidad^ y*° de la" 

ies tooohes oond den da lah kdl-e-dad e da lah 



(Sc&nitt^ in 33etrad)t yt1:^tn\ hechura^ de*^ este^ pano^ 

schnit in hd-traCBi tse-en. d-choo-rah dd estd j^dni/o. 

, " . 

^a'Ben*'^ ©ie^ SBeften* gu^ ijer* ^Tiene U.*"^ chalecos* que 

Halihen see vesten tsoo fer- Tydnd U. chaldkoae kd 
faufen^ ? howfen ? vender*' ^ ? vender ? 

I * ■ ^ 

SaSinein^err^ @oIIMd)'*3^tten° Si*, senor*'. ^Le ensenare^"* 

Yahj mine her, sol ish e-nen JSe, sainyor. La ensd-nydrd 



eine" Sltla^wefle^'^jetgen*? d U.^ un'^ chaleco^ de raso«? 

i-na Atlds-vestd tsi-ken? ah JJ.oon chald-koddrah-sof 

5f?e{n\ {6)"^ ttJiinfc^e^'* etne* "o^in^ No*, prefereria^* uno* 

.JSfiney ish vuenshd i-nd fun No, prdfer-er-e-ah oond 



^afimir^ S^* f^n^t axi^'^ ju* de casimiro'^. Empesa*"^ 4* 
kasl-meer. Ase fengt dn tsoo dd kds^-me-ro. Emjpes-ah ah 



regnen* ; id)'' t>en!e'' i^ ge{)e Hover*, y voy'*-*° d casa". 
rdzhnen ; ish denkd ish gd-d lyover, e voy ah kah-soTi. 



nac^ Jpaufe^~"» Segen*^©iemtr*^ Enfardelad** ** estos" panta- 

'^ach. how-za. Lazhen see meer Enfahr-dd-lad estos panta- 

[tm^^ 33ein!leiber*^ unb*^ biefe^** lones*^ y*^ este" clialeco*^. 

yd-nd hine-kli-der oond deesd Jo-nes e estd chald-ko. 

2Befte*9 sufammen**» ^ter=° ifl=* Aquino esta"* una^^ camisa^s. 

vestd tsoosammen. Heer ist Ah-ke estali oonah kam-e-sah 

ein^^^cmb^ — td)'^* gebenfe" z^"^^ Quiero'^'^coinprarla^'^stam. 

%ne hemd — ish gd-denkd dse Ke-ero komprahr-lah tarn* 



ayx^l)^"^ gu faiifen^"^-^^ — legen^* bien^. Enfardeladla^^-^^ con^ 
ow ih tyjo kowfen — IdzJwn hyen. Enfahrdaldd-lah kon 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 283 

r/i est" trop^*. That^ is* too' much*. 

S'd tro. 



Non% si vous cxaniinez'*"* bicn Not* when' you^ consider* 
Noncjj se voo-z-ezdmind h^/aiuj 

.a^ qualit6'' du^'^ drap°, thc^ quality" of^ thc^ cloth^, 

lah kdle-td d\XQ drahf 

ct^o la" fagon". and^^ the" maJie" of ^ theaa**. 

a lah fasong. 

Avez-vous*~' de3 gilcts* il* Do* you'' kecp^ vests* to* sell®? 

Avy - voo dd zhild-z-ah 
vendre^? vanjdr f 

Oui*; monsieur.^ Yous^ montro- Yes*, sir^. Shall^ I* show* 
Wcj Tmiai/OQ. Voo moiujtrd- 

rai'^-je* un'' gilet' de satiu^ ? you° a^ satin^ vest^ ? 
rd-zhuh ung zhild dd sdtdng ? 



Non*, j'^en prefercrais^** un* No*; P would^ like* a* 
J^ongj zIC ang prd-fererais ung 



de casiniir". II* commence*^ ill* cassimere^. It* is'' beginning* 
dd kazemeer. 11 kom-dngs ah 

pleuvoir* — jc^ vais^,z je" to* rain* — 1° think'' P will^ 
ploQ-vwaior — zhuh vd, zhuh 



pense'',rctourncr*° chcz moi**. return*" home**. Put** me*^ 
pangSy rdtoornd chd mwaw. 

Empaquetez*^'**-moi^^ ces** paa- up** those** pantaloons*® and'' 
Fmxpdkttd mioaw sd pan^' 

talons*' et*7ce*8gilet*9. Yoici«*<* that*» Ycst*^. Here^" is=* a» 
tdlong d suh zhild. Vwatc^r/ 

une*^ chcmise^^ Jc^o vais^zje^ shirt^^. P* think" P" will*' 
ue/t ahmis. Zliuh va, zhuh 

pcnse'^y«'achcter*egalcmcnt^°. purchasers that*^ also='°. Put^ 
jjuugs, V aslda agabnang. 
Mettez'« la^ Mct-d-lah 



284 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



<Sie e^^^ s^'* ^^"^^^ librige-n^^ 
see ase tsoo dem uehri(/en. 

3a,* t>a^^ ijt^ tin' fe^r^ fc{)one^^ 
J^a/i, das ist ine sdre shoenes 
^tnio"^* hemd. 

Vdhs ist der preis deesen 
^aliJMnber^? hdls-hinder ? 

!Der* ift^ fe^r^ ntebrig*— 
Der ist sdre ne-drizh — 

noor f&woelf shilingd. 

©el)r*®ut^; legcn^*^ ©ie MefetBe* 
sdre goot ; Idzhen see dee-selbd 

^soo dem uebrizhen. 



los^^ otros articulos^^. 
Ids o-tros ahrtikoolos. 

Si*, es='^ una* camisa'^ he? 

/Se, es oona kdm-e-sa er 

mosisima^. mosis-e-mah. 



Cuanto* pide U.^^~* por' esta* 
Qudnto pedd U. par estah 
corbata'' ? korhatah f 



Es*'^ muy' de barato*. 
Es mioy dd hdrdto. 

Solamente' doce° chelines^. 
Soldmentd dothd chel-e-nes. 

Bien*'^, bien*'", enfardelad'-*- 
Bi/erij hyeuy enfahr-dd-lad' 



la* con^ los''' otros articulos^. 
la hon Ids o-iros artikoolos. 



3»tt cincn <Sd)u^tat)cn. 

3d)* bcn!e= \6)" n^itt^ unten« 
Ish denied isli vil oonten 



Con un Zapatero. 

Me propongo*'2s de ir^ d la 
3Ia propdngo dd eer ah lah 



in bic ©tabf o^ti)tn^, itnb^ ntir*° 
ill dee stdt gd-en, oond meer 

eiii" ^aar*2 ©tiefel**'" faufen^. 
Ine pahr steefel howfen. 

SBotTen*^ ©ie^^ mid)*^ BegTciten*''? 
Vdllen see mish hegli-fen f 

^JJtit* 55crgnugen^me{n^ ^^reunt)*. 
Mlt vcrg-nuQzhcnj Tiiein froind. 

2I?crben*njir^9c^ett=^ ober^fa^ren'? 
Verden veergd-en oderfdh-ren ? 



ciudad^ baja^, y^ de comprar^ 
the-oodadhdhdj e ddJwmprdhr 

un** par*2 de*^ betas**. 
oon pdJir dd holds. 



^Quiere*^U.*° venir*''conmigo''^? 
Ke-erd U. vd-neer kdn-me-go9 

Con* gusto'', amigo* mio^. 
Kdn goostOj dmego me-o 



I Iremos a pie*"^, (5* en coche*? 
Erdmos ah pe-dj 6 en kochd? 



FRENCn. ENGLISH. 285 



avec** \w^ autres articles^". it^'^ up^ with^* the" rcst^^. 
dvek la 'Z- O-trc - zartUd. 

Oui*, c'^ est^ une* trtss-^ jolic*' Yes^, tliat^ is^ a* very' fine* 
We, s'dte uc/t trCi zhbly shirf. 
chemise'', shmis. 

Quel^ est' Ic^ prix* de* ecttc'' What* is" tlie^ price* of this* 
Kd d lah ])i-ee duh set cravat' ? 

cravate^ ? krdvdt ? 

Elle* esf" ii" tr6s3 bon march d* — That* is" very^ cheap* — 
El d ah trd hong mdrshd — 



Douze^ chelins^, pas d'avantage*. only* twelve'' shillings'^. 
Dooz sMlang pah cVdvdnytazh. 

Fort* bien^, envelloppez'''Ma* Very* well", put' that* 
Ihr hi/aiiQy ang-vel-dvpa-Iah 

avec° r^ achat*. up* with^ the'' rest*. 

dvek VdsJidh. 



Magasin d Boites. In a Shoe-store. 



Je suis d'avis de descendre^z® I* think" P will* go* down" 
Zliuh sice d'ave duh ddsdngdr 

en ville'^ pour m'*° acheter^ town'', and^ buy' mo*° a" 

2ing vil jpoor m'ashtd 

une" paire" de*^ bottes**. Vo'u- pair*" oi^ boots* 
lien par duh hot. Voo- 

lez*'-vous*^ m' ** accompagner*'' ? Will**you*° accompany *7 me** ? 
Id - voo m' uk-omj)un-j/d ? 

Avec* plaisii-", mou^ ami*. With* pleasure", my' friend*. 

AJivek pWizcery mong-n-dmL 

lrouF-nousapicd*~3ou*prendrous- Shall we" walk^, or* ride*? 
Irong-noo ah pyd oo prangdrong- 
nousv;iture'? noovwawtuerf 



286 GERMAN. SPANISH. 



£)*, laffen (Sie^ und'^ get)cn* ; Vamos, pucs, dpie^-*. Porque 

Of lasen see oons r/d-en; VdmoSjinodse^ahped. Porkd 

e§* ifl^ nnx' ein^ (Sc^ritt^ 6i^ no''hay5'''que''un^paso9hasta*'* 

dse ist noor ine slirit his no i kd oon j[)dhs6 dstdh 

5U*° einem" (Sd)uI)Iabctt^*^» la" (primera) zapateria^^, 13^ 

tsoo i-nem shoo-lahden. luh (pre-mdrah) ihapdtere-ah. 

(Se^r* m^^, 'tanxi^, tt)oIIen^ n?ir* Muy* bien'', vamos*~^. 

Sdre voUj daily vollen veer Mwy hyeuy vdhmos. 
^t^tn^^ ga-en. 

23ellauftg Bemerft*"^, BcoBai^* ^Aproposito^-^, ha* visto^U.* 

JBi-loifizJi bd-merktf bd-ohdCR- Ah pro-poze-to ah veesto U. 

ititXi^^ ©ie^ geflern^ SlBenb" su'' primo^ aP'^^ teatro" 

tUen see gestern abend soo pre-mo al td-atro 



ST)ren'' 33etter« im^'^'' Sweater"? ayer por la sera^^3?t 

e-ren fetter im td-ah-ter ? ahyer por lah sdrdh ? 

!Reirt^ 1(^2 'beoBac^tcte^ x^:)n ntc^t*, No*, no* le he^ visto — 

Nine J ish bd-obacutetd een nicht^ No, no la d veesto — 

ttteitte^®cban!en^tt>aren''3U^fef)r^ Mi^ espiritu^ era^ captivado^° 

mi-nd gd-ddnken vdr-en tsoo sdre Me espe-reioo d-rah kaptevddo 

ntit*' bem^- (Bpkle^ Befi^afti^t'^ por" la^^ pieza*^. 

mit dem spe-ld bd-shiftigt. por la pidtha, 

(Sg* Ujar^ ein' fel)r* fd)oneg* Era^'^ una^ pieza® muy* 

Ase vdr ine sdre shoenes A-rah oonah pe-d-thah mwy 

©tiiii^; ttjurbe a'6er''t)Urc^*°t)en" agradable^; pero^ interompi- 

siuek J voordd dhber doorsh den dgrddahble ; pdro Inier-ompe* 

UttruT)eflifter" im**'" ^arterre*° da*" demasiado^, por" este*^ 

oon-roo-d-stifter im parter-rd da ddmahseddoj por estd 

gu^ oft^ unterBroc^en^^ bribon*^ del"'*^ patio*^. 

tsoo oft oonter-brooken. bre-bon del pahte-o. 

3aS cr^ tvar' ein* fel)r^ !oniifci)er'' Si*, era'^^ ^n* bufonillo^-^. 

Yahj are vdr ine sdre komisher Se, d-rah oon buf-o-nilyo. 
^amerat)''* kahm-rdd. 



rRENCTT. 



E^QLISn. 



287 



Marcbons^'*, il* n'y^ 0*, Ict^ us" walk* ; it* 

Marshon(/j il nc 

a" qu'7 un» pas^ d'ici, a^° un" is« but^ a^ step' 
all k'un<j pah d'ui/, ah ung 



magasinP h, Soulier^''. 
magazang ah soolytr. 



to*° a" sboe"-sbop". 



I* % I ' \ 

Cbbicn*''',doiic'',allonsapied*~^ Very* welP, tben', we* will* 

£h bj/ang, dongkj allong-z-ah pyd. go". 



A* propos''^, avcz*-vous' ym^ 
Ah propo - z - avd-voo v\iQ 

hicr*^ soir", votre'' cousin^ 
1/er swaicVj votr Icoozang 

auS'^o tbdatre"? 
o td-ah'tr ? 

Non*, je' ne* I'y ai^ point* vn. 
Mongj zhuh null Ve a 2)w<jng vuQ. 

Men* esprit^ ^tait' trop^- ^ 
Mong-n-espre -t-ety tro 

occup(!3*''de"Ia*'^ representation". 
oh\3Apd duh lah rep7'dsentdse-ong. 

C'^ dtait'-^ une^* tr6s* belle* 
S'cfy - t-ueii trd hcl 

pi^ce" ; mais'' trop** souvent^ 
l^c-cs f 7nd tro soo-vang-t' 

interrompuc^'^ par" ce** 
angter-ompuQ par siih 

plaisant" du***" parterre '*'. 
pld-sang duQ pdrier. 

Oui*, il^ C'tait' trcs* comiquc". 
We, il ctd trd kom-ik. 



By* the" way', did* you' 
observe'' your'' cousin^ at^ 



tbe^° theatre" last" evening" f 



No*; P did' not* — my* 



mind" was'' too^ much^ 



engrossed**^ with" the" play' 
It* was" a' very* fine* 
play" ; but' too^ frequently* 
interrupted*^ by" that*^ 



rogue*' in** the** pit*". 



Ves*, he' was' a* very* comi- 
cal" fellow^. 



288 



GERMAN. 



SPANTSH. 



(Ban^' fo^; akr* ^^ier'^ ftnb* mir' 
Gants so j dber heer sind veer 

hime slioo-ldden. Lassen 

©ic ung^° eitttreten"* 
see oons ine-treten. 

©oU^ {(^'^ @ie* mit^ einem" 
^Sb?^ isA see mii i-nem 

^aax'^ ©(^itl^e^ ijerfe^en^ ? 
^>pdhr shood versd-en? 

5^eitt^ ttiein ^err^ ; i(^^ ijerlattgc* 
NinCy mine her ; ish ferldng-d 

S3el(^c^ ^Irt^ ijon^ ©ttefeln* 
Velchd art fun ste-feln 

tse-en see for? fun kalhps- 



Es verdad^'^.u Pero* aqui* 
Es verdad. Pdro dke 

estamos''' * delantc^ de la^ 
esidmos dd-lantd dd lah 

zapateria''' ^ Entremos^" 
thapaterea. Entrd-mos 

I Quiere U.*~* v un^ par^ de* 
Ke-erd U. con par dd 

zapatos^ ? 
thdpdtos 

No*, seiior-; quiero^'* botas*. 
iVb, saiuT/or ; ke-cro hotas, 

I Que* genero^ de^ botas* 
Kd Jiendro dd hotas. 

le agradece a U. mas*"~''?w 
Id agrdhddthd ah U. mas? 



howtj fun grosem kdlhpsfel, 

ot)er*°ijon ©afpan"? 3d)^ 
oder fun sdfe-dn ? Ish 

l}Cilt^^ cittigc** fe~^r*^ fd)one*^ 
hahbd i-nizha sdre shoend 

©dfftan*7 @ttefeP^ mW^ i(^^ 
safe-dn stee-fel, velchd ish 

hillig verkowfen vill. 

Velchd art kalhpsldder hahhen 
(Sie^? see? 

Ish hahbd frantsoesichesj 



El piel becerillo^, de becerra^, 
El pi/el betherilyO, ddbetherahy 

6^' de cordoban" ? Tengo^-^^ 
6 dd kordoban? Tengo 

botas*^ de*'' cordoban*'' muy** 
hotas da kordoban mwy 

fino*8, que*" vendr^o-^^ ^ jj^ 
fe-nOj kd vendrd ah U. 



muy de barato*^. 
mwy dd harato. 



^Que*genero'' de^cuerodeterne- 
Ka hendro dd kwdro dd ternd' 
ro* tiene^ U . ^? rotydndU. 

Tengo* cuero'' de ternero*, 
Tengo kwdro dd terndro^ 



I 



FRENCn. 



ENGLISH. 



289 



C'est vraii-2.aa Enrin,bb 



fS'd vrd. 



An <j -fang J 



nous voilii""* au^'^ maijasiu* 
noo vwawlah o ma<jazan(j 

h, hottest Entrons*-**. 
all hot. Amjtrong. 



Vous* offrirai-je*~^ une'' 
voo-z - offre-ru-zh - uen 

paire^ de® soulicrs^ ? 
par dull sool-^cr ? 

Non^, monsieur", jc^ ddsirerais* 
Nonf/j mufi7/oe, zhuli ddzererd 
des bottes*. dd hut. 

Quelle^ sorto^ de^ bottos* 
Kel sort dd hot 



pr6fercz'''''-rous'' — en vcau^, 
irrd/drd - voo — ang vOy 



Quite^ so'' ; but^ here' we* 

are*, at^ the® shoe^-store". 
Lets us^° enter". 

Shall* I'' accommodate' you' 
with'^ a® pair'' of ^ shoes^ ? 

No*, sir"; P want* boots*. 

What* kind- of ^^ boots* 
do' you® prefer'' — calfskin*, 



en vioux veau", ou 



1 10 



10 



ang vi/om vOy 



00 



en maroquin"? j'*^ ai" de** 
aiKj marokang ? zh!d duh 



tr6s" belles*® bottcs*^ en maro- 
trd hcl hot-s - ang mar-o- 



quin*7, que*o je^o puis^* offrir*^ 
liang^ kuh zhuli pice-z-of-reer 



ho bon marche*^. 
ah hong marshd. 



Quelle* esp6ce'' de^ veau* avez*- 
Kcl cs2)ds duh vo avy- 
vous®? voo? 



J'* ai' des cuirs de vcaux* de 
Zh^d dd kwcer duh vo duh 



kipskin^, or 



morocco** ? I*^ have** 

some** very*' fine*® morocco*' 

boots*^, >hat*8 po will^* 

sell^a cheap23. 

What* kind" of * calfskin* have* 
you®? 

I* have'' French' calfskin*, 



'ZO 



290 GERMAN. SPANISE. 

^I)ilat)elp^ier^, unb'' orbindrc^'' frances^, de Filadelfia^, y« 
Filadeljiery oond ordinares frantheSj dd FiladelfcaJij i 



.^atb^Teber, (3(^'^aBc)eincnfet)r^ de algunos ordinarios^. (Ad©. 
kdlhddder. (Ish hahbdj men sdre da dlgunos ordendreos. (Ahdor- 

fc^onen^ Slrtifcl^'' t)on" franjoP* mas) otros generos*° de*^ 
shoenen drtlkel fun /rantsoesi- mahs) otros hendros dd 

fd)em^^atB^Ieber^^ ©oti** ic^** ternero*^ frances^, muy^ boni- 
sJiem halbsldder. Sol ish terndro franthes mwy hone" 



S^^nen^'' tueT(^e^'« Scigcn"^? tos^. ^Quiere U. verlos^*-"' 

e - xien velches tsi-zhen ? tos. Ke-era U. verlos f 



SKenn* e^ ^^mxi^ S^f^^ig tft^^ Con mucho gusto^~^ 

Verii dse e-nen ga-fellig ist, Kon moocJio goosto. 

^ier^ f!ttt)3 pe^ 3(^* benfe' fie^ Aqui* estan^^. Creo** que 

Heer sind see. Ish denkd see Ah-he estan. Krd-o kd 



iuerbcn'^ ^^mn^ genau^" ))a(fen^ le calzan muy bien.x 
verdrn e-nen gd-now pdssen. Id kalihan mwy hyen. 



<Sie^ fe^en^ fel)r^ ^jtumj)* itnb^ Me parecen^'^y niuy^ groceros* 
See sd-en sdre ploomp oond Md pdrdthen mwy grotheros 
groj^ O.Xi^^* gross ows. y^ anchos^. e dnchos. 



25telfei(^t* mogen^'* 'Bk^ Quiza* le gustarian'*"* mucho 

Fe-licht moezhen see Ketliah Id goostdreahn moocho 

am liebften'' (Safftan^*®tiefel» mas^z botas de maroquR 

ahm leebsten Safyan-ste-fel. mdsj hotas dd maro-ke. 

3c^^ JuitI" tttir efntge* (Saffian^* Quiero*'^ ver^-* algunas^ de 

Ish vil meer i-nizha Safyan- Ke-ero ver algunahs dd 

Stiefel Befe^en^, tt>entt'' B'xt^ cr* maroqui^, gi'' U.* le gusta^. 

ste-fel bd-sd-en, ven see er- maroke se U. la goostah* 
lau'Ben^ lowben. 

^icr^ ifP etn^ fet)r* fd)oncs^ ^aax^, Aqui^ esta" un^ par" muy* fino*j| 

Heer ist ine sdre shoenes pahvy Ah-keesta oonpahrmwyfenoj 

tvel(l)eg''{d)*3()nen"untcr^'^bem*^ que'' puedo^'O vender^o d U." 

velcJies ish e-nen oonter dem kd jpwd-do vender ah U. 



FRENCH. ENGL'Sn. 291 

France", de Philadelphia**, et° Philadelphia^, and'' 
FranySj duh F'dadciJ)jahy a 

meme d'ordinaircs^. (J'ai) common.'' A very* 
mdme d'ordindr. ( Zh'u) 

untre8*-bcau°choix*°de"veaux" fine* article*" of" French" 
ling trd - ho shicaw duh vo 

do France". Yous^^ en** mon- calf *^ — shall" I" 
didi FraiKjs. Voo-z-aiuj monrj- 



lrerai*^'*"-jc*^ quelqucs-uLs** ? show*" you*'' some*® ? 
trerd - zhuh kdkd-z-un<j ? 



S'il vous plait^ •'.cc Ifi you" please.' 

S^ il voo pld. 

Les^voici*-'. Ellcs® vous° vont^*^ Here* they^ are^. I* tLink^ 
LdvwawsT/. Ell voo vomj 



je* pense-^, a morvcilie^°. they° wilP fit* you^ exactly*^ 

zhuh j>an(js ah mervdljjuh. 

EUcs* ont^' trop^ ordinaircs'* et' They* look' vcry^ coarse"* and* 
El-z - ojuj trd ordindr d large^. 

trop grandest, tro grdng. 

Vous'^enprefereriez^'^jpeut-etre*, Perhaps* you*" would^ like* 
Voo-z-a ng prdfdreri/dj poe-t-dtrf 

en maroquin*. morocco' better®* 

a7ig warokdng. 



Montrcz m'en de dd maroquin®, I* will'' look' at* some* 
Mjiujtrd m'ang duh mawkang^ 



je vous prie, (s''' il vous* plait^.) morocco®, if' you* please'*. 
zhuh voo pre, (s'il voo pld.) 



En voici' ' uno' fort* belle* Here* is'' a' very* fine* pair", 
Aug vicaicsi/ ucn for hcl 

pairc;®, que^ jc* puis* vous** that^ I* can* sell*" you** 

par, hd zIrjJi pui vy) 



295 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



crjlen** ^vet^^^ ijerfaufen^" tann^* menos^ de" su precio^' corri- 
Sr-sten prise verkoiv/en kan. menos da soo prdthed korry- 

e^^^ pnb*7 |jrac^ttge^«©tiefern^9» entei*.Son^6,i7botasi8escelentes^8. 
Ase sind preshtizhd ste-fehi. entd. Son holds jLsthelentes. 



©ittbie^Hefd^abigt^? 
Sind ase hd-zhedigt ? 



I Son*'^ averiadas^ ? 
Son dveriadas ? 



£)*, min^, \6^^ faufte'* pe^ auf bem^ 0^ no^, senor, las^ he compra- 
0, nine J ish howftaseeowfdem Oj no, sainyor^ las d kompro' 



owk-fse-on; oond kan see 

hillizli o-nd ferloost 

ferhotofen. 

Vahs ist der prise f 
Noor tswantsig shillingd. 



do''* a^ la almoneda''; y* 
do all lah almond-dah; e 



puedo^ venderlas^*^ muy de 
pwd-do venderlas mioy da 



barato" sin" perdida^*. 
harahto sin perde-da. 

> * > 

I A cuanto las vende U. ? 

Ah quanto las vendd U. f 

Solameute* veinte^ chelines^. 
Soldmentd vd-intd clid-le-nes. 



£)a^* ift^ gttjei^ unb^ ein^ ^alBen'' Es decir*'", dos^ pesos* y» 
Das ist tswi oond Ine halhen Es ddtlieer^ dos pd-S03 i 



X)oUax^K dollars. 

3a*, mcin ^err^ 
Yahf mine her. 

Das ist sdre hillizh. 

^ter* ift« bag7 ©elb^. 
Heer •ist das geld. 

©uten^ 2:avj«, mein ^evr^ 
Gooten tag mvne her. 



medio'', madeo. 

Si*, senor''. 
Se sainyor. 



Es*'^ muy de barato''*. 
Us mwy dd bardto. 

Aqui^ esta^ su'' dinero*. 
Ah-ke estah soo denaro, 

Buen* dia'^, senor". 
Bwen deahy sainyor. 



PRENCn. 



ENGLISH. 



293 



Icss*^ than" prime" cost^^. 



veudre^" h bas prix.ee 
vamjdr ah hah jjre. 

Ce*" sonti^d'excellcntes" bottes.*^ They»«are*7excclleut*8 boots**. 
Suh song d/ezeldiujt hot. 



Sont* dies" avarices" ? 
Song-i-el -z- dvcired ? 



Are* they" damaged^ ? 



Oh*, non», je^ les* ai achet6es^ii« 0*, no"; P bought* them'^ at" 
Oj naiif/j zhuh Id-z-d ashtd ah 

un encan^; et^ jc^ puis*" Ics*^ auction''; and^ can'' afford*° 
wij anijkang ; a zhuh j^we id 



veudre**'*'' a bon march6", 
vangdr ah hov.g marshdy 

sans*^ y perdre*". 
sang-z-e jjerdr. 

Quel* en*'^ est" le^ prix* ? 
Kel ang d lull pree ? 

Sculement* vingt'' chelins^ 
Soalmang vang sheldng. 

C'cst*'^ deux^ piastres'* et^ 
JS'd doQ pyastr d 
demi^. demy. 

Oui*, monsieur". 
Wcy musi/OQ. 



C'est*'" h. tr^s^ bon marche*. 
S'a-t - ah trd hong mdrshd. 



En voici^'' rargent"'^ 
Ang vwawsy larzhang. 

Bonjour^ " monsieur^. 
Bong-zliocrTj musyo2. 



to** sell*" them*3 cheap**, 

without** loosing*^. 

What* is" the' price* of* them^? 
Only* twenty" shillings'. 



That* is" two' dollars* and* a* 
half7. 



Yes*, sir*. 

That* is" very' aheap*. 

Here* is'' the'' money*. 
Good* day", sir'. 



26* 



294 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



3n cincm ® crour^tabc n. 



Con un Especiero. 



^OibtxO ^xt^ ^artoffettt* gu^ loer* i Tiene* U.^ patatas* que' ven- 

Hahhen see hartuft^n tsoo /er- Te-dnd U. pdtdtas kd veil" 
!aufen^? koiv/en. der^? de?^ ^ 

(Bo »{cl @ie moden, mein ^crr'? Cuantas quiere U.aa^ senor*. 

So feel see vollen^ 'niine her. Qudntds ke-erd U.y sainyor. 

SBaS^ prbern^'* ©te^ bafiir^'^? ^Cuanto*quiere2''»U.^por5el]as^? 

Vas furdern see dah-fMQr ? Quanta ke-erd U. por ell as ? 



FxxQnftsizh tsents das booshel. 

jDczs is^ tsoo feel. 

©te* fonnen^ fie^ in' ivgcnt)'* 
JSee koejien see in eerkend 

cittern attbern'' ©eti^ur^Iabett^ 
l-nem andern gd-vuertsldden 



Cincuenta^ centavos* la' 
Theen-thoo-entah thentdvos lah 
fanega''. fandgah. 

Es*''^ demasiado^^ 
Es ddmahseahdo. 

No^ puede^ U.* comprarlas^ 
iVo pwd-dd U. komprdrlds 



i' ninguna^'7 
en ningoonah espd-the-erea 



en^ ninguna"" especeria^, 



ni^t^ Uttter^ 75"(Iettt^^^fattfett^ menos^ de*° 75" centavos^^. 
nisht oonter 75 tsents kowfen. mends da 75 thentdvos. 

(^\xi^, ©ie^ f ottttett^ mtr^ bur(^ bett' Bien*. Puede^ U.^ enviarme^-* 
Gootj see koQnen meer doorsh den By en. Pwa-da U. envedrme 

^rtaBett"eittett^"33uf(^eI"6r{ttgctt^'^ una^^ fanega" por su mozo^ 
hnahhen i-nen booshel hringen oona fandga por soo motko 



faffett*, iijetttt"^ eg S^nett^^ Belief t^\ 
Idssen, oen dse e-nen hd-leeht. 

2Cie« t^eueri« ifl^^ ber ^afe^^? 
Vce toier ist der /caesa ? 

3et)tt^ Gcnt^^ 
Tsdne tsents. 



se ke-erd. 

I Cuanto" vale^^ el queso*'' ? 
Qudnto vahld el kdso ? 

Diez* centavos^. 
De-aith thentah-vos. 



^eben ©ie mir*~^ fed)^* ^futtb' Dame*~^ seis* libras' de* man- 

Gd-hen see meer sex p/oond Dah-md sd-is lehrds da mart' 

?Butter^; gnjel^ !Du^ettb^ Sier*®-"; teca^, dos^ docenass de*" hue- 

hutter iswl doot-s^^id i-yer^ tdkahj dos dothdnas da Wfir 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 295 



^picerie At a Grocery, 



Avez^-vous-clcs^poninioscleterre* Ilavc'^ you'' any^ potatoes* to* 
Avd - voo dd ])om duh ter sell" ? 
h? vendre^ ? ah vaiujdr f 



Autaiit qu'il vous plaira, M.* Any* quantity '^ of ' them*, sU* 
0-tdng k*il voo pld- rally M. 

Combien les veudez-vous? WhatMo' you' ask* for^ them*? 

Komhi/ang Id vaiig-dd-voo f 

Cinquante' sous* Ic^ boisscau^. They* are^ fifty^ cents* per* 
SanyJcanfj soo luh hicawso. bushel". 

C* est= trop^* That^isnoo'high* (toom^ch). 

S'd iro. 

Vous* ne" sauricz^ les* aclieter^ You* cannot' buy' them* 
A^o mdi so-ryd Id-z-ashtd 

d'^ aucun^'^ dpicier* at* any^ other^ grocery" 

d'o-kuiKj - nc-pisyd 

i\ moinsfl de*" 75" sous*^. less^ than*° 75** cents*^. 
ah micawnrj duh 75 soo. 

Eh bien*, envoyez^-m'^ en, s'il*- Well*, you'' can' let* the* 
Eh hyancjy ang-voyd-m! ang^ sil 

vous*' plait**, un^o boisseau**, boy® bring'' me^ up^ a*<* 
voo jpld-t - ung hwawsOy 

par votre petit gar§on®.ff bushel**, if*'' you*' please**. 

par votr ptty garsong, 

Quel**est*"l8prix*«dufromage*''? "What** is** cheese''' worth**? 
Kel d luh pree d\jiQ fromazlL? 

Dix* sous^. Ten* cents^. 

y Dee soo, 

Donnez-moi*~' six* li\Tes* de® Let* me" iiave' six* pounds* of* 
Don-nd-mwaio see levr duh 

beurrc'', deux^ douzainos^ butter7,two^ dozen® of *° eggs**, 

fcoer, doQ doozdn 



296 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



jvLenJ" j)/oo)id shinkenj ine 
'pfoond sdltSj drl llhe 
i>r5(?, /eer 'pfoond ta, 

fxxcnf pfoond koffdy oond 

eine^ 3:ute^2 mtP ^feffer^^ 
in.a ^e^a mit jpfaffer, 

^eer ts^ herlishes shwind- 

fTetfdfs. 2Ba^^° ift" 
fllshe. Vas ist 

OA;^ tsents. 

Fas Jcostet deeser besen f 

JF'uen/ oond tsicantsig tsents. 

Hahhen see epfel? 

Nine, rnine lieVy veer Jidlten 
nte* )i?eld)e^ we velclid. 

SBotlen* (Sie^ ntir* cine® 3:ute'' 
Vollen see meer Ind tiQtd 

mit« ^Retfenpfcffer^ ge^en^''^? 
mi< Nelkenj)feffer gd-hen f 

mV' 35ergnitgcn^» 
M'i ^WgwjiQzhen. 



vos",cinco^2 libras^^de jamon", 
vos, tlilnko Itbrds dd hdmoUf 

y una^ libra^^ de*^ g^lis^ tres*^ 
e oonah llhrah da sal, ires 

libras^o de^^ pan^^, cuarto^^ 
lehrds dd pdn^ kioarto 

libras'^ de^^ t^^e^ cinco^^ libraa 
lebras dd ta^ thinko Uhras 

de2» cafe^S; y^o -^^bx ^qco^^ cc 
dd kofd', e oon poko 

de^^ pimienta^. Aqui^ esta^^ 
dd pime-entah. Ah-ke estah 

escelente-^ puerco^^. 
eselenta ^pwerko. 

, * » 

^ A como le vende U. ? 

Ah komo Id venda JJ. ? 

Ocbo* centavos^. 
bko thentdvos. 

I Cuanto^ vale^ este^ escoba* ? 
Quanto void esid eskohahf 

Veinte^ y cinco^ centavos". 
Vi/entd e thinko thentdvos, 

^Tiene*U.%lgunas^manzanas*? 
Tednd U. algoonas Tiidnihdndsf 

No*, senor^, ningunas'*''' tengo*. 
Ndj sainyory ningoonas lengo. 

Dame^-s TJ.^ 
Dd-md U, 

algunos*^^ clavos^. 
dlgoonos kldvos. 

Con* gusto". 
Ron goosto. 



rr.ENCH. ENGLISH. 297 

d'^^ooifi",cin:i^'-livrcs''^dcjam- five*" pounds*^ ham", one** 
d' ocf Siiny Uvr duh -Juim- 

bon",une*Mivre*«(]c*'scl'*',troi.s*3 pound'" of*^ salt*^, three** 
001 g J ue/i Uvr duh sel, trwaw 

livres''^ d^^^ pain^^, quatrc=' loaves'* of-^ bread^', four" 

levr duh pdiuj, kdtr 

livres^ de=* th^^o, cinq^? livres pounds''* of*" tea"", five*^ 
Uvr duh tdj sank levr 

dc28 caf6-9, et=^° un^* pcu^^ of«8 coffee^'; and^ a^* paper*" 

duh kuffdj a ung poQ 

de"^ poivre^*. Voici'^^^" of ^^ pepper^*. Ilcrc^* is^' 

duh 2) t^'o w vr. Vwa wsi/ 

d'^7excellcnt='^cochon^8(porc^°). somc^ exccUent^^ pork^^ 
d' exellang koshong (pork). 



Combien se veud-il r' SS What<o is4i ^j^gia pnce^ of •« 

Komhi/ang sd vang-d-il? \{}^ ? 

Huit* sous^ Eight* cents^ 

We soo. 

Quel* est'' le prix* de ce^ balai^ ? "What* is'' this^ broom^ worth* ? 
Kel a luh pree duh suh halld ? 

Vingt* cinq" sous^. Twenty*-five'' cents'. 

Vang sank soo. 

Avez*-vous'' des^ pommes* ? Have* you" any* apples* ? 

Avd - voo dd pbni ? 

Non*, M.", nous^ n'* en" tenons* No*, sir", we* never* keep* 
Nbng, 31., noo n*ang iangnong them", 
jamais"*, zhdmd. 

Donnez'-^-moi* un" pen' de^ Will* you" let* me* have* a' 
Donnd-mwaw ung poe iu,h 



clous de girofles". paper of* allspice^? 

kloo duh zliceroji. 

Avec* plaisir" With* pleasure". 

Avek p^jdzir. 



29*' NOTES. 

GERMAN NOTES. 

a S3iC i?{fT, how much. 

b The oi in this, and all other words, where printed i a the 
Roman character, must be pronounced more like i than open oi. 
c U. f» m. (unt) fo mxitx), and so forth, 
d ©on^, else ; noc^, more ; ettija^, some ; ('some more else), 
© S'li^t im ©eringften, not in the least. 
f (intfpred)ent), being answered for; taken into account, 
g ®efd)aft, occupation; affair. 
h Of great calf s hide, (the same exp. in Spanish and Fiench). 

SPANISH NOTES. 

a Bayeta is the more compjehensive word ; it signifies wooUen 
fabric, in general. It is sanctioned by the Academy in pre- 
ference to flanela ov franela. 

b It me would cost exceedingly; and would be also (tambien) 
exceedingly (demasiado) irksome. 

c Let it be as you like it. d Ahora, at present. 

e Not there is of what, or about what, (to he thanhful). 

f Telas pintadas, printed cloths. 

e At how much sell you this ? 

li En razon de, in reason of. i Will it lose its colour ? 

k Cut me off (cut off for me). 1 Al punto, at the point. 

ni Telas para camisas, cloths for shirts. 

n Acaba, finishes to. o Surprised. 

P Que viene bien h> U., that goes well on you. 

q It will g» on me never, r If one has to judge of. 

B Propongo, I propose — v. irr. from propones^ to propose. 

t Yesterday for (at) the' evening. 

u That is true, v Bo you wish ? 

w Le agradssce, &c., it pleases you more. 

X Que le, &c., that they will go on very well (muy hien) ; 
calzar means to try on shoes. 

y They appear to me. » Mucho mas, much more. 



NOTES. 299 

aa As much as you wish, or as much as you can desire. Tho 
Bame cxp. iu French and German. 

bb You can bring (send) me up a bushel by the boy, if 
you please. 

cc Poco, little. 

FRENCH NOTES. 

« IIow does this call itself? b En, of it. 

En, some of them ; I have some of them very fine. 
d Or, t?* lah. e You have but to take it, &c. 

f Soit, let it he so. g Or, aujourd'hui. 

b I shall have a care to pass this way again, after a little 
(sous peu). 

i You will oblige me much. 

k There is not (nothing) of that (for which you may thank 
me). Uxp. similar to Sjmnish. 

1 Plvs makes the superlative, m Sont-ils ? are tliey f 

n The prices Ydvy folloicitif/ the quality, o Net, no more. 

p I am going (vais) to send them immediately (de suit). 

q Or, une veille fiUo. r Or, je demand pardon. 

s Or, il est beaucoup trop gross, — il a trop d'ampleur, it haa 
too great breadth. 
, t Va, goes on. u It sits to a marvel. 

V It is a masterpiece, w Is it not ? 

3C Come and see us. y I shall not fail to do so. 

2 Je vais, I am going to. 

aa C'est vrai, that is true, bb At length. 
cc If it pleases you. dd Show me some of. 
e« Or, au dessous le j^rcmier prix. 

ff You can send up a bushel, if it pleases you, by your 
little boy. 

gg IIow does it sell itself? 



300 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



[Note. The pronunciation is purposely suppressed in the following pages ; for, fui 
the student is supposed to have given marked attention to the rules of pronunciation 
as laid down in the first part of this work, and to have acquired the ability to pronoonee 

® e I b. Dinero. 

SCotten^ ©ie^ ntir^ 5n?ei^ t5^an!en^ Quiere* U.^ prestarme^* dos* 

Ijorgeu^? francos^? 

^\i^ bem'^ gropten^ SSergnugcn** Con* mucliisimo-'^ gusto*. 

3ft* biefe^2 gln3 2:i^aler* ? Es* eso^ un^ peso* (thaler*) ? 

3a*, mein ^err*^. — 2)tefe0^ip* ein* Si*, senor^. Aquello^ es* un* 

^fennig^ (^enn^^)* centavo®. 

^OiUxO- ©ie^ ein^ ^aar* ^funbe^-^ ^Tiene* U.^ dos« 

^et''fi(^^n?el(^e^®ie*°it)unf(^en** pesos esterlines^ 

lo^ 3U )i?ert)en*^~*^ int)em*^(Ste que^ disponer*""*^ 

tnir*3'2° fo(d)e Borgen*''? y*^ prestarme*^-^^ ? 

3(^* I)aBe^ ntc^t^ einen^ ^eKer^ No3tengo*'2unosolo*niaravedi^. 

S)a^* i|P unan3ettel)m^ Eso* es^ lastimoso^ 

S^erittcn*'^ ©ie^ btefe^* einen^ I Llama*"^ eso* una^ dima*' 

;Dime^ ? (diez centavos) ? 

3a*, itttb'^ biefe^^ ifl* ein^ Slblcr^ Si*, y^ esto^ es* una* aguila^ 

(diez pesos). 

3)ag*{ft-eitt^fitnp2:^alerfd)ein^'^ Es*'^ un^ billete^ de cinco* 

pesos^ 

^onncn*(Sie^eine*,^roiX)n^ tt)e(^* Puede* U.^ cambiarme^ un* 

feln^ ? crown* : 

3jl* bag^ ein^ mexifanifd)Ctt* ^ ES* aqueP un^ choline* Meji 

(Sd)i(Iing^? cano*? 

^eitt*; e^*^ ifl^ englifc^e^* ©elb** No*; es*^'^ moneda* inglesa*. 

Dic0* ift^ ein^ fpantfd)er*!DoIIar'» Eso* es'^ un^ peso* espaiiol* 

Tonnen*©te'' mir* eine^©utnic^ ^ Puede* U.'^cambiarme*'*una7 

tT?cd)feIn^'* ? guinea^? 

leitt*, {d)2 fann* c^ nic^t^ — ® elb* No*, no'' lo puedo'^**. La mone- 

ift* 6ei^ mir^ gegcnmartig*"'** da*esta*niuy^escasa''ahora** 

. c^auf rar''* con« migo^. 

3(l^t)iefeg^eitt^0Uter Soui^bov*? ^Es* este^ luis* bueno*? 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 301 



all words correctly, through tho observance of these rules, unci by means of ccntinual 
practice in the preceJiug pa;^es where the figured pronunciatiou occurs, it is deemed 
unnecessary to continue it (the pronunciation) any IJarther.] 

Argent. Monerj. 

Voulez^-vous^ me* pretcr' deux* Will* you'^ Icnd^ me* two' 
francs^ ? fraucs° 't 

Avec* le** pins grand^ plaisir*. With* the^ greatest^ pleapure* 

Est*-cc lii^^ 1111=' dcM* ? Is* this" a^ thaler* ? 

Oui*, mcnsicur^ — C'^ est un' Yes*, sir''. — This^ is* a^ penny ^. 
sou". 

Avez*-voiis',sur7vous^quclqiies* Have* you'' a' couple* of 

livres sterlings", dont^ yous*° pounds^ about^ you^, that 

ddsireriez" vous defaire^*"*^ you*"want"to*^get*^rid"of** 

pour*^ m 'en laire uu pret''~^" ? by *'''loaning*'them*^to*^me'*? 

Je* n'^ai' pas' meme un* sou*'. I* have''not^the*first^ farthing". 

C'^est'' malhcurcux'. That* is" bad^. 

!Kst-ce 111 dixsousr Do* you*" call' this* a^ dime" ? 

Oui*; ct'' ceci' est* une^ aigle" Yes*; and^ this' is* an^ eagle'. 
(10 piastres). 

C'*est'' un' assignat" do cinq* That* is'' a' five* dollar^ bill% 
piastres^. 

Pouvez*-Yous- changer' un*dcu^? Can* you'' change' a* crown*? 

Est* ce'^ un' chelin* m<5xicain* ? Is* that" a' Mexican* shil- 
ling^ ? 

Non*; c'^'est'derargent* anglais*. No*; it" is' English* money*. 

C'*est« une' piastre* Espagnole*. This* is" a' Spanish* dollar*. 

Pouvez*-vous" me* changer* une^ Can* you" give' me* change 
guin^e** ? for" a^ guinea^ ? 

N"on,*je"ne'le puis* pas'. L'ar- No*, I" can* not' — money* is 

gent* me« fuit de bien rares^ ^^"Jf" ^'^'f "^''^^^ "^^ 

^^-; — , r « just*'' now**. 

visites, en ce moment'"'". a 

Est* ce" un' bon* louis d'oi-* ? Is* this" a' good* louisd'or* ? 

2G 



802 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



aber nict)t" ob er (^ut ift, e^^ ift^ 
nod)^^ gut^^ an^^K 



©olb* merten t^jir^^je^t^ in UeBer* 

in'* 5aUfornien^° liefern^^ tint^ 

e0® fei eine^ ^uff^neit)erei^ 

3(^^ »erfi(^ere^ ©ie^ baf * e^^ feme'' 
2Iuffd)neit)ereiMft^; ic^^()abe*° 
gute"55eti?etfe^, urn meine^^^e* 



Parece*'^ bueno^ No pucdo 
decirseloaU. Oorrc^niucha* 
moneda" falsa^** en^^ el co- 
mercio^^.a Esta'* parece** 
todavia^7 buena**^. 

El oro^ esta^ muy'* abundantc* 
presentemente^. Me" ha*" 
dicho*'' que las^ minas' 
de** California*" produzcan*' 
unsk^ cantidad" muy abun 
dante*^. 

Mucbos^ son^ dispuestos^ d 

creer^ que es^ una^ cbarla 

taneria^. 

Aseguro**^ a U.^ que^ no^ es*'' 
charlataneria". Tengo^**'' 
pruebas*^ muy autenticas*' 
para*^ probar*^ my^^asunto** 



3(^^Bin^ClwpbicS5en)et^ful^rung^ No^ quiero**^'* argliir^; pero' 
nid)t^ begierig^ aber^ ic^» bin^ soy^'^ de*** pareeer" que*^ 

toffelgrciber"'*^ bod^ am^^-'''^ 
ent)e*« aUt^ mpl)l^abent)er^'=» 



goy8,9 (jgio pareeer 
todos^ los*^ buscadores*^ de 
patatas" seran*^'^ final- 
meiite*^*^mas^ricos^que^ 
los^^ buscadores^'' de oro^®. 



9}Z i t c I n c m SOS i r 1 1^ c. 

rcre^ S3a^^ fiir ^^fni^^'^^ 
n)unfd)en*" ©ie^? SBoUen*^ 
(gie*** eln*^ ntoblirte^*^ cb^r*^ 



Con un Hostalero, 

I Tiene* U.^ cuartos* de* al- 
quiler^ ? 

Si*, senor^; tengo^'* muchos^ 
I Que^ cuartos^ quiere*" U."? 
^Quiere** U." un*^ apo- 

sento*'' con muebles*^ d^ 

sin ellos'^" ? b 



FRENCn. 



ENGLISH. 



303 



n* bcmblc' bon^ — ]c* iie sauraia 

vous^ dire^ II? court^-^^'^b 
beaucoup^ de faussc^° mon- 
Daie". Cette" pi^ce pariiit*^, 
ccpendant^'', fort bonne*". 

T« 1 1. 1 o_c' " TT QoldMs^'gettin":'' quite' plenty 

L or* abondc^^ en ce moment". „ *=> ,,,, ^^ ^ . ^^ .J 



IV looks'^ good'' — P don't^ 
know** — there^ is* niucli* 
bad'° money'* in" circula- 
tion*3. That** looks*^ good*", 
howeYcr*7. 



On m'a dit'^*^ que Ics^ 
mines^ de^ la Californie*° en 
fouinissent** unc*^ grande*^ 
quautite**. 

Bien des personnel* pensont^^ 
que c'est" de la^ cliarla- 
tancrie*. 

Je* vous' assure'' que'* ce^ n'-'est^ 
poinf de la charlatanerie*. 
J'Bai*° des preuvcs"^ authen- 

. ' ' ' 

tiques" qui appuient*^ ** c 

mon*^ assertion*". 

Je* n'''ai^ point^ envie'* d'-^irgu- 
mcntcr"; mais^ je^ suis° 
d'*''opiuion** que*'' tons les*^ 

mineurs*Me ponimes de terre** 
seront*a'2o^ apres*" tout*"'*«, 

bien^* plus^^ ii lour aise'^-^ d 
que^ les'^^ mineurs^^ d'or"". 



now". The^ mines^ in*^ 
California*" yield** an*' 
abundant*^ quantity**, I* 
am*" told*7, 



Many* arc" inclined^ to"* tliink 
it" a^ humbug^ 



I* assure" you^ that* it^ is' 
no7 humbug**. I^ have*° 
authentic** proofs*'' to*^ 
back*-* my*^ assertion*". 



I* am^ nof desirous* of'* ar- 



guing 



"; but7 P 



am- 



of*^ 



opinion** that*^ the*^ pota- 
toe*^diggers**,in*"thc'"end*^, 
will*'' be=^° altogether"*more2a 
weal thy =" thau'-^'* thc=^ gold'^s 
diggers^. 



Avec un Ilote. 



With a Landlord, 



Avez*-voui)- des^ chambres* a'' Have* you'' any" rooms* to' 

louer" ? let" ? 

Oui*, Mr.", j'^en ai* plusieurs^ Yes*, sir", P have* several"' — 

Quellcs" chambres^ vou- what" rooms'' do^3'ou^ wish*' 

lcz*°-vous^(ai'0i>**'*2)? Vou- to**have*^? Do'3you**wish*^ 

lez*^-vous*' une*" chambre*' an*"apartment*7 furui.shod*' 

meubl<5c*' ou*«n ^n'^^e^"? «^"" unfurnished- ? 



804 GERMAN. SPANISH. 



3c^' l)raud)e' inoMirte' 3ii""f'-'*- Nccesito''^ aposentos* alhaja- 

dos". 



3(^' hnn' S^nen' Wcncn.' P ucdo'.^ s crvirle^.'. hI^ 

FFc^HwrrK"' ^"\*".: «"l^^^' <3«' •''"to''''- Ea- 

ten'. 3<^; n,.U'° 3^nen. t,e ^^~^^^^„ ^ ^ ., i„^,3 ^po- 

4)ei ^aai ♦ sala^8,i9. 

er'' pa^t^'^ fiir^^ mi(^^\ me" cuadra^-s bien.c 

©ie^ fe!)en2 ba§^ (){er^ ^IIIe^'''7 tfl^ U.* ve= que^ hay^-^ todo^7 lo 

m^ ©ie beburfen^ unb^ baf^° que es necesario«- y^ Que^« 

b{c"?Q?iJbeIinchr^^nett^Hfrtb 13 que es uecebario ^ y que 

|^lle-9}^o6el-fmb-^on(of) j^ermosos- Todos- W^ 

MaiyaQon)) . muebles^^son^^ae anacard(y«>. 

.^ier* finb^ giuei^ 2lrmftu()Ie'*'^, Aqui^ estan^ dos^ paltronas'*'^, 

fec^^® (5tu()Ie7, ein^ neuer^ seis^ sillas'', mi^ nuevo^ ta- 

Ztppidf^, ein" f(^5ner*^ ®pie=^ piz*'',un"espejo*=^hermoso^, 

gel^^, unb^^ fe{)r^^ fauBern^" y^^ colgaduras^^ muy^^ boni- 

S3or()ange^7^ 5tuc^^« finb^^ an^^ tas^^; ademas*^'^^, estan^O'^i 

Beiben'^* (Seiten'^ be^^^'^^ ^^^ alacenas^^ ^23 j^g ambos^^ 

min^^* ©c^ranfe^^ lados^^ de^^ lar^ chimenea^^. 

dormir^. 

^^nm'MitW. Jr-oraqui ,senor ,siieguste . 

SS^lr'^ tuoKen* fcT)en^ oB* ba^^ Yeainos^"^, si* la^ cama^ esta^ 

S3ett^ ^xit^ ift^; benn^ ba^^° buena^, porque^ eso^" es" 

ift"bte^'2^auptfad)C^^'*^2Benn^^ lo^^ principal"'^*; Si^^ ten- 

j^ifi g|^^i8 gute^^^Sett^^ t)a&ei^ ga^^'^^ una^^ buena^s cama^o, 

!iimmere^^,, xdf^ mid) a^enig^ nada'^^^e mas'^^ quiero2^~24 d 
ttm^ ba^ llBrige'^^-^^ 

©fc* fonnen^ fic^^ Jcin'' Beffere^^ No^ puede^ U.* tenei-^-"© una* 

njitnfd)en^ mejor^. 

(55el)t*''' bie*^ ©tuBe^ aitf^ bie^ ^Abre^-'^f eP cuarto^ en' hfl 

etra[fe^ (;tnau0*'^? called? 



it! 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 305 



I* want'' furnished^ rooms.* 



II* uie faut^ des chambers* 
meublies^. 

T « • Q 4 i T 1 I^ can° accommodate^ you*. 

Je* puis" vous* en donner.^ , n , • «*^ to 

Ayez la bonte-'* d'cntrcr^^ -will*" show" you" the*» 

Je« vais vous^ moutrer*"-*^ rooms**. Ilcre*^ is*o the^'' 

les*' chambrcs". Voici*^'^^ sitting*^ room*^. 
le*7 salon*«'*». 

11* n'^est^ pas^ bicn* grand* ; It* is" not^ very* large* ; but* 

mais^ il'' fera^'^ mou** affaire. it^ will* do^ for*" me**. 

Yous* voyez'^ qu'^il y* a* tout^-^ You* sce'^that^ there* is* every' 

ce qui est ncccssaire^j et* thing'' necessary^; and°that*° 

que** l'**ameublement*'' en the** furniture*^ is*^ very** 

est*3 fort*^ bcau*\ Tous*^ les*7 neat**. All*'^ the*7 furni- 

mcubles*^ sont*^ d'acajou=°. ture** is*^ mahogany-". 

Voici*'" dcux^ fautcuils^'*, six" Here* are- two^ arm* chairs*, 

chaises'', un* tapis'" tout six" chairs^, a* new" carpet*", 

neuf", unc** bellc*^ glace*^, a**fine*^glass*^; and** very** 

et de** tres** jolis*'' ridcaux*^; neat*"'' curtains*"; besides** 

il y"" a^, en*" outre '», des that*^, there-" are^* cup- 

armoires'-" de'^"* chaque*^* cot^^ boards'^^ on^ both^ sides" 

de=* la'^ cheminee-^. of^** the"'' chimney^^. 

Tvr X. -1-1 1 X 1 u ^~~r Let* me'' see^ the* bedrooms*. 
Montrez-moi* =^ les* chambres a 



coucher*. 

^T; ^1 o • , TT This* way^ sir^, if* you* 
e ce cote-ci*'^ monsieur^ s il , r,-' ^ ' j^^ 
. , ' ' pleased 

vous plait*"''. 

Voyons*"^ si* le* lit^ est'' bon^ ; Let* us" see^ whether* the' 
carB c'est*"'** la le*" princi- bed" is^ good«; for^ tliat*'^ 
pal*^**. Quand'5 j'ai"^'*'' un*» is** the*=' main*^ point**. 

. ' *• ^ bed"", P* hardly^" care'^ 

cas22'=3 du=* reste2*-27. for"* any"* thing"" clsc"^. 

Vous* ne" sauricz" en desirer^'* Yo'i* cannot" wish • for* a* 
uu' meilleur'^'''. better" one''. 

La'chambre^ionne-t-elle*'*esur* Does* the" room' look* into* 
la« ru37 the" street^ ? 

26* 



306 GERMAN. SPANISH 

5^ein\ mein f^err-, fte'^ Qciji' nac^^ No% senor^^ abre^** en* el ^jar* 

bcm'' (3axtm^ IjinamK din''. 

T>t^o^'^ teffer** 3^)^ fc^Iafe^ Mucho^ mejor*. No« quiero-'*'? 

ni«t« gcrne^ '«ovn- f)inau^- dormir--^ ea^" un^^ cuarto^ 

wegcn" te^^^'*^ SSagenge* que abre en la calle", 

raffel^2o,2i^ ^u razon^^ deli^-i? ruido" 

de^9 los^o coches^i. 

3(^^ ijermut^e'^ t)a^^ 33ett^ t|P Creo*'^ que la=^ cama* esta* 

gut^* 3f^t^ lommt e^^"'^^ buena^. Nada mas que del 

nur nodf auf^^ ben^^ ^ret^^* precio.'''i-* ^Que" quiere^^^** 

an.a SBa^^^ t>erlangen^'' @ie^'' U.*'' por^" los^o tres'-^^ cuar- 

fur^9 jji^ao ^^g|£i 3iittmer2= miP tos^^ yss 1^2* cocina" ? 

3(^U)aBe^ ben^ ©aaP iniF einem^ He*''^ siempre^ alquilado" la^ 

t»er^'^° ^fjjiiiier" tmmer^ fiiv^ sala^ y^ uno^ de*^ los^° cuar- 

ijierje'^n" ©(^idinge^* ijermte* tos" por^ catorce*^ cheli- 

ti}tt\ ©ie^^ foOen" mtr^» fiir^^ nes^*. U.^^ me^^ dara^'^'^^ 

vT i'l^C '^"/'f'^l^^'C ima^^guinea->alasemana-.=- 

r.^^flJ^^'^f fs^^j^rr :: l^n-nt^ ste- chelmeSo 

■ * 1 X c ' > 

2)a^ pnbe tc^^*^ ^ieP''' ®elb^»l> A mi parecer^,li es^ mucho*'^ 

de dinero"^. 

Setenten^Stc barMeN^eine^' M^^nj." que' este^^ cuartel» 

j,„8.7 6eften» ©tabtBiettep-" ^^e el? meior» de" la" eiu- 

f ' "T *'"" £1*;^" J^'T dad'^, y donde« las" casas" 

tt^euer'" Benmet§et" »erten'». son^muycaras^Ccostosas). 

SUunS ^^ ttiP 3(mcn' cine» Bien esta. Le dare-- 4 U.» 

Ouiiice' gcbett"; a6cr« icl)» e guinea' nero' necesi- 



ITRENCH. 



ENGLISH. 



307 



Non*, monsieur'^, ellc^ donne"* 
6ur* Ic** jardiu^. 

Tanf^ micux^** ; je' n'aime^-^ 

point a^ coi.ihcr*' dans*'' 

< " % 

une" chambre*^ sur la rue*^, 

'k cause du»-*» bruit" des'0,20 
voiturcs^*. 

Dcsircz-vous*~^voir^'^lcs"autrcs'' 
chanibres" ? 

Le' lit* me* scmblc'' bon^. 



II ne s'agit plus**"" a present^ 
que du*^ prix".f Que'-^ de- 
inandez-vous*°~*^dos'"'*"trois** 
chambrcs-^, et^ dc la*" cui- 
sine-^ ? 

J'ai'*'^ toujours^ lou6*, h}'' qua- 
torze*^* chelines*^, le^ salon'', 
et^ une* scule cluunbrc*^ 
Vous*^me^Monucrez*''''"du'-"'-* 
tout25 uue*" guinec2« par^' 
scmaine=3. Ce^o n'^est^^ que=« 
sept^ chelins^" pour^* I'^^u- 

tre^ chambre^* et"^ la^*^ cuis- 
ine^7. 



A vous dire vrai,g c"'cst beau- 
coup^*'' d'"argent^. 

Considerez* quc^ c'^est^ un^ des'''^ 
meilleurs^ quarticrs^ de^*^ la" 

r ^ ^ 

ville*^; et que le*^ loyer*^ des 
maisons*^ y est''' fort*® chcr*^. 

Kh bicn*, je'^ vous'' donncrai^* 
une" guin<5e^; mais bien en- 
tendu quch j'°aurai'°'" une*^ 
partie'^ de" la*^ cave*", et*7 
un*** cndroit*^ pour-^" y mettre*^* 

men charb^u dc terre"^ et^ 
mon bc-i,'=''*. 



No*, sir'^; it'* looks'* iuto^ tbe^ 
garden^. 

So* niuch= tbe^ better^— P 
don't" like7 to" sleep" in*<» 
a** front*2 room*^, on*^ ac- 
count" of *° tbe*7 noise*« of *» 
tbe^" carriages'^*. 

Do* you'' wisli^ to'* see* tbo^ 
otber^ rooms® ? 

I* fancy^ tbe^ bed" is* good^ 
Now'' tbe® only'-^ question*'^ 
is** about*2 the*^ price*\ 
Wbat** do*" you*7 ask*^ for*" 
tbe''^" tbree2* rooms^'^ witb'* 
the"' kitchen"* ? 

I* have^ always^ let* the* par- 
lour", with7 one" of^ the*° 
rooms'*, for*= fourteen*^ shil- 
lings**. You** will*'' give*' 
me*® one*^ guinea"" a"* wcek^ 
for23 the'^* whole"^* — it'-^" is"' 
only"® seven'® shillings^" 
for^* the"'' other^^ room-"^ 
and^* thc^" kitchen^'. 

I* think'' it^ a'* great* sum" of 
money®. 

Consider* that^ this' is" one' 
of" the' best® quarters^ of*° 
the** town*", where*^ the** 
houses** are*" let*' very** 
high*9. 

Well*, I" will' give"* you* a' 
guinea' ; but® I^ must*'' 
have** a*- part*^ in*^ the'* 
cellar*", and*' a*® place*" to«° 
put'^* coals'^ and*^ wood** 
in"*. 



808 GERMAN. SPANISH. 

£)as> Uxm^m @ie' foUen' ge cntiendc a'S~.i Tcndra« 

e{nett^»erfd*Ue§baren^~*^5^Ia^^ U.* un^ lugar^ cerrado 

betommen^ ^ann'^benfeu^^ con^ Have", k ^Cuandr/^ 

(Sie*^»on-^3^i^ei^^*^o()nung2^ quiere^^'^s U.^^ tomar^i pos- 

S3ef{^^ 3U2° ne^men^'? esion^^de^^sus^aposentos^^? 

^DZac^en ©ie 3iae£f^°-^ Bei'^ noche^.Vea^U.que^todo^i^ 
0uter 3eit^^ surec^t- e. ^^^,, preparado,^ en^^ h^ 

buena.^7 

©e|r^ n?oI)n metn ^ern (Sie^ Seraservido^'^Senor.^Puede^* 

e^ 3i;nen^» gefatltg" ift» quiera^O'". 



SScgrfipungcn. Salutadones. 

3(^* n)Uttfcl)e^ 3^tten^ einen* git- Buenas^ dias^ tenga*'^ u^. 

2Bie* Bepnt)en2'* ©ie^ fi(^ t)eute^? ^Como* esta^ m hoj^? 

©anj* n?o^I^ ic^ banfe^ 3^nen*» Muy* bien^, Gracias^'^ 

2Q{ei ip S^r^' 33eftnt)en* ? ^ Como^ va^ su^ salud* ? 



esta^U? 

5Bie* getijo^ttlic^'', metn ^err^ A* mi ordinario^, Senor^. 

SrtauBen^ (Sic mir^ mic^ nad)^ Permitame^'^ de^ preguntar* a* 

3t)rer° ®efunbl)etF 5U^ erfun* UM^como esta su salud7?in 
tigen^ 

nia>t gans mol)U estoy*'^ muy^ bueno«. 

SBa^rlid)/ ba^ T^etriitt^ mid)'''^ En verdad*, lo sicuto^-* mu- 

\t\)X\ . chisimo*. 



< ' 



FRENCH. ENGLISn. 309 



Cela* est^ en tend u^. Vous* au- That* is'' understood^. You< 

en 7 1. -iH • v shall^ have" a^ place'' witii* 

rez^'O un7 endroit«, qui teriue ,„ i i ., i,i i n . ,. 

^ . ' ^ a^" lock" and" key" to** 

^ la clef'*'-". Quand'o pen- it^s. When*" do'^ you** 

sezJ7.i9vous'»occuper-"-^ vo- mean*" to'^" take^^ posses- 

tre'" appartement" ? sion'" of'^* youi-^ lodging*^^? 

I* intend'^ to^ come* and* 



Je* me propose*^ d^'y^ venir*. et^ , „ , _ ^ « • i .„ 

^ ^ -^ ^_ sleep" here" to"-nigIit". 

coucher^ ce^ soir". Faites See*" that** every*'' tiling*^ 

en sorte ciue*"'**i tout*^" soit** ^^'* ^^^^3^" ^^'^ season*7. 
pret** h}^ temps*7. 

Fort* bien'', Monsieur^. Vous* Very* welP, sir^. You* may* 

.; • n ' TTtrrr ' come'' as-^ soon^ as'' you*** 

pouvez^ venir^ quand^ " bon , „ >^ j^^ 

4 . . ^ please". 

il vous plaira*"'**. 



Saluter. Salutations. 

Je* vous^ souhaite'' le* bon- I* wish'' you' a* good^ morn- 
jour*'^ ing". 

Comment* vous^ portez-*^** vous, How* do^ you' do* to-day*? 
aujourd'hui^?!^ 

Fort* bien", je vous* remercie''. Quite* well", thank' you*. 

Comment* est" votre' sante*? How* is" your' health* ? 

Tr^s* bonne" — et' la votre*? Exceeding* good" : and' 

yours* t 

vomme* ii I'ordinaire", Mr.' As* usual," sir'. 

V^ous me" permittez* de^ m'in- Permit* me" to' inquire* after* 

formei** de^ votre*^ sante^. your" health-^. 

Merci*'", oonsieur' — ^je*ne''m3 Thank* you", sir' ; I* am* not' 

porte* pas ' tr5s"-bien^ very' wclK 

J"'en suis', vraiment*, bien Indeed* ! I" am' quite* sorry*. 
fr»,ch<5. 



i 



310 GERMAN. SPANISH. 

S3cim gDUttagficffcn. Comiendo. 

2:ie*(5)IodeMautet^ 3Um*(Effen^; Toca"' la^ campanilla^ por^ la 

Iaf|en« ©ie un^^ S^T^ ^^"^^^^\\ entremos-« y« 



folgen^ 



comama". 



2B43^ nJoHen*^ (Bk- ne^nten*? ^De que quiere U. que lo 

sirva ? n 



9linbfletfc^'', tveim ic^ i)itten UnpocoMevaca^^silegusta^-*. 

SBoHcn* (5ie^ etnen* S^eKer^ (Sup* ^ Quiere^-^ U.*' sopa? ? 
pe7? 

2Bunf(^en^(5ie^(S(^n)etnefreifi^^? .Q^iere^.3 xj.^ un pedazo de 



puerco^ (0 

(BoW- tc^^ S^ttett* ttm^^ .tion^ -Quiere U que le sirva^-* 

biefen« erbfen« i?or(egen^? ^^ guisantes^? 

Benn* e^ 3^nen^ SefaEig^ ijt, Con mucho gusto^-^ Senor^. 
mem ^err* ^ ' 

SCoHen^ (Sie^ bte* ©iitc^ ^aBen^ ^ Quiere^ U.^ hacerme^ el* 
mir*etn^^©tuc!"i?on^biefem^^ f^vor* de^ darme^'^P un^" 
^aI6fleif(^^* 3U QtUn^ ? pedazo" de^^ ternero^* ? 

SJZit^ 25ergnugen^. Con* gusto^. 

S[^unf(^ett^ ©ie'^ f^ett* ober^ ^Quiere*'^ xj^. magro*, d* 
S}kgere^^? gordo°? 

Sin^SBenig^ ijon^ ^eibett^ menn^ Un* poco^ de'^ ambos'' ^^ 

ta bien.q 

^eltner* I (Eine^ 2:a]fe^ 2::^ee** ;Muchaclio*! una^ taza^ de* t^* 

3a\ ja^ nteitt ^m\ Si-K sP, SeSor. 

SBolW @te^ fo* gut^ fein^ unb H^game U. el favor de^ dax- 
JJ^|jii,i3 ^^j^9 33j:o55io reic^en^? me» pan^'. 

SKotlcn* ©ie'' ettua^* i?on^ biefem° i Quiere* U,'' tomar' un poco* 
©alaf nt^mm^^ de^ esta^ insalada?' 



1 

i 



FRENCH. ENGLISH. 311 



Diner. At Dinner. 

La* clocliette'' sonnc^ pour* ili- The* bell- rings^ for* dinner* : 
ner^ Allona"~" diuer.** let° us^ go" in" and^" dine". 



Que* sotibaitez-''* vous^? What* will^ you^ have* ? 

Du* boeuf^ s^'il vous* plait'. Some* beef, if you* please'. 



Voulcz-'vous" de la soupc'? Will* you** have^ a* plate* of" 

soup7? 



D^sirez-'vous^ un morceau du Do* you'' wish^ for* pork*? 

cochon*? 

Vous* offrirai-jc*~3 de*-^ ces"'^ Shall* I^ help^ you* to* some' 

pois^? of these^ peas^ ? 

S*'il vous'' platt^,Monsieur*. If* you" please^, sir*. 

Youlez'-vous'^ avoir^ la* bonte* Will* you^havc^ the* kindness* 

de'' mc^ donner^ un*° mor- to° help^ me^ to" a*° piece** 

ceau** de*^ cc*^ veau-**l^ ? of *2 that*^ veal** ? 

Avee* plaisir''. With" pleasure". 

D^sirez-'vous'' du gras* ou* du Do* you'' wish^ fat* or* lean° ? 
maigre^? 



Un*peu2derun, et derautre^'-*, A* little" of^ both*, if* you« 

B^'il vous^ plait^. please^. 

Gargon*! une" tasse' de* tL6*. Waiter !* A" cup' of* tea*. 

Oui*, oui^'I Monsieur^. Ay*, ay", sir^. 

Voudricz-'vous' bien me fairc ^''"' y""' ''^ ^?* '''"f; ".t*'?! 
, pass^ thc^ bread'° this** 

passer^-" le" pain*° ? way ?*" 

Prendrez='-vous" un peu* de* AVill* you" take^ some* of* this" 

cette^ salade V salad V 



312 NOTES. 

GERMAN NOTES. 

a ®et)t auf, (joes out. 

1) Now comes it but yet on the price to, (Now it comes to 
tJie price'). 

c I find that much gold (money). 

d The proper import of the expression is, that the statement 
is not only understood ; but agreed to. 

« Make every thing aright by good time. 

SPANISH NOTES, 
a The Market (Commerce), b Without them. 
c Cuadra bien, please well, d I require nothing more, 
e Have, f Opens. 
g Nothing more but the price. 
h It appears to me. i One understands it so. 
k Cerrado con Have, fastened with a key. 
1 Preguntar k U., to inquire of you, 
m How is your health ? 

n What do you desire that I should help you to ? 
Pedazo, piece, p Dar, give, q Would please me welL 

FRENCH NOTES. 

a Money makes rare visits to me in this moment. 
b Court, circulates^ runs, (from the Latin curro, to run). 
c Qui appuient, which help, d At their ease. 
e Gives it ? 

f It does not agitate itself. There is nothing more to be 
discussed at present, but the price, 
g To tell you the truth' (vrai). 
li Bien entendu que, it being well understood that 
i En sort que, in such a manner that. 
k How do you carry yourself to-day ? 



POLYGLOT ARRANGEMENT 



OP A 



PART OF THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW, 



THE NUMERALS. 



( Cardinal. ) 



German. 

£fliu\\, 
►if I) It, 
(rilf(clf), 

g'mr>Miii, 

eccb^dMi (ffdjrfjeljn), 

(?m tIu^ jttiaiijt^, 

©tt-bciijijj. 



Spanish 

uno, 

dos, 

tres, 

quatro, 

cinco, 

seis, 

siete, 

ocho, 

nueve, 

diez, 

once, 

doce, 

trece, 

catorce, 

quince, 

diez y seia, 

diez y siete, 

diez y ocho, 

diez y nueve, 

viente, 

▼iente y uno, 

treinta, 

quarenta, 

cincuenta, 

Besenta, 

setenta, 

oclienta, 

noventa, 

ciento, 

cientn y uno, 

do8 ciento, 

mil, 

27 



French. 

un(e), 

deux, 

trois, 

quatre, 

cinq, 

six, 

sept, 

huit, 

neuf, 

dix, 

onze, 

douze, 

treize, 

quatorze, 

quinze, 

seize, 

dix-sept, 

dix-huit, 

dix-iieuf, 

vingt, 

vmj^t-un, 

trente, 

quaiante, 

cinquante, 

soixante, 

Boix^nte-dix, 

quatre-vinct, 

quatre-vingt-dir, 

cent, 

rent un, 

deux cent, 

mille 



English. 

one. 

two. 

three. 

four. 

five. 

six. 

seven. 

eight. 

nine. 

ten. 

eleven. 

twelve. 

thirteen. 

fourteen. 

fifteen. 

sixteen. 

seventeea 

eighteen. 

nineteen. 

twenty. 

twenty-one. 

thirty. 

forty. 

fifty. 

sixty. 

seventy, 

eighty. 

ninety. 

one hundred. 

hundred and one. 

two hundred. 

one ihousaud. 



314 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER U. 



GREEK. 

1. Toil de *jT](rov yev- 
vrjdivTos iv Bi]6X(eix 
ri]s 'louS./tas-, eV »7/i.f- 
pat? *H/JcoSov Tov j3a- 
(TiXe'co?, Idoi)^ jj-dyoL 
arro uvaroXau Trape- 
yivovTo (Is 'lepocroXv- 
fia^ XeyovTes ' 

2. IJov icTTiv 6 T€- 
^0619 ^acriXevs raiv 

lovbalcov ; elSo/xfi' yhp 
avTov TOV darepa iv 
Tl] dvOToKfl KiU tJ\6o- 

fiev 7rpo<TKvvrj(rai alra. 

3. 'Affoucrof Se 'H/3<u- 
drjs 6 jSacTLKevs irapd- 
X^li i^oX Trdcra 'lepo- 
(ToXv/jia fier'' avrov. 

4. Kal (TVvaynyoDV 
ivavras rovs *Apxifp^is 
Koi TpaidL/jLUTe^s tov 
Xaov^ €7rvvddu€TO Trap'' 
avTav TToi) 6 XpLcrTos 
yevvdrac. 



5. Ol Se (LTTOv avTW • 
Em BrjOXfejjb T7]s 'lou- 

daias • ovtco yap ye- 
ypairrac dia tov npo- 

<j}T)TOV ' 

6. " Kal (TV Br]6X€- 
€/x, •).? loL'Sa, ov^apcas 
€X(i)(iaTTj et (v Tols 
Tjyepoa-iv lovda • ck 
(TOV yap e^eXevaeTai 
Tjycwpevos^ ooTty not- 
pim rou Xaoif p,ov tov 



FRENCH. 

1. Or Jesus etant 
ne a Bethlehem, 
ville de Juda, au 
temps du roi He- 
rode, voici arriver 
des sages d'Orient 
a Jerusalem, 

2. en disant : Ori 
est le roi des Juifs 
qui est ne } car 
nous avons vu son 
etoile en Orient, et 
nous sommes venus 
I'adorer. 

3. Ce que le roi 
He rode ayant en- 
tendu, il en fut trou- 
ble, -et tout Jerusa- 
lem avec lui. 

4. Et ayant assem- 
ble tous les princi- 
paux sacrificateurs, 
et les scribes du 
peuple, il s''informa 
d'eux ou le Christ 
devait naitre. 

5. Et ils lui dirent : 
A Bethlehem, ville 
de Judee ; car il est 
ainsi ecrit par un 
prophete : 

e.'Et toi, Bethle- 
hem, terre dc Juda, 
tu n'es nullement la 
plus petite entro les 
gouverneurs de Ju- 
da ; car de toi sorti- 
ra le Conducteur qui 



ENGLISH. 

1. Now when 7e« 
sus was born in 
Bethlehem of Ju- 
dea, in the days oi' 
Herod the king, be- 
hold, there came 
wise men from the 
east to Jerusalem, 

2. Saying, Where 
is he that is bora 
king of the Jews } 
for we have seen 
his star in the east, 
and are come to 
worship him. 

3. When Herod 
the king had heard 
these things, he was 
troubled, and all Je- 
rusalem with him. 

4. And when he 
had gathered all the 
chief priests and 
scribes of the peo- 
ple together, he de- 
manded of thern 
where Christ should 
be born. 

5. And they said 
unto him. In Beth- 
lehem of Judea : for 
thus it is written by 
the prophet, 

6. And thou Beth- 
lehem, in the land 
of Juda, art not the 
least amona; the 
princes of Juda : for 
out of thee shall, 
come a Governor, 



MAITIIEW, CHAPTER II. 



315 



(lERMAN. 

1. T>a ^cfiut vie b oven 
vOiW ,^u'^ctl)lct}cm, im 
juMfcbcu JaiiDf, ;^iir 

xctc^, f(c()c, Da himcii 
ric \2i3cifcu \)om ^?in-: 
(^ciUviutc jAcn 3»cru|'a'' 

Icm, UllD fpVv\Cl)CU : 

2. QjBo ijl tn \mu 
.qcbonic 5\6iiij:\ Der 
Sit^cii? ^tv t}atH'n 
fctiuMi @ta-n .qefcl}cn 
im DOTovvKiiIaiiDc, iniD 
ftnb .qctLMnmcu, U;n 
anjubctcn. 

3. 'i>a Dv\b' tci- ^6^ 

(\•\<{■)X^(X cr, init> nut 
il;m Dai* ganjc 3ci*»= 
falcm ; 

4. Unb Hcfj V>fifain' 
mcln allcJDol)cpvic|]ci- 
iiiiD @cln-ifrvU'lft)itcn 
uiitci- rem ^olt-', luiD 
crfoifcbtc tjon itjncii, 
TOP ei)rilhie: folltc ^c^ 
bovcu iDciDcn. 

5. llnD fic favitcn 
i()m : ^u 'ictl;lrl}cm, 
im jiiM|'it)cii U\\t(. 
2>ciui alfo |lct)ct i^C: 
fcbncbni Dmcl) Den 

6. UiiD Du ^:5ft(}[c= 
l}em, im juMfcbniian- 
Dc, Mjl mit iiiducH Die 
HiMji|lc uutcv Dcugiir- 
Ocu 3»Da ; Dciiu an^ 
tw foil mtv Fommcii 
Drv -ipfv^o.^, DiT iibci 



SPANISH. 

1. Y dcspues que 
hubo nacido Jesus 
on Botlilchom fie 
Judea en los dias 
del Rey Ilerodes, 
he aqui unos Ma<ros 
vinieroii del Orien- 
te a Jerusalem. 

2. Dicicndo ^Don- 
de esta. el que ha 
nacido rey de los 
Judios ? Porque he- 
mes visto su estrella 
en el Oriente, y vi- 
nimos a adorurle. 

3. Y cuando el 
Roy Herodes hubo 
oido csto, turhose y 
con el toda Jerusa- 
lem. 

4. Y convocados 
todos los principes 
de los Sacerdotcs 
y los Escribas del 
pueblo prcguntoles 
d(3nde habia de na- 
cer el Christo. 

5. Y ellos le dije- 
ron: En Bethlehem 
de Judea, porque 
asi esta escrito por 
el profeta. 

G. Y tu Bethle- 
hem tierra de Juda, 
no cros la menor 
lontr^' los principes 
de Judii, porque de 
ti saldra ol caudillo 
([ue regira a Israel 



lATIN. 

1. At Jesu nato in 
Bethlehem Juda3oe, 
in diebus Ilerodis 
regis, ecce Magi ab 
Orientibus accesse- 
runt in Ilierosoly- 
mam, dicentes : 

2. Ubi est natus 
rex JudcEorum .'' vi- 
dimus enim ejus 
stellam in Oriente, 
et venimus adoraro 
eum. 

3. Audiens autem 
Ilerodes rex, turba- 
tus est, et omnis 
Ilierosolyma cum 
illo. 

4. Et congregans 
omnes principes Sa- 
cerdotum et Scribas 
populi, sciscitabatur 
ab eis ubi Christus 
nasccretur. 



5. At illi dixcruiit 
ei : In Bethlehem 
Judaea? : sic enim 
scrij)tum est per 
Prophetam : 

6. Et tu Bothle- 
hem terra Juda, ne- 
quaquain minima es 
in ducibus Juda : ex 
te enim exibit dux, 
qui rogat populum 
meum Israel. 



I 



316 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER n. 



GREEK. 



7. Tore HpirfS/;? ^d- 
0pa KaXeaas tovs fxd- 
you?, T]KpLJ3coa-€ Trap'' 
avTQ>v Tov xf^dvov rov 
(f)aivo[xevov darTepos. 



8. Kat TTf/xr^a? av- 
TOi'V (Is BrjOXeep,^ et- 
7re nopeu^ej/res", aAcpt- 
/Scoff eleratrare 7r6/>l 
ToO TTatBiov • Ittciu fie 
fvprjTe^ dnayyeiKaTe 
ixoi^ oncos Kayo) iXdoov 
irpocrKvvi](Toi) avrm. 



9. Oi de dicoiiaavT€s 
rod (3acn\eo)s, eTropev- 
Brjcrav • Kca Idov, 6 
dcTTrjp^ ou eidov eV rrj 
duuToXfj, Trporjycv av- 
revs') ecos iXBcov earrj 
€7rava> ov -qv to iraihiov. 



10. ^ihovTcs Se TOV 
acmpa^ exdprjcrav ;^a- 
pav jKydXrju <x(p6dpa. 

11. Kni cXdovres els 

TTJV oIklUV, €i5oV TO 

TraiBtov pcTo. Mapias 
rrjs prjTpos avToi/ • Kal 
neaoures TrpoaeKvurj- 
aav avTc5, Kal avoi^uv- 
res TOVS Bqravpait iiJ- 



FRENCH. 



paitra mon peuple 
cl'Israel. 

7. Alors Herode, 
ayant appele en se- 
cret les sages, s'in- 
forma d'eux soi- 
gneusement du 
temps que I'etoile 
leur etait apparue. 

8. Et les envoyant 
a Bethlehem, il leur 
dit : Allez, et vous 
informez soigneuse- 
ment touchant le 
petit enfant ; et 
quand vous I'aurez 
trouve, faites-le-moi 
savoir, afin que j'y 
aille aussi, et que je 
Padore. 

9. Eux done ayant 
oui le roi, s'en al- 
lerent ; et voici, Pe- 
toile qu'ils avaient 
vue en Orient allait 

levant eux, jusqu'a 
e qu'elle vint et 
/arrela sur le lieu 
ou etait le petit en- 
fant. 

10. Et quand ils 
virent I'etoile, ils se 
rej oui rent d'une fort 
grande joie. 

11. 'Et etantentres 
dans la maison, ils 
trouverent le petit 
enfant avec Marie, 
sa mere, lequel ils 
adorerent, en se 
prosternant en terre; 



ENJILISII. 



that shall rule ir.y 
people Israel. 

7. Then Herod, 
when he had privi- 
ly called the wise 
men, inquired of 
them diligently 
what time the star 
appeared. 

8. And he sent 
them to Bethlehem, 
and said. Go, and 
search diligently for 
the young child • 
and when ye have 
found him, bring 
me word again, 
that I may come 
and worship him 
also. 

9. When they had 
heard the king, they 
departed ; and lo, 
the star, which they 
saw in the east, 
went before them, 
till it came and 
stood over where 
the young child 
was. 

10. When they 
saw the star, they 
rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding great joy. 

1 1 . And vv'hen 
they were come in 
to the house, they 
saw the young child 
with Mary his moth- 
er, and fell down 
and worshipped 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER 11. 



317 



GEUMAN. 

mciu ^oii: 3ifvacl ciu 

7. 2)a ^cvicf Jfcro; 
t(C> tic IDcifcn l;cini-- 
livt, miD fvlciuctc mir 
glcij;" vou il)uiMMrauii 
tcu @tcvu cifii)icucii 
vrdvc, 

8. Hub tr^ici? fie 

(pvail) : 3ifl}ff bin 
M\\X> fovfclu't tlcitiic\ 
jiad) tern itiutlrni; 
tint ircnn it}r ce? fiii 
Ut, io \\\c\ct ci? mil 
wictfv, tvijj id) and) 
f'oiumc, uuD cj? au- 
bctc. 

9. lik^ f(c mm ten 
Sa^nu} .act)6rct t;attcii, 
joAi'ii fie bill, lint 
fifl;c, t(v @tcni, ten 
fic im 53(0i-c\culautc 
c<cfcl}fu liattcii, (\\\u\ 
1)01- il)iicii l)iii, bic; tajj 
cr t-\i:n, miD liauD, 
cbcn iibcr, fca tae 
^niDfciii irar. 

10. '^')a fie t(\\ 
@tcin fal)cii, iruvceu 
fie l}od) cvficiict, 

11. lliit qiiuicii in 
tati -^viiie^, uwt faiitni 
tai> 5\inMfiii mit 
9^Tavia, fcnicr ^hn- 
tev, mit jiclni uictcr, 
lint bctctcu ce? an, 
iiuD tijMiix il}vc vt$d)a- 



SPANISH. 

ini pueblo. 

7. Entonccs IIc- 
rodes llamados en 
secrcto los Maf]ros 
iriquirio de ellos 
cuidadosamcntc el 
ticmpo en que apa- 
rccio la cstrclla. 

8. Y enviandolcs 
a Bethlehem les di- 
jo : Id, y preguntad 
con diligencia por 
el 111 no, y cuando 
le huhicscis hallado 
haccdmclo saber, 
paraque vaya yo 
tanabien y le adore. 



9. Y habiondo 
ellos oido al Key 
marcharonse. Y he 
aqui la estrella que 
habian visto en el 
Orlente iba delante 
de ellos hasta que 
llegando se paro 
sobre donde estaba 
el nhlo. 

10. Y al ver la 
estrella se regocija- 
ron con extremado 
gozo. 

11. Yentrando en 
la casa hallaron al 
niuo con su madre 
Maria, y postran- 
dose le adoraron, y 
abricndo sus tesoros 
le ofrecicron doncs 

27* 



LATIN. 



7. Tunc Hcrodes 
clam vocans Ma";os. 
perquisivit ab eis 
tcmpus apparen.,s 
Stella?. 



8. Et mittens eos 
in Bethlehem, dixit : 
Euntes diligenter 
explorate de puero : 
cum autem invene- 
ritis, renunciate mi- 
ll i ut et ego veniena 
adorem eum. 



9. Illi autem audi- 
entes regem, profec- 
ti sunt, et ecce, Stel- 
la quam vidcrant in 
Oriente, antcccde- 
bat eos, usque dum 
veniens staret supra 
ubi crat puer. 



10. Videntes au- 
tem stellam, gavsi 
sunt gaudiurn mai;- 
num valde. 

11. Et venientes 
in dom.um, invcne- 
runt pucrum cum 
Maria matre ejus. 
Et prociacntes ado- 
ravenint eum, et 
aperie/i'.cs ihcsauroa 



318 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER II. 



GREEK. 



rcoi', TrpocTjveyKav av- 
ra 8<5pa, ;(jJuo"oj*, koi 
\i^avov, KaX cr{J.vpvav. 



12. Kat ;^pr;^ario-^€i/- 
Tfs KOT ovap [xf] aua- 
KCLfx^ai Tvpos 'Hp6ibr]V^ 
dt dX\r]s odov ave)(^u>- 
pj](rav els ttjv X'^P^^ 



13. ^Avaxfopfjcavroau 
0€ avTcou, loov, ayye- 
Xoy Kvpiov (Paiuerat 
Kar ovap rc5 ^la>crr](f)^ 
Xeycoi/, 'Eyepdels Tra- 
pdXa^e TO iraihiov Kal 
TTjU pr}Tepa avTov^ Kal 
(pevye els Alyvirrov • 
Kai 'ictOl eKel eoos av 
eiuco aoL peWei yap 
H.p6i8r]s ^rjTelv to irat' 
fii'oi/, Tov diToXeaai av- 

TO. 



14. 'O be eyepdels 
napeXa^e to nraibiov 
Ka\ Trjv pTjTepa avTov 
vvKTos^ Kal a.vex<^pri- 
uev els hXyvT^Tov. 

15 Kai ^v eKel ecos 
r^s TeXevTTJs Upcodov 



FRENCH. 

et, apres avoir de- 
ploye Icurs tresors, 
ils lui offrirent des 
presens, savoir, de 
Tor, de I'encens, et 
de la myrrhe. 

12. Puis etant di- 
vinement avertis 
dans un songe de 
ne retourner point 
vers Herode, lis vse 
retirerent en leur 
pays par un autre 
chemin. 

13. Or, apres qu'ils 
se furent retires, voi- 
ci, Pange du Seign- 
eur apparut dans un 
songe a Joseph, et 
lui dit : Leve-toi, et 
prends le petit en- 
fant et sa mere, et 
t'enfuis en Egypte, 
et demeure la jus- 
qu'a ce que je te le 
disc ; car Herode 
cherchera le petit 
enfant pour le faire 
mourir. 

14. Joseph done 
etant reveille, prit 
de nuit le petit en- 
fant et sa mere, et 
se retira en Egypte. 

15. Et il demeura 
la jusqu'a la mort 



iva TT\i]poi6fi TO prjOev 1 d'Hcrodc, afin que 
imo TOV Kvpio<) Stti ' fiit accompli cc dont 



ENGLISH. 

him : and when 
they had opened 
their treasures, they 
presented unto him 
gifts ; gold, and 
frankincense, and 
myrrh. 

12. And being 
warned of God in 
a dream that they 
should not return to 
Herod, they depart- 
ed into their own 
country another 
way. 

13. And when 
they were depart- 
ed, behold, the an- 
gel of the Lord ap- 
peareth to Joseph 
in a dream, saying, 
Arise, and take the 
young child and his 
mother, and flee 
into Egypt, and be 
thou there until 1 
bring thee word : 
for Herod will seek 
the young child to 
destroy him. 

14. When he 
arose, he took the 
young child and his 
mother by night, 
and departed into 
Egypt : 

15. And was there 
until the death of 
Herod : that it 
might be fulfilled 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IT. 



319 



OER-'JiN. 



^c auf, iiiiD fduMit-'tcn 
rami) iiuO 93?i}ni;fu. 



12. Uub (Son bc- 
fvil)I it)iifu im 'iraitni, 
^aj5 fie fill) 111 flu foil: 
ten iricDcr jii JP>cl•o^ce^ 
Iciifcii. llu^ fic ^o.Afu 
^iivcl) cniou aiiDcni 
*2Dcg m(t(v in il}v 
iall^. 

13. 2)a f(c abcv l)in= 
rt>Ci\ .acjoaiii irvwcii, 
ficl)c, Da cifcbicii tcr 
t^iiyU'l tee; Jpi'iiu tcin 
3ofcpl) im 'iiMiim, 
uiiD fprait : ©re be 
auf, iiuD lumm Dai> 
5\iiiMeiii nil? feme 
^Duirrcr \n Dir, iiuD 
|iiel;e in (S,^n;vf*''"^'^"t>, 
uiiD Meik allDa, bit? 
id) Mr fac^e ; teiiu eit 
ijt VLni}auDen, Dafj 
JP>evoDe^ Dat? ^'^iiiD; 
leiu fiKbe, t>a|felbe 
um^^ubvingen. 

14. Ui\D fv jlauD 
auf, niiD iia()m Dai^ 
i\iiirleiii iiuD feme 
|0?iitrer ju fub, bei) 
hn SRadu, iiiiD eiir- 
ttict) III Sv^'ptenlaiiD, 

15. UiiD bliel allDa 
bie^ iiacl) rem ^lo^e 
Jpel•o^el^ auf t^f^ ei-- 
fiiUet \Piiite, rai^ Deu 



SPANISH. 

oro e incensio, y 
mirra. 



12. Y avisados en 
sucnos que no vol- 
viesen a, Ilerodes 
regresaron a su ti- 
erra, por olro ca- 
miiio. 



13. Ydcspucsque 
hubieron ellos par- 
tido lie aqui el an- 
gel del Senor apa- 
rece en suenos a 
Joseph diciendo : 
Levantate y toma 
al niuo, y a su ma- 
dre y huye a Egip- 
to, y estate alli 
hasta que yo te 
avise porque ha de 
aconlecer que He- 
rodcs busque al ni- 
uo para matarle. 

14. Y levantando- 
se el tomo de no- 



lATIX. 

sues, obtulerunt e: 
munera, aurum, et 
thus, et myriham. 



12. Et responsi 
secundum soinni- 
um, non rcflectere 
ad Herodem, per 
aliam viam rccesse- 
runt in regionem 
suam. 

13. Recessis au- 
tem ipsis, ecce an- 
gelus Domini appa- 
ret per somnium 
Joseph, dicens : Ex- 
citatus accipe pu- 
erum et mat rem 
ejus, et fuge in 
/Egyplum : et esto 
ibi usque dum di- 
cam tibi. Futurus 
est cnim Ilerodes 
qua^rere puerum ad 
perdendum cum. 



14. Is autcm exci- 
tatus accepit pue- 



chc al nino y a su rum et matrcm cju^ 



mad re, y fuese a 
Egipto. 



15. Y permanecio 
alli hiista la muerte 
de Hcrodes para- Llcrodis 



nocte, et sccessit in 
iEgyptum 



15. Et erat ibi 
usque ad obitur.i 



ut adim- 



que se cumpliesejpleretur dictum a 



320 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER II. 



GREEH. 



Tov 7r\i0(j)f)T0Vi Xeyov- 
roff, '' *E^ XlyvTTTov 
eKokecra tov vlou fx-ov. 



16. Tore 'Hpa}br]s 
idoiv on iv€Tvai^dr) vno 
T<5i/ fidycov, i6vix(ji6ri 
\iav^ KaX dirocTTelXas 
ai/etXe nauras tovs 
fraiBas tovs iv BrjB- 
Xee/i, KoX iv ttcictl toIs 
opiois aiiTTJs-, cltto 8ie- 
routf Kol KaroiTepco^ 

KaTO. TOV ;)(/30J/0I/ ov 

r)Kpij3a)(r€ ivapa Totv 
Maycov. 



17. Tore iiiKripcuBr] 
TO prjOev VTTO 'ifpe/xt'ou 
tov 7rpo<pr]TOV^ Xeyov- 

TOS, 

18. " ^covf) iv 'Pafj,a 
t}KOV(T0T]^ 6privo9 Koi 
Kkax<6p.os Koi obvpfjios 
TToXvs, Pa)(^rj\ KXaiov- 
cra TO. TeKva avTrjs • 
Koi ovK rjOeKc Trapa- 
KKr]6fjvai^ OTi OVK 



19. TeXfvrrjcravTOS Se 
TOV Hpadov, Idov^ ay- 
yeXoi Kvpiov Kar' ovap 
(f)cnv€Tai Toi Icocrf (f) iv 

P^lyVTTTtO, 



FRENCH. 



le Seigneur avait 
parle par un pro- 
phete, disant : J'ai 
appele mon Fils 
hors d'Egypte. 

16. Alors Herode, 
voyant que les sages 
s'etaient moques de 
lui, fut fort en co- 
lere, et il envoya 
tuer tous les enfans 
qui etaient dans 
Bethlehem, et dans 
tout son territoire, 
depuis I'age de deux 
ans et au-dessous, 
selon le temps dont 
il s'etait exactement 
informe des sages. 



17. Alors fut ac- 
compli ce dont avait 
parle Jeremie le pro- 
phete, en disant : 



a oui a 
un cri, une 



18. On 

Rama 
lamentation, des 
plaintes, et un grand 
gemissement ; Ra- 
chel pleurant ses 
enfans, et n'ayant 
point voulu etre 
consoTee de ce 
qu'ils ne sont plus. 

19. Mais apres 
qu'Herode fut mort, 
voici, range du Sei- 
gneur apparut dans 
un songe a, Joseph, 



ENGLISH. 



which was spoken 
of the Lord by the 
prophet, saying, 
Out of Egypt have 
I called my son. 

16. Then Herod, 
when he saw that 
he was mocked Oi 
the wise men, wa 
exceeding wroth, 
and sent forth, and 
slew all the chil- 
dren that were in 
Bethlehem, and in 
all the coasts there- 
of, from two years 
old and under, ac- 
cording to the time 
which he had dili- 
gently inquired of 
the wise men. 

17. Then was ful- 
filled that which 
was spoken by Jer- 
emy the prophet, 
saying, 

18. In Rama was 
there a voice heard, 
lamentation, and 
weeping, and great 
mourning, Rachel 
weeping for her 
children, and would 
not be comforted, 
because they are 
not. 

19. But when. 
Herod was dead, 
behold, an angel of 
the Lord appeareth 
in a dream to Jo- 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER U. 



321 



OERMAX. 



J^evi* Mild) ^cn ^ro- 
|)l}ctcn <v\\u\t l}iU, ^cl• 

X>i\ ffHlclU: "2111^ ^>U}p- 

tni l;abc id) mciueu 
©ol;u c^cnifcu. 

16. 5)vi«^ciot>c(> mm 
fat), ^atj cr voii ten 
^cifcn bctio.ACH n>iir, 

iiiiD fcj litre aiii?, uud 
iiclj alle KiiiDcv ^ii 
25ctl;(cl;cm t6Dtcii, 
itiiD an il^icii ivui}cii 
©rcji^cii, Die Dv\ jirci)- 
ji\l)vig uu^ &vmiiitcr 
wavcii, \u\([) bcc Bi'if/ 
t)ic cr mit gkifj i>ou 
l)cu QODcifcu filcvuct 



17. 5)a i|I (vfiilUt, 
l>a^ v^iKAt t|l \)oii ^cm 
^i-epl)ctni 3icvcmia, 
l>fi* ta fpiicl)t : 

18. 7(iif tciuCScbiv^ 
ge t}v\t uuiii cm (Sc- 
fcbvci; gct)6i-ct, vict 
KlaAcue?, ^XDciiicu^ 
UU& Jpciilciii? ; fHat)cI 
bcircmctc it}ve 5^'iu; 
l>cr, uu^ tp elite fid) 
uid)t tvojUii laifcu ; 
icuu c^ WAV aiii^ mit 
il)ucn. 

19. 2)a v^6cr Jpcrc-- 
DCL> c\f|toi-lHMi ii?ar,fic- 
()c, &a ci)'d)icii ^cv 
€ii«:^cl bctJ J^crni ^cm 
Sofcfl) iir ivaiiiu in 



SPANISH. 

lo que hablo el Se- 
nor por el profcta 
diciondo : De Egip- 
to llaine a mi liijo. 

16. Entonces Hc- 
rodcs CLiando se vio 
burlado de los Ma- 
gos irritose sob re 
manera, y envio, e 
liizo matar a. todos 
los nifios, que ha- 
bia en Bethlehem, 
y en toda su co- 
marca de dos anos 
abajo conforme al 
tieinpo que el ba- 
bia cuidadosamente 
inquh'ido de los Ma- 
gos. 

17. Entonces se 
cumplio lo que ha- 
bia hablado por el 
profeta Jeremias di- 
ciendo, 

18. Voz fue oida 
en Rama lamentos, 
y lloros y grandes 
gemidos : Raquel 
llorando sus hijos y 
no quiso ser conso- 
lada porque no ex- 
isten ya. 



19. Pero habicn- 
do muerto Herodes 
he aqui un angel 
del Seuor aparecio 
en sucnos a. Joseph 



LATIX. 

Domino per Pro- 
phetam, dicentem : 
Ex Egypto vocav: 
filium meum. 

16. Tunc Ilerodosi 
videns quoniam illu- 
sus esset a Magis, 
iratus est valde : et 
mittens occidit om- 
ncs pueros qui in 
Bethlehem, et om- 
nibus finibus ejus, a 
binatu et infra, 
secundum tempus 
quod perquisivit a 
Magis. 



17. Tunc adimple- 
tum est dictum per 
Jeremiam prophe- 
tam, dicentem : 

18. Vox in Rama 
audita est, ploratus 
et ululatus et ejula- 
tus multus : Rachel 
plorans natos sues, 
et noluit coiijolari, 
quia non sunt. 



19. Desincate an- 
tem Ilorode, ecco 
an gel us Domini se- 
cunduri soninium 
appare Joseph in 



322 



MATTHEW, CHAPTERS II., III. 



GREEK. 

20. Aeycoi/, 'Eyep- 
Beli iTupakalSe to 
7rat8iof , Kcii rrjv fxTj- 
T€pa avTOVj Koi tto- 
pevov (Is yrjv ^Icrpa- 
^\ • TiOvrjKaa-L yap 
Oi ^r]TovvT€S rr]V 
^vxr]v Tov Traidlov. 

21. 'O 8e eyepdfls 
TrapeXajSe roTraidl- 

OVy Kol rfjU p.T]T€pa 

cevTov, Koi tjXdev els 
yrju 'laparjX. 

22. *Aicov(ras 8e 
OTi *Ap)(eXaos ^a- 
triXevcL enl rrjs 'lou- 
daias durl 'Hpcadov 
rov narpos avroVf 
ecfio^Tjdr) eKeldrreX- 
6fLV' ;^p77^ar£o-^eiff 

Sc KOT '6vap, dv€)(Oi)- 

prjcreu els ra [xepij 
Tijs TaXiXaias ' 

23. Kai eXdoiV 
KaTooKr](rev els tto- 
Xiv Xeyopevrjv Na- 
^apir^ OTTOis TrXrj' 
pciiOrj TO pTjdev Sta 
Tcou 7rpo(pr]T(t)u, on 
Na^copaiof kXt^Ot]- 

ViTai.. 

X. Ez/ he Tois jj- 
/lepais cKelvais na- 
pay Liberal ^ludvvrjs 

6 I^UTTTlcrT^i, Krj- 

ovarcrcou ev tt/ eprj- 

ua Ti]S 'louSamy, 

2. Kai Xf'fcov, 

MfTavaelTe • rjy- 



FRENCH. 



en Egypte, 

20. ^ et lui dk : 
Leve-toi, et prends le 
petit enfant etsa mere, 
et t'en va au pays 
d'Israel ; car ceux qui 
cherchaient a oter la 
vie au petit enfant sont 
morts. 

21. Joseph done s'e- 
tant reveille, prit le 
petit enfant et sa mere, 
et s'en vint au pays 
d'lsrael. 

22. Mais qnand il 
eut appris qu'Arche- 
laiis regnait en Ju- 
dee, a la place d'He- 
rode, son pere, il crai- 
gnit d'y aller ; et etant 
divinementaverti dans 
un songe, il se retira 
en Galilee. 

23. Et y etant arrive 
il habita dans la ville 
appelee Nazareth, afin 
que fut accompli ce 
qui avait ete dit par les 
prophetes : II . sera 
appele Nazarien. 



1. Or en ce temps- 
la vint Je'an-Baptiste, 
prechant dans le de- 
sert de la Judee, 



2. et disant : Con- 
ver^issez-vous, car le 



EXGLISn. 

seph in Egypt, 

20. Saying, Arise, 
and take the young 
child and his mother, 
and go into the land of 
Israel : for they are 
dead which sought the 
young child's life. 

21. And he arose, 
and took the young 
child and his mother 
and came into the land 
of Israel. 

22. But when he 
heard that Archelaus 
did reio;n in Judea in 
the room of his father 
Herod, he was afraid 
to go thither : notwith- 
standino;, beino; warn- 
ed of God in a dream, 
he turned aside into 
the parts of Galilee : 

23. And he came and 
dwelt in a city called- 
Nazareth : that it 
might be fulfilled 
which was spoken by 
the prophets, He shall 
be called a Nazarene 



1-. In those days 
came John the Baptist, 
preaching in the wil- 
derness of Judea, 



2. And saying, Re- 
pent ye : for the king- 



MATTHEW, CHAPTERS II., III. 



323 



GKUMAN. 

20. llllD \\>\\\({): @tc; 
i)e uiif, uiiD iiiium ra^ 
i\iuMciu uiiD feme 
SOTutrci- i\i t)ir, iin& jic; 
l}e l)iu in ^ai.> KiiiD 3if: 
tact ; fie fiu^^U'|Un•lHM^ 
Mc rem 5\iiit>c luul) Dem 
iibeu jlaiiDcu. 

21. UuD ev jlanl) mf, 
iiiiD nabm Dae; SliuMeiii 
llu^ feme 93Tuttci- ju 
fid), uuD huu in tvu^ 
iaiiD 3fvvxe(. 

• 22. T)aeral>erl}orete, 
taf^ 2(icbcKius.^ im juDi^ 
fd)eu Jau^e SxcuIa ^vav, 
an ©tattfeinc^^vitcveJ 
JP)aoDet;, fuvducte ev 
fid) ratlin ju to mm en. 
lln^ im -tvaum emp|inv\ 
cr U5efel)l von ^oft, 
un^ ^ov\ in ^ic Oevtev 
fcei? c\ahlaifd)en ian^etv 
2.3. Un& fam, nn^ 
tPol)nete in ter ©Mtt, 
l>ie ra l)eit^'t CUajaretl) ; 
anf t»a|5 cvfullet \x>nvt>c, 
tag ta c\efac^t ift Von 
tem ^vopljrten ; Q;i- 
foil Slajaveiiui? Ijeifjen. 



1. 3ii ^fi* 3fit t-\^ni 
3 Oi) an net?, tcv ^lanfcr, 
un^ vvft'i.Atc in ^el• 
^njU Dei? jntifd)cn 
ianl^e^, 

2. Unb fvrad) : lim: 
$Su)5e, Da^ .^ mmelveid) 



BJ'ANISII. 



cn Egipto. 

20. Dicicndo : Le- 
vantatc y toma al ni- 
ilo y a. su madrc, y 
veto a. tierra de Isra- 
el porque mucrtos 
son los que atcnta- 
ban a. lavidadcl niuo. 

21. Entonccs Ic- 
vantandose el tomo 
al nino, y a su ma- 
dre, y vinosc a tierra 
do Israel. 

22. Mas habiendo 
oido que Arcbeiao 
rcynaba en Judca cn 
iufjar de su padre He- 
rodes temio ir alia y 
avisado en suenos so 
rctiro a tierra de Ga- 
lilea. 



23. Y vino y babito 
en una ciudad llama- 
da Nazarctb paraque 
se cumpliese lo que 
babian dicbo los pro- 
fetas : Sera llamado 
Nazareno. 



1. Y en aquellos di- 
as vino Juan el Bau- 
tista prcdicando en 
el dcsierto do Judea. 



2. Y dicicndo : Ar- 



LATIN. 

^crypto, 

20. I)icens:Ex- 
citatus acci{)e |)u- 
erum, et matrem 
ejus, et va?Jc in 
terram Israel : 
mortui sunt enim 
qua) rentes ani- 
niarn pueri. 

21. Hie autcin 
excitatus accepit 
puerum et nna- 
treni ejus, et venit 
in terram Israel. 

22. Audiens au- 
tem quod Arcbe- 
laus regnarct in 
Judaea pro Ilero- 
de patre suo, ti- 
muit illo ire. Re- 
sponsus autem se* 
cundum somni- 
um, secessit in 
partes Galilaia}. 

23. Et veniens 
commigravit in 
civitatem dictam 
Nazaret : ut im- 
pleretur dictum 
per Propbetas, 
Quod Nazora3U9 
vocabituf. 

1. In autem die- 
bus illis accedit 
Joannes Baptista, 
pra^dicans in de- 
serto Judaite, 

2. Et dicens: 



repentios porque el Pcenitemini, ap 



824 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER III. 



GREEK. 

yiKe yap tj (BaarL- 
Xcm ro)!/ ovpavcov. 

3. OvTosydp i(TTtv 
6 prjdels VTTO 'Hcrai- 

OV TOV TTpOCprjTOV, 

\eyovTOS, " ^covr] 
BoayvTOs iv rrj iprj- 
fioi, ''EroLjj.dcraTe 
TJju oSoy Kvplov, 
cvOeias Troiare ras 
rpi^ovs avTov. 

4. AvTos de 'ico- 
dvuTjs el^e to evdv- 
fxa avTov otto rpi- 
p(aJv Kap,rj\ov, Koi 
^oivrjv bepjiaTivrfv 
nepl TTjv ocrcpvu av- 
rov • Tj de rpocjir} 
avTOv rjv aKpides 
Kal jueXi aypLOV. 

5. Tore i^erro- 
pevero rrpos avrou 

lepoaoXvjjLa, Kal 
nacra tj 'louSata, 
Kal naaa rj 7repi)(a>- 
pos TOV 'lop^dvov, 

6. Kal ejSaTTTi- 
^ovTO iv Tco 'lopSd- 
VTj vir avTOVf e^o- 
lioXoyov/ievot, Tas 
dp.apTLas avTCov. 

7. 'idoiv Se TToX- 
\ovs Tcou <^apiaaL- 
cov Kal SaSSouicai » 
(ov €p)(op,evovs inl 
TO (ddTTTiapa av- 
TOV, elirev avTolsy 
Yivvrjp.'.iTa e^i^vcoi/, 
Tis VTTedei^ev vjjlIv 



FRENCH. 

royaume des cieux est 
proche. 

3. Car c'est ici celui 
dont il a ete parle par 
Esa'ie le prophete, en 
disant : La voix de 
celui quicrie dans le 
desert est : Preparez 
le chemin du Seigneur, 
aplanisscz ses sen- 
tiers. 

4. Or Jean avait son 
vetement de poil de 
chamejxu, et une cein- 
ture de cuir autour de 
ses reins ; et son man- 
ger etait des saute- 
relies et du miel sau- 



5. Alors les habitans 
de Jerusalem, et de 
toute ia Judee, e: de 
tout le pays des envi- 
rons du Jourdain vin- 
rent a lui. 

6. Et ils etaient bap- 
tises par lui au Jour- 
dain, confcssant leui's 
peches. 

7. Mais^ voyant plu- 
sieurs des pharisiens 
et des sadduceens ve- 
nir a son bapteme, il 
leur dit : Race de vi- 
peres, qui vous a aver- 
tis de fuir la cole re a, 
venir ? 



ENGLISH. 

dom of heaven is it 
hand. 

3. For this is he that 
was spoken of by the 
prophet Esaias, say- 
ing. The voice of one 
crying in the wilder- 
ness, Prepare ye the 
way of the Lord, make 
his paths straight. 

4. And the same John 
had his raiment of 
camel's hair, and a 
leathern girdle about 
his loins ; and his meat 
was locusts and wild 
honey. 



5. Then went out to 
him Jerusalem, and 
all Judea, and all the 
region round about 
Jordan, 

6. And v/ere baptized 
of him in Jordan, con- 
fessing their sins. 



7. But when he sav/ 
many of the Pharisees 
and Sadducees come 
to his baptism, he said 
unto them, O genera- 
tion of vipers, who 
hath warned you to 
flee from the wrath lo 



MATTUEW, CHAPTER III. 



S25 



ci:rman. 

i\} uaf;c l;cvbci; gcfom- 
men. 

3. lUit cr ijt t(i', DPii 

faia j)cta,qt iMt/ un^ o.c-- 
fpreclH'ii : Si' itt ciiif 
©tinunc ciiu't' ^PicM-- 
c^citt in ^c^ vB3k|Ic, Ic-- 
vcitct tcni ^axn ^cn 
^i\^i, un^ maclu't rid): 
ti,.^ fcinc ©niv^c. 

4. (Ti- i\ba', 3ioban: 
m'i>, l)attccin5ClciD veu 
Q^amccUt)viavcu, nn^ ci- 
ucn Ic^cvncn (Siiitcl 
uni feme knren ; feinc 
(^pcife abcv icav J^'^en: 
fdneeten uuD iinlDci 
-^LMiicj. 



5. 2)a c^inA jU ibm 
Ijinvuut Me ©ta^t 3''''' 
vufvilem, un^ ^al" c\an^e 
jiilifibe iant), unD alle 
idnDev an tern 3ovDan, 

6. Unl) (iefien ficli taii- 
fen \>cn it}miTn3[t-^vDan, 
iniD bet-'annten il;i'C 
©I'lnten. 

7. Ttdt' ci- nnn V>ie(e 
^pl}vui|aev un^0a^^u; 
Cviev fat} ju feinev 'laufe 
hmmen, \\^XK\d) er ^n 
il)uen : 3il)V Ottcin.Ae-' 
jiidue, ir>er l)at tenn 
fnd> c\eiricfcu, Taji ilu* 
tern jnliinftigeu ^'•H'u 



srANisir. 

reyno de los cielos 
esta ccTca. 

3. Porque estc cs 
aqucl de quicn hablo 
el profetfi Isaias dici- 
cndo : Voz del que 
clama en el desicrto : 
Apan^jad el camino 
del Seuor, haced de- 
rechas sus sendas. 

4. Y el inismo Juan 
llcvaba un vestido de 
pelos de camello, y 
un cinto de cuero al 
redcdor de sus lomos, 
y su coinida eran lan- 
gostas y niiel silves- 
tre. 



5. Entonces stilio 
a el Jerusalem, y to- 
da la Judea^ y toda la 
tierra de la comarca 
del Jordan. 

6. Y cran bautiza- 
dos por el en el Jor- 
dan confesando sus 
pccados. 

7. Mas vicndo que 
muchos de los Pha- 
riseos y Saduceos ve- 
nian a su baulismo 
les dijo ; oh genera- 
cion de viboras ! qui- 
en OS ha ensefiado a 
huir dc la ira veni' 

28 



LATIN. 

propinquavit e 
nim regnum cjb- 
lorum. 

3. Ilic cnim est 
pronunciatus ab 
Esaia Prophcta, 
diccnte : Vox cla- 
mantis in deserto: 
Expedite viam 
Domini, rect'is fa- 
cite semitas ejus. 

4. Ipse autem 
Joannes habebat 
indumentum su- 
um e pilis cameli, 
et zonam pel I ice- 
am circa lumbum 
suum : esca au- 
tem ejus crat lo- 
custac ct mel sil- 
vcstre. 

5. Tunc exibat 
ad eum Hieroso- 
lyma, et omnis 
Juda3a, et omnis 
circum vicinia 
Jordanis. 

G. Et baptiza- 
bantur in Jordane 
ab CO, consitcntcs 
peccata sua. 

7. Vidcnsaulcm 
multos Pharisx'O- 
rum et Sadducte- 
orum vcnientes 
ad baplismum su- 
um, dixit eis : Ge- 
nimina vijiera- 
rum, quis demon- 



326 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER III. 



GREEK. 
cf)Vy€7u ajTO TTJ9 

fxeXXovarjs opyrjs ; 

8. IloLr]aaT€ ovv 
Kapirbv d^lov ttjs 
jxeTavoias. 

9. Kai [xfj bo^rjre 
\tyeiv (V eavTols, 
Tlarepa e'x^ofjLeu rov 

K^paajx ' Xeyco 
yap vplv, OTL bvva- 
rat 6 Qeos €< rSiv 
XiOcou TovTcov eyel- 
pai TCKpa TO) 'A- 
^padfi. 

10. "HSt; Se Ka\ 

rj d^lVT} TTpOS T^V 

ol^av tS)v bivhpodv 
KelraL • ndv ovv 

divdpOU pq TTOIOVV 
KapTTOV KaXoVf €K- 
KOTTTCTai^ Kol €IS 

TTvp jSaWerai. 

11. 'Eya> pev 
QaTTTL^co vpds iv 
vhaTL (Is perdvoi- 
av ' 6 be onia-o) fiov 
epxdpevos, iax^po- 
repos pov earlv, ov 
ovK flpl LKavbs TO. 
VTToBrjpara ^aard' 
araiy avTos vpds 
QauTiaei iv rrvev- 
'jiari ay 1(0 Kai TTvpi • 

12. Ov TO TTTVOV 

ev Trj ;^ft/)i atrov, 
KOL diaKuBapiel Trjv 
aXcova avTov, Kai 
(Tvvd^et Tov aiTov 
avTov (Is TT]V dno- 
6rjK7]Vt TO de a^v- 



FKENCII. 



8. Faites done des 
fruits convenables a la 
repentance. 

9. Et ne presumez 
point de dire en vous- 
memes : Nous avons 
Abraham pour pere ; 
car je vous dis que 
Dieu peut faire naitre 
de ces pierres meme 
des enfans a Abra- 
ham. 

10. Or la cognee est 
deja mise a la racine 
des arbres ; c'est pour- 
quoi tout arbre, qui ne 
fait point 'de bon fruit, 
va etre coupe et jete 
au feu. 

11. Pour moi, je 
vous baptise d'eau en 
signe de repentance ; 
mais celui qui vient 
apres moi est plus pu- 
issant que moi, et je 
ne suis pas digne de 
porter ses souliers ; 
celui-la vous baptisera 
du Saint-Esprit et de 
feu. 

12. II a son van en 
sa main, et il nettoiera 
entierement son aire, 
et il assemblera son 
froment au grenier ; 
mais il briilera la paille 
au feu qui ne s'eteint 



ENGLisn;. 



come ? 

8. Bring forth there* 
fore fruits meet for re- 
pentance : 

9. And think not to 
say within yourselves, 
We have Abraham to 
our father: for I sav 
unto you, that God is 
able of these stones to 
roise up children unto 
j^ braham. 

10. And now also 
the axe is laid unto 
the root of the trees : 
therefore every tree 
which bringeth not 
forth good fruit is hewn 
down, and cast into 
the fire. 

11. I indeed baptize 
you with water unto 
repentance : but he 
that Cometh after me 
is mightier than I, 
whose shoes I am not 
worthy to bear : he 
shall baptize you with 
the Holy Ghost, and 
with fire : 



12. Whose fan is in 
his hand, and he will 
thoroughly purge his 
floor, and gather his 
wheat into the garnei ; 
but he will burn up 
the chaff with un- 



MATTHEW, CHAPTEIl IIT. 



327 



GEK.M.W. 

ciiti'iuncii lrcv^ct ? 

8. ©cl/Ct in, tl)\\t 
V ( d) tf I b a ijV a c ?5 ^ ii f I) f f 

9. X>ciifct mir n\d)t, 
^atj il}u bctj cud) irollt 
f aci en : ^IBiv I) a ben ll- 
ln-al)am jum ^^.itcv 
3d) fii>ie cud) : (innt 
\)cvmac\ ^cm '2(bval)ani 
aui5 Dicfcu @tcincu 
K inter ju cvjrcdcn. 

10. Q;tt i|t fd)on Mc 
7(vt ten '^aumcn an Mc 
OCuv^cl c\iicvU. y'>i-' 
vuni, irclibiv ^^anm 
uid)t .Autc ^nubt bnu; 
,qct, «?ivD abi^cl}aucn 
iinD inc? gcuci* c^cirov-- 
fen. 

11. 3d) tanfe end) mit 
^nilJVi- ^ur ^-^ul5e; ^el• 
abei- uad) mir i-oninu, 
i\\ lUuler, tcun id), 
tern id) and) nubt vie- 
iiuyifam bin, jeine ^d)n: 
l}e ju trajAcu ; fer iPirD 
cucb mit tern JpeilivKu 
(Sei|l un& mit geuer 
taufen. 



12. Un^ cv {)<M feinc 
^orffd)aufel in fetncr 
J5vuit>; cr mxt> feme 
^ennc fci^en, unt ten 
^H'l^cn in feine <gcbeu-- 
ne fa nunc In ; aber tic 
©pvenipirDcv vcv'h'CU' 



SPANISH. 

dcra ? 

8. Producid piics 
frutos dignos dc ar- 
ivpcntimionto. 

9. Y no penseis en 
dccir intcriormente : 
A Abraliani tcncmos 
por padre ; porque yc- 
OS digo : que podcro- 
so cs Dios para le- 
va n tar hijos a. Abra- 
ham aun de estas pi- 
ed ras. 

10. Y aliora tambi- 
en ya esta puesta la 
segur a. la raiz de los 
arbolcs. Y todo ar- 
l)ol que no produce 
buen fruto cortado I 
sera, y echado al fu- , 
ego. ^ j 

11. Yo en verdad 
OS bautizo en agua , 
para arrepeiitiinien- 
to, mas el que viene 
en pos de mi, mas 
poderoso es que yo, 
cuyos zapatos no soy 
dir»;no de llevar. El 
OS bautizara. en el 
Espiritu Santo, y en j 
fuego. 

12. Su bieldo csta 
en su mano, y lim- 
piara bien la era, y 
recocera su trii^o en 
la trox mas la paja 
la (]ucmara en un I'u- 
ego inextiiiguible. 



LATIX. 

stravit vobis fu- 
gere a futura ira.? 

8. Facite ergo 
fructus dignos 
ponnitentio). 

9. Et ne arbitre- 
mini dicere in vo- 
bis ipsis : Patrem 
habemus Abra- 
ham ; dico enim 
vobis,quoniam po- 
test Deus de lapi- 
dibus istis suscita- 
re natos Abrahae. 

10. Jam vero et 
securis ad radi- 
cem arborum ad- 
jacet. Omnis er- 
go arbor non fa- 
ciens fructum bo- 
num, exciditur, et 
in igneni jacilur. 

11. Ego qui- 
dem baj)tizo vos 
in aqua in pccni- 
tentiam, qui au- 
tem post nie veni- 
ens, fortior me 
est : cujus non 
sum idoneus cal- 
ceamenta portarr, 
ipse vos baptiza- 
bit inSpiritusanc- 
to et igni. 

12. Cujuc vcnti- 
labrum in nianu 
sua,et perm nda- 
bit art am s.ian), 
etcongrccabit t»']- 
ticum sinnn in 
horreum : at i>a- 



328 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER III. 



GREEK. 

pov KaraKavcet 7rt- 
p\ <icr/3ecrrc-j. 

13. Tore Trapayl- 
verai 6 ^Irjcrovs ano 
TTjs TaXikaias eVt 
rov lopbdvrjv TTpos 
TOP ^laidvurjUy rov 
SaTrTKrdqvai vn 
avTov. 

14. 'O Se 'Icoai/- 

VTji 8l€K<i}\v€U av- 

ToVf XcycoVy 'Eyo) 

XpeiClV €)((t> VTTO (TOV 

^aTrTLaBrjvai, Koi 
irv epxi] 'npos fi€ ; 

15. 'ATTOKpiOels 
fie o *lr](rovs CiVe 
npos avTov • "Ac^es 
ap£t • ovTco yap 

TTpeTTOV CO-tIv Tjplv 

tvKripaicraL nacrap 
diKaLoavPT]p • t6t€ 
d(f)ir)(rip avrop. 

16. Kai ^aiTTKr- 
6iis 6 'irjcrovi dpi- 
^r) evdus drro rov 
voarosy Kai loov, 
aP€(6xdr](rap ai/rco 
ol ovpavoi, KaX ei'Se 
TO Tvv€vp,a TOV Qcov 
Kara^ulvop cocrei 

7r€pL(TT€paV, Koi ip- 

Xopevov in uvtov. 

17. Kai IboVy <pct)- 
PT] €K TOiv ovpavoyv, 
Xiyovcra, Ovtos eV- 
Tiv 6 vlos pov 6 
u.ya7rr}Tos, iv <o ev- 
hoKT^aa. 



FRENCH. 



point. 



13. Alors Jesus vint 
de Galilee au Jourdain 
vers Jean pour etre 
baptise par lui. 



14. Mais Jean Pen 
empechait fort, en lui 
disant : J'ai besoin 
d'etre baptise par toi, 
et tu viens vers moi ! 

15. Et Jesus repon- 
dant, lui dit : Laisse- 
moi faire pour le pre- 
sent ; car il nous est 
ainsi convenable d'ac- 
complir toute justice. 
Et alors il le laissa 
faire. 

16. Et quand Jesus 
eut ete baptise, il sor- 
tit incontinent hors de 
I'eau ; et voila, les 
cieux lui furent ou- 
verts, et Jean vit PEs- 
prit de Dieu descen- 
dant comme une co- 
lombe, et venant sur 
lui. 

17. Et Voila une voix 
du ciel, disant : Celui- 
ci est mon Fils bien- 
aime, en qui j'ai pris 
mon bon plaisir. 



ENGLISH. 

quenchable fire. 

13. Then cometh Je- 
sus from Galilee to 
Jordan unto John, to 
be baptized of him. 



14. But John forbade 
him, saying, I have 
need to be baptized of 
thee, and comest thou 
to me .'' 

15. And Jesus an- 
swering said unto him, 
Suffer it to be so now : 
for thus it becometh us 
to fulfil all righteous- 
ness. Then he suf- 
fered him. 



16. And Jesus, when 
he was baptized, went 
up straightway out of 
the water : and lo, the 
heavens were opened 
unto him, and he saw 
the Spirit of God de- 
scending like a dove, 
and lighting upon him : 

17. And lo, a voice 
from heaven, sayings 
This is my beloved 
Son, in whom I am 
well pleased. 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER III. 



329 



OKiUiAiN. 



ncu mit ciDtgcm gcucv. 

13. 3h ^fi* 3nt ^im 
3f|"^ *^i'^ (^aliliUi ail 
ten ^iHDcii ^u 3i-^l}^in: 
ni", ^a|5 cv ful) \)on il;m 
vaufcu licljc. 



14. 2ibci' 3^o()ainice: 
trcl)ictc ibni, uiiD 
fpracb : 3:d) ^c^al•t 
n>ol)l, ^a|5 id) \)ou t)iv 
gctvuift tt?cv^c ; nut) Mi 
i'ommlt jii niir ? 

15. 3cfut5 abcr ant 
wovtcrc, nnD i\n\\([) ^n 
it}m: iaj; ji'^t alfofcrn; 
alj'o .qclMil)icc C!? iin^; 
alle (i^cvcd)tiatcit jn 
ci-fidlcn. 2)a lic|3 cv ct? 
\i)m 311. 



IG. Un^ ^a3;cfne^ (\c= 
tanft irai|Ucc\ ci* l\ll^ 
l)cvaiif anL> ^cm '^af; 
fcr ; nnD fui)c, Da tt)at 
fid) tn J^imnul anf 
fiber il)m, UnD 3iol)an.- 
ncti fill) Dcn (^f ijt (5ct'- 
tc^/ .alcid) all? cine Jan; 
be t)ei-ab fabrni, uiiD 
fibev il)n t'emmen. 

17. Unl> fiebe, cine 
©timme \)om Jpimmel 
l}cvab tprad) : X)iet3; i|l 
mem lieber ©obn, \xn 
trelcbem irl) ^ol}Ioic- 
fvi/len l)a(>* 



SPANISH. 



13. Entonccf Jesus 
vino de Galil3a al 
.lordan a encontrar a 
Juan para scr bauti- 
zado do el. 



14. Mas Juan se lo 
estorbaba diciendo : 
; Yo he menester ser 
bautizado dc ti, y tu 
vienes a mi ? 

15. Y respondiendo 
Jesus le dijo : <f De- 
ja esto abora porquc 
asi nos conviene 
cumplir toda justicia. 
Entonces condescen- 
dio. 



16. Y dcspucs que 
Jesus fue bautizado, 
subio luef:^o del agua, 
y he aqui se le abri- 
eron los cielos, y vio 
al Espiritu de Dios 
descendiendo como 
paloma y viniendo 
sob re el. 

17. Y he aqui una 
voz dclcielo que de- 
cia : Este es mi hijo 
muy querido, en qui- 
en tengo toda mi 
complacencia. 

28* 



LATIX. 

learn comburetig- 
ni incxtinguibili. 

13. Tunc acce- 
dit Jesus a Gali- 
la^a ad Jordanem 
ad Joannem, bap- 
tizari ab eo. 



14. At Joannes 
probibebat eum, 
dicens: Egousum 
habeo a te bapti- 
zari, et tu venis 
ad me ? 

15. Respondens 
autem Jesus dixit 
ad cum, Sine in- 
terim : sic enim 
decens est no- 
bis implere om- 
nem justilicatio- 
nem. Tunc di- 
mitiit eum. 

16. Et baptiza- 
tus Jesus, ascen- 
ditstatimdeaqua: 
Et ccce aperti 
suntei csDli,evidit 
Spiritum Dei de- 
scendentum sicut 
columbam, et ve- 
nientem super 
eum. 

17. Et ecce vox 
de ca^lis, dicens : 
Hie est til ins mc- 
us dilectus, in quo 
complacui. 



830 



MATTHEW, CIIAPTEH IV. 



GHEEK. 

1. To re 6 'Itj- 

crovs avrj^dr] els ttju 
ejjrjjxov VTTO rov 
TTV^vfxaroSy Tveipaa- 
Ofjvai VTTO Tou dia- 

2. Kat vrjcTTeiio-as 
rjfxepas re era a pa- 
Kovra KOL vvKTas 
TC(T(TapaKovTay vcr- 
Tepov eneLvacre. 

3. Kat TTpocreX- 
6oiv avTut 6 TreLpd- 
Coop, eiVev • Et vlbs 
el rov 06o{}, eiTre 

IPa 01 \i6oL OVTOL 

aproL yivoiVTai. 

4. *0 be drroKpt- 
6e\s eiive • TeypaTv- 
Tat • OvK eW' apro) 
fiouco ^}]a€rat av- 
6p(07ros, a AX' enl 
navrl prjpart eKiro- 
pevopevco 810. ctto' 
uaros Gtfov. 

5. Tore TrapaXap- 
^dpei avTov 6 bid- 
fioKos ei? rrjv dylav 
TToKiVf K.ai KTTrjcnv 
avTov eTTi TO TTTepv- 
ytov Tov lepov. 

6. Kai Xeyei av- 
rc5 ♦ Et vios el tov 
Oeov, ^dXe aeav- 
Tov Kara) • yeypaTV- 
rai ydp, "''Ort rot? 
dyyeXoLS avTov eV' 
reXelTai nepl cov, 
Koi 6771 x^'^P^^ "" 
povcri (TCy p-qnoTe 
npoaKSyJArjS Trpos 



FRENCH. 

1. Alors Jesus fut 
emmene par PEsprit 
au desert, pour y elre 
tente par le diable. 



2. Et quand il eut 
jeune quarante jours et 
quarante nuits, finale- 
ment il eut faim. 

3. Et le tentateur 
s'approchant, lui dit : 
Si tu es le Fils de Dieu, 
dis que ces pierres de- 
viennent des pains. 

4. Mais Jesus repon- 
dit, et dit : Jl est ecrit : 
L'homme ne vivra 
point de pain seule- 
ment, mais de toute 
parole qui sort de la 
bouche de Dieu. 

5. Alors le diable le 
transporta dans la 
sainte ville, et le mit 
sur les creneaux du 
temple ; 

6. et il lui dit : Si tu 
es le Fils de Dieu, jette- 
toi en bas ; car il est 
ecrit : II CQ'donnera a 
ses anges de te porter 
en leurs mains, de peur 
que tu ne heurtes ton 
pied centre quelque 
">ierre. 



ENGLISH. 

1. Then was Jesua 
led up of tlie Spirit 
into the wilderness, to 
be tempted of the 
devil. 

2. And when he had 
fasted forty days and 
forty nights, he was 
afterward an hungred. 

3. And when the 
tempter came to him, 
he said, If thou be the 
Son of God, command 
that these stones be 
made bread. 

4. But he answered 
and said. It is written, 
Man shall not live by 
bread alone, but by 
every word that pro- 
ceedeth out of th& 
mouth of God. 

5. Then the devil 
taketh him up into the 
holy city, and setteth 
him on a pinnacle of 
the temple, 

6. And saith unto 
him. If thou be the 
Son of God cast thy- 
self down : for it is 
written. He shall give 
his angels charge con- 
cerning thee : and in 
their hands they shall 
bear ihee up, lest at 
any time thou dash 



i 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 



331 



GERiMAN. 

1. 2)a iDAvD ^cfui? 
Vein ^^ci|t 111 Mc li[3u; 

^)OJl^cmicllfllucl•l'ml)r 
iDiiiDe. 

• 2. Hub ^a ci- Vicr^iA 
•itagc unMncvjict 9iiUl5- 
tc ,qcfalu't l}vUtc, l}iiii: 
gcvtc 1 1; II. 

frat ju il)m, uuDfprad): 
23i|l Ml (Sottct^ @o{;n, 
fo fpi'ifb, ^af5 t'lffc 

©tCinC '^I'OD IPCVbCll. 

4. Un^ cv antiroitctc, 
llllD fpiacl) : Si> ftc- 
l}ct .aciMnicbcii : X^cv 
50u'ii|'cl) Ifbct uicbt IHMU 
^voD aKciu, fLMl^cl•ll 
Voii ciiicm jc,^liil>cu 
Wcxt> i)a(? ^unl) ten 
SDTiiiiD (gotten v^cl}ct. 

5. !0a ful;i"tc il}ii ^cl• 
5:fiifcl mit fid) ill Mc 
l}cilivK ©^\^t, uiiD jicl- 
Ictc il}u auf Mc 3uu»f 

6. Untfprac^ ju il}m: 
5Bitl Ml (^ottct? @L>l}n, 
fo lafj Md) (}invib ; ^cun 
f^ |Ui}ct gci'dnicbcu : 
€i- itiiD fciiicu Suc\c(u 
ubcv Ml- *^cfct)l rl}un, 
uuD fic ircvDcu tid) auf 
ten ipdll^cll tiac\fii, auf 
t>afjru^cincu§iifjuid)t 
m ciufu &iu\\ iU|ic|t. 



SPANISH. 

1. Entonccs Jesus 
fuc llcviido por cl 
Espiritu al desicrto 
para scr tcntado del 
diablo. 

2. Y liabiendo ayu- 
nado quarenta dias y 
quarcnta noches de- 
spucs tuvo hainbrc. 

3. Y Ucgandosc a. 
(d cl tcntador le dijo : 
Si eres Hijo de Dios, 
di quo cstas piedras 
se liagan panes. 

4. Mas el rcspondi- 
endo le dij<3 : Escri- 
to csta, : no de solo 
pan vivira el hombrc, 
mas de toda palabra 
que sale do la boca 
de Dios. 

5. Entonces le to- 
mo el diablo, le llevo 
a la Santa Ciiulad, y 
le pus6 sobro las al- 
menas del templo. 

6. Y le dijo : Si 
ores Hijo de Dios 
echate de aqui abajo, 
porque escrito csta 
que te encomendara 
a sus I'lngcles, y te 
toniaran en sus ma- 
nos paraque tu pie no 
tropieze con piedra 
alguna. 



LATIN. 

1. Tunc Jesus 
actus est in doser- 
tum a Spiritu, 
tentari a diabolo. 



2. Et jejunana 
dies quadraginta, 
et noctes quadra- 
ginta, postreuium 
esuriit. 

3. Et accidens 
ei tentator, dixit : 
Si filius es Dei, 
die ut lapides isti 
panes fiant. 

4. Tile autem re- 
spondens, di.xit : 
Scriptuin est,Non 
in pane solo vivet 
homo, sod in om- 
ni veibo excunte 
per OS Dei. 

5. Tunc assu- 
mit eum diabolus 
in sanctam civi- 
tatem, et statuit 
eum super pinna- 
culum tenipli. 

: 6. Et dicit ei ; 

Si filius es Dei, 

dejicete:ip?umde- 

orsura. Scrii)tum 

I est enrni. Quia 

angelis suis man- 

' dabit de te, ct in 

' manibus tollcnt 

[ te, no forte im- 

j pingas ad lapideiu 



332 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 



GREEK. 

\i6ov rov TToha 
aovy 

7, "E0?; avTw 6 
Irjcrovs ' TlaXLvye' 

ypUTTTai, *' OvK €K- 

Treipdaeis KvpLov 
Tov Qeou (Tov. 

8. riaXii' irapa- 
\afj,^dv€i avTov 6 
Slu^oXos els opos 
v\j/-r]Xou Xlav, Koi 



(ras Tas ^acriXeLas 
TOV KocTfioVf Koi rr]v 
bo^av avTOiv. 

9. Kai Xe'yft av- 
Tc5 • TaGra navra 
aoL Soxro), eau ne- 
(rcbf TrpoaKvvTjcrrjs 

fiOl. 

10. Tore Xe'yei 
avTa o lr)crovs, Y- 
Traye, onicrco fiov 
a-arava. Teyparr- 
rai yap, *' YLvpiov 
TOV Qiov (TOV Trpocr- 
Kvvr)(T(LS, Koi avra 
uovco XaTpevaeis.^^ 

11. Tore d(f)ir]arLV 
avfov 6 did^oXos ' 
Kol I Sou, ayyeXoi 
TrpocTTJXdov, Koi fit- 

TJKOVOVV aVTci, 

12. AKovaas de 
6 ^lijaovs OTL 1(0- 
dvvr]s TrapedoSr], d- 
ve)(jjipr](Tev els rrju 
raXiXatau. 

13. Kai KaraXi- 
TTCDi/ TTjU Na^aper, 
^d(up KaT(OKr](Teu 



FKENCH. 



7. Jesus lui dit : II 
est aussi ecrit : Tu ne 
tenteras point le Seign- 
eur ton Dieu. 

8. Le diable le trans- 
porta encore sur une 
fort haute montagne, 
et lui montra tous les 
royaumes du monde 
et leur gloire ; 



9. et il lui dit : Je te 
donnerai toutes ces 
choses, si, en te pros- 
ternant en terre, tu 
m'adores. 

10. Mais Jesus lui 
dit : Va, Satan ; car il 
est ecrit : Tu adoreras 
le Seigneur ton Dieu, 
et tu le serviras lui 
seul. 



11. Alorsle diable le 
laissa, et voila, les an- 
ges s'approcherent, et 
le servirent. 

12. Or Jesus ayant 
oui dire que Jean avait 
ete mis en prison, se 
retira en Galilee. 

13. Et ayant quitte 
Nazareth, il alia de- 
meurcr a Capernaiim, 



ENtilJSH. 



against a 



thy foot 
stone. 

7. Jesus said unto 
him. It is written again, 
Thou shalt not tempt 
the Lord thy God. 

8. Again, the devil 
taketh him up into an 
exceedino; high moun- 
tain, and shevveth him 
all the kingdoms of 
the world, and the glo- 
ry of them, 

9. And saith unto 
him, All these things 
will I give thee, if thou 
wilt fall down and wor- 
ship me. 

10. Then said Jesus 
unto him. Get thee 
hence, Satan : for it is 
written. Thou shalt 
worship the Lord thy 
God, and him only_ 
shalt thou serve. 

11. Then the devil 
leaveth him, and be- 
hold, angels came and 
ministered unto him. 

12. Now when Jesus 
had heard that John 
was cast into prison, 
he departed into Gali- 
lee ; 

13. And leavmg Naz- 
areth, he came and 
dwelt in Capernaum, 



jrATTHLW, CnAPTEK IV. 



833 



GERMAN. 



7. T)n fpracl) ^()\u< 
jui(}m: ^u'Dcviimjk: 
l)ct aiul) cicfilH'icbcu : 
5)ii folljl Q5ott, tcmcii 
Jp^crvii, \\\d)t \)cvfucl)cn. 

8. '2Bic^cl•um fut^vcic 
i(;ii t)cv ^cufcl mit fuly 
m\ cincn j'c()r l}ol;cu 

al(c ^KiMibc rci- xB3cU 



9. Ituli fpvacd ju i{;m: 
*X)iei? allciJ trill id) tiv 
c\(b(n, fo ^u llic^a^- 
fi\Il|l, lm^ mid) auk-- 

10. 2^a fvvad) ^cfiut 
ju i(}in : JP)cLh* Did) iri\q 
von mil*, i^ataii ! t(\\\\ 
c i?' ft c 1} t vi c I'd) r I c b c n : ^T) u 
fellttanbctfiiC^ctt, rci= 
iifu Jpciin, nut) il;m 
alleiu t)icucu. 

11. !Da \?cvlict5 il;n 
fccr t(\\\d ; iiiiD ficl}f, 
ta tvatcii ^lc ^iiv^'l ju 
il}m, uuD ticutcu il}m. 

12. 2)a mm 3icfuit 
l)6rctf, ^afj 3»cl)vxmKt? 
ubcvantwoitct way, joj^ 
ci* ill Dat? 3vUilai|'d)c 

13. ^u^ Vcvlicjj ric 
©tat»t 9Ta^avctl), f\uu 



erAMSii. 



7. Y Jesus Ic dijo : 
tanibicn csta cscrito : 
No tcntarus al Senor 
tu Dios. 

8. Dc nucvo el dia- 
blo le subii) a iin 
montc niuv cncuni- 
brado, y Ic niostro 
todos los reynos del 
mundo, y la gloria dc 
ellos. 

9. Y le dijo : tc dare 
todas estas cosas si 
postrado me ado- 
rarcs. 

10. Entonccs Jesus 
le respondio : Apar- 
tatc Satanas ; porque 
escrito esta : Adora- 
ras al Seilor tu Dios, 
y a el solo scrviras. 



11. Entonces le dc- 
jo el diablo, y he 
aqui los angcles lle- 
garon, y le Servian. 

12. Mas cuando Je- 
sus 03-6 que Juan cs- 
taba en prision volvi- 
ose a Galilea. 

13. Y d-jando ^i 
Nazareth, vnio, y 



«UD U'iol}utc ju Sapcv-- 1 moro en >apliarna- 



LxflN. 

pcdem tuum. 

7. Ait illi Jesis: 
Rursum scriptum 
est : Non tentabis 
Dominum Dcum 
tuum. 

8. Iterum assu- 
mit eum diabolus 
in niontem excel- 
sum valde, et os- 
tendit ei omnia 
regna mundi, el 
gloriam eorum : 

9. Et dicit ei : 
Ha3c omnia tibi 
dabo, si cadens 
adoravcris me. 

10. Tunc dicit 
ei Jesus : Abi Sa- 
tana ; scriptum 
est cnim, Domi- 
num Deum taum 
adorabis, et illi 
soli servies. 

11. Tunc dimil- 
tit eum diabolus : 
et ecce ann;eli ac- 
cesserunt, et mi- 
nistrabant ei. 

12. Audiens au- 
tem Jesus quod 
Joannes trad it us 
esset, secessit m 
Galila^ani : 

13. Et relin 
quens Nazarct 
veniens conuni 



334 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 



€is KaTvepvaovfj. ttju 
7Tapa6aKaa(rlav, e'f 
opioid ZujSouXwj/ Ka\ 
Ne^c/aXei/i. 

14. "iva TrXrjpcoBp 
TO pi-jBev dia 'Haaiov 
Tov 7rpo(pr}TOVy Xe- 
yovTOSi 

15. " r^ Za^ov 
\a>if Kal yrj Ne^^a- 
Xfi/i, odbv BaXdcrcrTjs, 
nepav TOV *lop8dvov, 
TaXiXaia roiv iQuoiV^ 

16. *0 Xaop 6 Ka- 
BTjpevos iv (TKorei, et- 
fie (jicos p^ya, Koi rols 
KaOrjpevoLS iv X'^P9- 
Kai (TKia Baudrov, (f)cos 
dvereiXeu avrois. 



17. 'Atto t6t€ fjp- 
^aro 6 'irjcrovs Krjpixr- 
<T€(,u, Ka\ Xiyeiv, Me- 
Tavoelre • rjyyLKe yap 
1} ^acriXela Tci>i/ ovpa- 
pa>u. 

18. YlepiTTarcdv di 
rrapa. rrji/ BdXaa-crav 
rri9 TaXiXaias, elde 
8vo aSeXc^ouy, Si/Ltco- 
va TOV Xeyopevov Ue- 
rpoVy Ka\ ^Av^peav 
TOV abeXcjiov avTov, 
^dXXovras dp(pLl3Xrj- 
(TTpov ft? Trjv BdXacr- 
aav ' ?ja iv yho dXt- 



FRENCH. 

viile maritime, sur le* 
confins de Zabulon et 
tie Nephthali ; 



14. afm que fut ac- 
compli ce dont il 
avait ete parle par 
Esai'e le prophete, 
disant : 

15. Le pays de Za- 
bulon, et le pays de 
Nephthali, vers le 
chemin de la mer, au- 
dela du Jourdain, la 
Galilee des Gentils ; 

16. ce peuple, qui 
etait assis dans les 
tenebres, a vu une 
grande lumiere ; et a 
ceux qui etaient assis 
dans la region et dans 
I'ombre de la mort la 
lumiere s'est levee. 

17. Des-lors Jesus 
commenc^a a precher, 
et a dire : Convertis- 
sez-vous, car le roy- 
aume des cieux est 
proc-he. 

18. Et comme Je- 
sus marchait le long 
de la mer de Galilee, 
il vit deux freres, sa- 
voir Simon, qui fut 
appele Pierre, et An- 
dre, son frere, qui je- 
taient leurs filets dans 
la mer, car ils etaient 
pecheurs. 



ENGLISH. 

which is upon the sea- 
coast in the borders of 
Zabulon and Neph- 
thalim ; 

14. That It might be 
fulfilled which was 
spoken by Esaias the 
prophet, saying, 

15. The land of 
Zabulon, and the land 
of Nephthalim, by the 
way of tlie sea, be- 
yond Jordan, Galilee 
of the Gentiles : 

16. The people 
which sat in dark- 
ness saw great light ; 
and to them which 
sat in the region and 
shadow of death, light 
is sprung up. 

17. From that tin.'e 
Jesus began to preach 
and to say. Repent . 
for the kingdom of 
heaven is at hand. 



18. And Jesus, walk- 
ing by the sea of Gal- 
ilee, sa\y two breth- 
ren, S'mon called Pe- 
ter, and Andrew Ins 
brother, casing a net 
into the sea ; for they 
were fishers. 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 






OSRJIAN. 

tiaum, t)ic fca [k(\t am 
SOTccr, an ^c^ Cin-ciMfii 
^abiilou nut Dlcpl;tl;a^ 
(mt 

14. 'Kuf tag cvfTirict 
iriivti', tait Da c\i\\\c[t i|t 
tunl) t>cu ^ri>vl)ctcii 
3i"faia, t»ci* ta fpiutt : 

15. T)att iaiit 3a(Mi= 
feu, inib rai> ^aiiD 
9Zcv^Kl)aiim,am l}}i\\( 
t(^ 9)iccr^, jcufcit tci? 
3ovtaiit^ iiiiD t»ic l;cii)-- 
jufcl)c (i^adlaa, 

16. 3^at::'33o[F,ta'oiii 
§m|lcviii|^" fafj, t}at cin 

lint Mc ta fallen am 
Oitc iniD ©cbattcu Dcl^ 
^oDctf, tcucii ift cm 
iicl)t aufiKaaiiiKu. 

17. 533cu &fi* 3nt an 
finc\ 3ffnt? an ju pvcM- 
<\(\\, nnb ju fa.vun : 
^t}ut ^^uf5*c, Da^ J^im-- 
mclrcirt) \\\ ual}c I^cvbci; 
gct'ommcu. 

18. m^ unu 3[cfnef 
an tern c^v\li(i,\n'ci)cn 
CDTccrc (\iu^v fa() cr 
jirccn ^SvuDci, @imcn/ 
Dfu Da tjcif^t ^ctrueJ, 
unD TIuM'catt, fnncn 
^vut)cr ; Mf iravfcn 
il>ic aic^e ini' 93iccV; 
tcnu fic iiHivcn gifcbcr. 



SPANISH. 

uin ciiidad maritime, 
en los confines (k; 
Zabulon, y Ncphta- 
lim. 

14. Paraquc se 
cumpliese lo que fue 
(liclu) por el profcta 
Isaias que dijo. 

15. La ticrra dc Za- 
l)ulon, y la ticrra dc 
Noplitcilini, camino 
del mar al otro lado 
del Jordan, Galilca 
de los Gentiles. 

16. Pueblo sentado 
en tiniehlas vio gran 
luz y a. los que mo- 
raban en la region y 
sombradc la mucrte, 
luz les amanecio. 



17. Desdc aquel 
punto comcnzo Jesus 
a predicar y a decir : 
Arrep(Mitios porque 
el reyno de los cielos 
esta ccrca. 

18. Y Jesus yendo 
por la costa del mar 
dc Galilca vio a dos 
hcrmanos Simon, 11a- 
mado Pedro, y An- 
dres su hcrmano que 
ecbaban la red en el 
mar, pucs eran Pes- 
cadores. 



LATIN. 

graMt in Caj)er- 
naum mariti- 

mam : in finibus 
Zabulon et Ncph- 
thalim. 

14. Utadimplc- 
retur pronuncia- 
tum per Isaiam 
Prophetam, di- 
ccntem : 

15. Terra Zabu- 
lon, et terra Ne[)h- 
thali, viam maris 
ultra Jordancm, 
Galilcca gentium : 

16. Populus se- 
dens in tcnebris, 
vidcns luccm 
magnam, ct se- 
dentibus in rcgi- 
oneet umbra mor- 
tis, lu.x orta est 
eis. 

17. Ex tunc coR- 
pit Jesus preedicb- 
re, et dice re : Pce- 
nitcmini : appro- 
pinquavit enim 
regnum cajlorum. 

18. Circumam- 
bulans autem Je- 
sus juxta mare 
Galila:a3, vidit du- 
os fratres, Simo- 
nem dictum Pe- 
trum,et Andreani 
fra ;em ejus, mit« 
ten es veniculum 
in mare ; (eranl 
enira pisct ores.) 



336 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 



FRENCH. 

19. Et il leur dit : 
6ni(Ta> \ Vcnez apros moi, et 



GREEK. 

19. Kai \cyei av 
Tois, At^ure 

uov, Kai TTOLrjao) v/xas ' je vous ferai peclieurs 
dXifls dvdpiouiov. d'hommes. 



20. 01 5e f^^6<o? 
f l(f)evTes TO. diKTva, 

:Ko\ov6:ncrau aliroi. 

2 1 . Kai Trpo^as 
• tft^fi/, (Idev 'iWovs 
■*«;o ddsAcfiovs, 'la/cco- 
(iou rov Tox) Ze,/3edai- 
ov, Kcii loddvvr]v rov 
aBeXcbbu avrov^ iv 
TO) ttKoIco fiera ZejSe- 
oaiov Tov Trarpus av- 
Tcov^ KarapTL^ovras 

TO, blKTVa aVToiiV' Kol 

fKa.\€(rei> avrovs, 

22. Oi de evOscos 
a(f>£UTes TO ttXoiov 
Kai Tuv Trarepa av- 

Tcov, riKokovdnaav 

' - I 

avToa. 

23. Kat Trepirjy^i' 
oKrjv TTjV TaXiXaiav : 
6 ^Irjaovc, diddaKcdV ' 
iv TOLS dwayoiyais 
avroiv, K'A Krjpvcrcrcou 
7"} (vnyyeXcov ttJs 
^aaiXeias^ Kai 6(pa- 
Trevcov ndcrav voaov 
Kai Tvdaav iiaXuKiau 
iv rco Xac5. 

21. Kat d-uriXdev 
T] aKUT) avTOv els oXrju 
rfp/ '2vpLav, Kai npoa 
TjveyKav avTca Trdu 
Tas Tovs KaKcos e'xov- 
vaSt TTOiKiXais voaoLS 



20. Et ayant aiissi- 
tot quitte leurs filets, 
ils le suivirent. 

21. Et de la etant 
alle plus avant, il vit 
deux autros freres, 
Jacques, fir.s de Ze- 
bedee, et Jean, son 
frere, dans une na- 
celle, avec Zebedee, 
leur pere, qui rac- 
commodaient leurs fi- 
lets, et il les appela. 

22. Et ayant aussi- 
tot quitte leur nacelle 
et leur pere, ils le 
suivirent. 

23. Et Jesus allait 
par toute la Galilee, 
enseignant dans leurs 
synagogues, prechant 
I'evangile du roy- 
aume, et guerissant 
toutes sortes de mala- 
dies, et toutes sortes 
de langueurs parmi le 
peupler . 

24. Et sa renom- 
mee se re pandit par 
toute la Syrie ; et on 
lui presentait tous 
ceux qui se portaient 
mal, tourmentes de 



ENGLISH. 

19. And he saith un 
to them. Follow me 
and I will make you 
fishers of men. 

20. And they 
straightway left their 
nets, and followed 
him. 

21. And going on 
from thence, he saw 
other two brethren, 
James the son of Zeb- 
edee, and John his 
brother, in a ship with 
Zebedee their ifather, 
mending their nets • 
and he called them. 



22. And they im- 
mediately left the 
ship, and their father, 
and followed him. 

23. And Jesus went 
about all Galilee, 
teaching in their syn- 
agogues, and preach- 
ing the gospel of the 
kingdom, and healincr 
all manner of sick- 
ness, and all manner 
of disease among the 
people. 

24. And his fame 
went throughout all 
Syria : and they 
brought unto him all 
sick pe-ople that were 
taken with divers dis- 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER IV. 



337 



GEllMAN. 



19. UiiD cr fpracl) ;ii 
il}iicu : ?S^''^U't inii 
iKub ; id) in II cucb ]\i 

50if ujM)cu= j5 iK^' ^'^'i >"^^' 
cl)in. 

il)rc dl(^Cf iiuD folvjtcu 
il}m iiacl). 

21. Unb ta cv Von 
tauucu ircircr .qiiic;, fal; 
cf jwccit ant'cve *.Svu: 
^cl^ 3i'^^'ohtm, ^CH 

3iol}aiiucm,fcincn^^viV' 
tiv, im Ci^cbitf/ tnit 
il;vcm ^v\tii- 3''^c^A>•^ 
t^fy f(c il)vc D^c^c tlict"-' 
ten ; imD ci* vtcf fie. 

22. 53af^ l>cvfic|5Cii f(c 
^al' @ibitf imD il)i-cu 

iiacl). 

23. lIu^ ScfiK? jvng 
utnbci' im c^anjcii ^vilu 
IdifiiKU iviiiDc, (ct)rctc 
ill ^cll ©clndcii, iniD 
^n•c^i.Atc ^vVo Suaiivuii' 
inn von rem dxiid), 
lm^ l}ci(cte allcv(ci) 
©ciifbf uuD 5\vauH;cit 
im ^elh 

24. ltu^ fcin (gcvficbt 
frfiboll ill DvU' .qaii^e 
©l:}VlCll(au^ UiiD jic 
tuMcbtcuju il)mallci(ci) 
5\ raut-'c, mit mancbcvlci} 
@cud)cn uiiD O.iuil bc- 



8PANISH. 

19. Y lesdijo: Se- 
guidino, y yo hard 
que seals pescadores 
dc hombres. 

20. Y ellos dcjadas 
al instante las redes, 
Ic siguieron. 

21. Y pasando de 
alii adclante vi6 a 
otros dos hermanos 
Jacobo hi jo de Zebc- 
dco, y su hermano 
Juan que estaban en 
un ])arco con su pa- 
dre Zebedeo remcn- 
dando las redes, y 
les llamo. 

22. Y ellos imme- 
diatamente dejaron 
el barco, y su padre, 
y le siguieron. 

23. Y recorrio Je- 
sus toda la Galilea 
enseHando en las Si- 
nagogas de ellos, y 
predicando el Evan- 
gelio del reyno, y 
curando toda cnfor- 
mcdad, y toda dolen- 
cia en el pueblo. 

21. Y corrio ?u fa- 
ma por toda la Syria 
y le traian todos los 
enfennos atacados dc 
diversos males y tor- 
mentos, v los posci- 

29 



L.I riN. 

19. E ait illis: 
Venito ])ost mc, 
et faciam vos pis- 
catores hominum. 

20. Illi autcm 
continuo dimit- 
tentcs retia, sccu- 
ti sunt eum. 

21. Et proce- 
deiis inde, vidit 
alios duos fratres, 
Jacobum Zebe- 
da)i, et Joannem 
f rat rem ejus in 
navi cum Zcbe- 
da^o patre eorum, 
resarciente«s retia 
sua : et vocavit 
cos. 

22. Illi jmtcm 
statiin dimittentes 
naviculam et pa- 
trern suum, .secu- 
ti sunt eum. 

23. Et circuibal 
totum Galiloeam 
Jesus, docens in 
synagogis eorum, 
et prredicans eu- 
angclium rogni, 
et sanans omnem 
morbum, ot om- 
nem infirmitatem 
in populo. 

2 4. Et abiit au- 
ditio ejus in totam 
Syriam, et obtu- 
lerunt ei onines 
male habentes, 
variis norbis, et 



338 



MATTHEW, CHAPTERS IV., V. 



GREEK. 

Kai ^acrduois crvve^^O' 
fievovs, Kai daifJLOvi- 
^ofxeuovSy Koi aeXrji/i- 
a^oixeuovsy K-oi Trapw 
XurtKoutf • Koi edcpd- 
V€V(T€U avTovs. 

25. Kai rjKoKovdt)- 
trau avTcp ox^oi noX- 
Xot dno Tr}s TakiXai- 
as Kai AcKaTToXeois 
KOI lepocroXvfxoiv koi 
louSaiay, Kai irepaj/ 
Toy *lopddiH)v. 



1. *l5c«>i/ be roi/s 
o)(Xovs f^i/^lBrj els TO 
opos ' Kai KaOicrav- 
Tos avToVf TrpoarjX- 
6ov avrc5 ol p,a6r}Ta\ 
avTOv. 

2. Kat dvoL^as to 
(TTopa avToVy cdiha- 
fTKcv avTovs-, Xeyoiv^ 

3. MaKoptoiotTrrca- 
-)(o\ Tw TTvcvpari, on 

aVTCOV €(TTIU 7) /SatTt- 

Xci'a rmv ovpavwv. 
4t. MaKdpioiolnev- 



ovvTfSt on avTo\ 



wapaKX T) $T} (Tovrat. 

5. MaKdpioio'nrpa- 
tff, on avTol kXtjpo- 

tfoixrj(rov(ri rfju yrjv. 

6. MaKdpioi ol TTfi- 
VMvres Ka\ di^lratvTes 
Trji biKaiocrvvriv^ on 



FRENCH. 



diverses maladies, les 
demoniaqucs, les lu- 
natiqucs, les ])oraly- 
tiq-'es, et il les gue- 
rissait. 



25. Et de grandes 
troupes de peuple le 
suivirent de Galilee, 
et de Decapolis, et de 
Jerusalem, et de Ju- 
dee, et de dela le 
Jourdain. 



1. Or Jesus voyant 
tout ce peuple, mon- 
ta sur une montagne ; 
puis s'etant assis, ses 
disciples s'approche- 
rent de lui ; 

2. et ay ant com- 
mence a parler, il les 
enseignait de la scrte : 

3. Bienheureux sont 
les pauvres en esprit ; 
car le royaume des 
cieux est a eux. 

4. Bienheureux sont 
ceux qui pleurent ; 
car its seront conso- 
les. 

5. Bienheureux sont 
les debohnaires ; car 
ils heriteront la terre. 



ENGLISH. 

eAses and torments 
and those which were 
possessed with devils, 
and those which were 
lunatic, and those that 
had the palsy ; and he 
healed them. 

25. And there fol- 
lowed him great mul- 
titudes of people from 
Galilee, and from De- 
capolis, and from Je 
rusalem, and froni 
Judea, and from be- 
yond Jordan. 

1. And seeing the 
multitudes, he went 
up into a mountain : 
and when he was set, 
his disciples came un- 
to him. 

2. And he opened 
his mouth, and taught 
them, saying, 

3. Blessed are the. 
poor in spirit : for 
theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven. 

4. Bles.sed are they 
that mourn : for they 
shall be comforted. 

5. Blessed are the 
meek : for they sliai^ 
inherit the earth. 



6. Bienheureux sont 6. Blessed are they 
ceux qui sont affa- 1 which do hunger and 
mes et alteres de la thirst after righteous- 
justiG<;> ; car ils seront , ness • ^'or they shall 



MATTUEW, CHAPTERS IV , V. 



339 



CitU.UAN. 



SPAMSir. 



LATIX. 



^aftct, Mc ^^cfi'lJViu'U, (los del dcmonio y i torrninibus com* 
tie 9}Zc>iUlTiibri>icu uiiD los Imiaticos )'■ k:s prchonsos, rt das- 
tic (fcicluln-;iclM,Ani ; ' paraluicos ; y los cu- 
luib (V uuul)rf fic allc 

gCfuuD. 



25. ^u^ c(? fi^Uytc ibm 



raba. 



25. Y 

irrandcs 



lo scjTuian 
multitudes 



©adiaa, an^ ten ^c l)u do pueblo de Galilea, 



Icm, aiie; ^cm jiUifcbni 



1. T^A cr a6cv tac; 
^olf fill}, .qiHv\ ci* aiif 
ciiicu ^i3cr.q, ull^ fc^tc 
fub, llu^ fciuc 3uu^cv 
tvatcu 3U il;m. 

2. ^u^ cr t()at fcincii 
5DiiniD auf, Id^vctc fic, 
UiiD fpracl) : 

3. ©cliv] fiu^, ^ic ^a 
gctfllid) al•mflll^; tcwn 
tv\s3Jpiuimclvcid) i|Ul}r. 

4. ©di.^^ fiat, Me ta 
IciD traAcu ; tciiii fic 
foUcu vjctv6|Ut rocvtcu. 

5. ©cfi,A fint ^ic 
©anftmutl)ijKii ; ^ciln 
fic ircvrcu ^al> Sitvcul) 
bcfil;cn. 

6. @c(io; fill^, Mf ta 
t}unc\crt iiiiD M'lijict 
Wild) tcr (Scvcdui.'.^t-cit; 
tcmi fU follcii fact ivct^ 



V de Dccapolis y de 
Jerusalem y de Ju- 
dea, y de la otra ban- 
da del Jordan. 



1. Y viendo Jesus 
las gentes subio a un 
monte y habiendose 
sentado llegaron a. el 
sus discipulos. 

2. Y abriendo su 
boca les ensenaba di- 
cicndo. 

3. Bienaventurados 
los pobres de esj)iri- 
tu, porquc de el los es 
el reyno de los cielos. 

4. Bienaventurados 
los afligidos, porque 
ellos seran consola- 
dos. 

5. Bienaventurados 
los mansos, porque 
ellos rccibiran en he- 
rencia la tierra. 

6. Bienaventurados 
los que ticnen ham- 
bre y sed de justicia, 

! Dorque ellos seran 



monic.cos,ft . uia- 
ticos, et paralyti- 
cos : et cuiavit 
cos. 

25. Et secutce 
sunt cum turbts 
multcedeGalilaea, 
et Decapoli, et 
Ilierosolymis, et 
Judaea, et trans 
Jordanem. 



1. Videns autem 
turbas, asccndit 
in montem : etse- 
dente eo, advene- 
runt ei discipuli 
ejus. 

2. Et apericna 
OS suum, docebat 
cos, d icons :' 

3. Beati paupe- 
res spiritu, quo- 
niam ipsorum est 
rcgnum ca;lorum. 

4. Beati lugen- 
tes, quia ipsi oon- 
solabuntur. 

5. Reati mitcs 
quoniam ipsi hac- 
reditabuntterrcni. 

6. Beati esuri 
entes et sitientes 
justitiam, quoni- 
am ipsi sauira* 



340 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



GREEK. 

rai. 

7. MaKapioi ol eXe- 
ijfiovcSf oTi avToi eXe- 
TjdrjcrovTai. 

8. MaKapiot ol Ka- 
Bapoi Trj KapSi'a, on 
avTo\ Tou Gfojf oy^/ov- 
rat. 

9. MaKapiot ol ei- 
pTjvoTTOLol, ort avTol 
viol Qeov KXT]dfj(TOV' 
rai. 

10. M.aKa.pioiolb€- 
hi,a>yp.(voi €v€K€v di- 
Kaioavurjg, ort avrav 
4(TTiu 7) ^aaiXiia Ta>v 
ovpavQ)]/, 

11. MaKapioi eVre 
orav oveihlawaiv 
Vfias Kcu dico^coai, 
Ka\ iiiToaai irau tto- 
vrjpov pripa KaO'' 
VfiS)!/, yjrevbop.evoi, 
fV€Kev ijJLOVy 



12. Xaipere Kal 
uyaWiao-Oe^ on 6 
fiiados vpwv TToXvs 
€V Tols ovpavols ' ov- 
Tco yap edico^au rovs 
frpocfjt Tas Tovs irpo 
v/xav. 

13. 'Yjueiff eoTP to 
^Xa? T7y? yrjs. 'Env 
fte TO aXas pcopavdrj, 
if TiVL d\i(T6fja€TaL ; 



FBENCH. 

rassasies. 

7. Bicnheureux sont 
les misericordicux ; 
car misericorde leur 
sera faite. 

8. Bienheureux sont 
ceux qui sont nets de 
coeur ; car ils verront 
Dieu. 

9. Bienheureux sont 
ceux qui procurent la 
paix ; car ils seront 
appeles enfans de 
Dieu. 

10. Bienheureux sont 
ceux qui sont perse- 
cutes pour la justice ; 
car le royaume des 
cieux est a eux. 

11. Vous serez bien- 
heureux quand on 
vous aura injuries et 
persecutes, et quand, 
a cause de moi, on 
aura dit faussement 
centre vous toute 
sorte de mal. 

12. Rejouissez-vous, 
et tressaillez de joie, 
parce que votre re- 
compense est grande 
dans les cieux ; car 
on a airisi persecute 
les prophetes qui ont 
ete avant vous. 

13. Vous etes le sel 
de la terre ; mais si 
le sel perd sa saveur, 
avec quoi le salera-t- 



ENGL18H. 

be filled. 

7. Blessed are the 
merciful : for they 
shall obtain mercy. 

8. Blessed are the 
pure in heart : for 
they shall see God. 

9. Blessed are the 
peace-makers : for 
they shall be called 
the children of God. 

10. Blessed are they 
which are persecut- 
ed for righteousness' 
sake : for theirs is the 
kingdom of heaven. 

11. Blessed are ye 
when men shall re- 
vile you, and perse- 
cute you, and shall 
say all manner of evil 
against you falsely, 
for my sake. 



12. Rejoice, and be 
exceeding glad : for 
great is your reward 
in heaven : for so 
persecuted they the 
prophets which were 
before you. 

13. Ye are the salt 
of the earth : but if 
the salt have lost his 
savor, wherewith shall 



MATTHEW, CIIAPTKR V. 



341 



GERMAN. 

otn. 

Vic iDcvDiii i^avml;ci-^iJii 
U'it cilvin.Acii. 

8. @flici fiiib, Mc rci-- 
'.c6 Jp)cvjcn5 fln^; ^cuu 
(c «)cvt»cii (Sott fcbaii: 
n. 

9. ©cfic^ fint) Mc 
gi-icbfci-ti.c\cn ; tciiu fic 
irciMii (Sotted ^iiiDcv 

10. ©cUs\ f(u^, Mc iim 
(5?n-C(:bti>U"cit in (leu 
lHHfolc\ct ircvDcu ; tnui 



11. ©cfiA ffl^^ if}i*/ 
jvcmi cml> Mc^tciifchcu 
utn mciucmMliciifil)nu\: 

vi'Dcii allcilcn llcbcle^ 
UMDci- rm(), fo fie &iV- 
vau liii^cii. 



12. ©cPb fv5()ficb 

fmb im J^immel it»ot)l 
bclol)iicnrctDcn. T)cim 
alfo babe 11 fie i>ei-fcl,Aet 

cuct; gcn?efeu ftub. 



13. ^bi* ffbb tAC> 
iimi ^al^ ©al} ^ urn in 



SPANISH. 

saciados. 

7. l)ieiiavontura(los 
los misericordiosos, 
porque ellos alcanza- 
run misericord ia. 

8. Bicnaventurados 
los limpios de cora- 
zon, porque ellos ve- 
run a. Dios. 

9. Bienaventurados 
los pacificos, porque 
ellos scran Uamados 
hijos de Dios. 

10. Bienaventura- 
dos los que padecen 
persecucion por cau- 
sa de la justicia, por- 
que de ellos es el 
reyno de los cielos. 

11. Bicnaventura- 
dos sois cuando os 
maldijeren, y os pcr- 
siguicrcn, y dijcrcn 
todo mal do vosotros 
con falsedad por mi 
causa. 



12. Gozaos y ale- 
graos porque es gran- 
de vuestro galardon 
en los cielos, porque 
asi persiguieron a los 
profetas que fueron 
antes de vosotros. 



LATIN. 

buntur. 

7. Beati miseri- 
cordcs, quoniam 



ipsi misericordia 
afficientur. 

8. Beati mundi 
corde, quoniam 
ipsi Dcum vide- 
bunt. 

9. Beati pacifi- 
ci, quoniam ipsi 
filii Dei vocabun- 
tur. 

10. Beati per- 
secutione affecti 
propter justitiam, 
quoniam ipsorum 
est regnum csdIo- 
rum. 

11. Beati estis 
quum malcdixe- 
rint vos, et pcrs«?- 
quuti fuerint, et 
dixcrintomne ma- 
lum verbum ad- 
vcrsum vos, n/en- 
tientes, propter 
me. 

12. Gaudcte et 
exultatc, quoniam 
merces vestra 
multa incnciis, sic 
enim pcrscquuti 
sunt Prophetas 
qui ante vos. 



13. Vos estis sal 
^errnp ; si autem 



13. Vosotros sois 

la sal de la tierra, 

y si la sal pcrdiere j sal infatuatuni sit, 

ttiiit'/ ivomif irtll man su sabor ^ con que se | in quo salictur ? 

29* 



342 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



GREEK. 

Kill KaTaTrarelcrOai 

VTTO TCOV auOpoOTTCtiV. 

14. *Y/i€ti eVre to 
(pais roil Koaixov. Ou 
bvvarai ttoXis Kpv^rj- 
yuL €7rdva> opovs K€i- 
usvr] • 

15. Ov8e Kaiovai 
\v)(yov^ KOL Tide'aaiv 

T.VTOV VTTO TOV fXobl- 

oVy aXk iiii ttjv 
Xv^uiavy Kal Xajinei, 
ndai Tols iv rfj olKia. 



16. OvT(i> Xajj-ylrd' 
TO) TO (pas Vfioiu e/x- 
TrpocrOev twv dudpoj- 
TTcoVy oncos Idooaiu 
vpcov TO. KaXd 'dpyUf 
Ka\ do^dcrcoai, tou 
frnrepa vpcou tou iv 
rois ovpavols. 

17. Mq vop.ia-r]T€ 
OTL rjXOov KaTaXvaaL 

TOU POpOVf fj TOVS 

7rpo(pf]Tas ' ovK f]X' 
6ov icuTaXvaac, dXXd 
TrXrjpcocrai, 



18. *Ap.T)V yap Xe- 
yco vpiu, €(os av rra- 
oeX6q 6 ovpavos Koi 
ly yrj, Icara eu rj pia 
Kepala ov prj napeX- 
()T} dno TOV uopov, €(os 
^v irduTa yevrjTui 



FliENCH. 

on ? II ne vaut plus 
rien qu'a ^tre jete 
dehors, et f'oule des 
hommes. 

14. Vous ^tes la lu- 
miere du monde. 
Une ville situee sur 
une montagne ne peut 
point etre cachee. 

15. Et on n'allume 
point la larnpe pour 
la mettre sous un 
boisseau,' mais sur un 
chandelier, et elle 
eclaire tous ceux qui 
sont dans la maison. 

16. Ainsi, que votre 
lumiere, luise devant 
les hommes, afin 
qu'ils voient vos 
bonnes oeuvres, et 
qu'ils glorifient votre 
Pere qui estaux cieux. 

17. Ne croyez pas 
que je sois venu ane- 
antir la loi ou les pro- 
phetes ; je ne suis 
pas venu les anean- 
tir, mais les accom- 
plir. 

18. Car je vous dis, 
en verite, que jus- 
qu'a ce que le ciel et 
la terre soient passes, 
un seul iota, ou un 
seul trait de lettre, ro: 
passe ra point, que 
toutes CCS choses ne 



ENGLISU. 

it be salted ? it ia 
thenceforth good for 
nothing, but to be cast 
out, and to be trodden 
under foot of men. 

14. Ye are the light 
of the world. A city 
that is set on an hill 
cannot be hid. 

15. Neither do men 
light a candle, and 
put it under a bushel, 
but on a candlestick : 
and it giveth light un- 
to all that are in the 
house. 

16. Let your light 
so shine before men, 
that they may seo 
your good works, and 
glorify your Father 
which is in heaven. 



17. Think not that 
I am come to destroy 
the law, or the proph- 
ets : I am not come 
to destroy, but to ful- 
fil. 



18. For verily I say 
unto you. Till heaven 
and earth pass, one 
jot or one tittle shall 
in no wise pass from 
the law, till all be fuU 
filled. 



M^-TTIIEW, CHAPTER V. 



343 



GEKMAV. 

fallen? ^-> i|l juniduit 

mail ct' l;iih\iu^)'tl)uttc, 
iiiit) Iai|V c^ Mc h^iirc 
^ntvctcu. 

14. 3l}vfcl;^ tiUt JidH 
tcv \33iit. St? mac\ 
l)ie ©taDt, t\( auf ci; 
iicm '^cicie \u<\t, uicljt 
Vcibov.qcu fci;ii. 

15. dJl^xn ^iiiiDct auc() 
iiid)t ciu iid)t Ml, uiiD 

fc(^U ftt UlltCV killCll 

©d>ctfcl, fouDcvu auf 
ciiicu icudHcv, \o Uwd)-' 
tct C(3 tcucu alien, Die 
im J^aufc jiiiD. 

16. Zllfo lajft't cucv 
i\d)t Iciubtcu \)cv ^cn 
ifutcii, ^at5 jic cuvc vui= 
tea QODcitc fcl)cii, miD 
ciiicii ^atcr im -i^iim 
mcl ^ncifcii. 



17. 3(}r folft nidn 
n?al)ncii, Daj^ id) c^ctom; 
mcu bill, t^at> C^cfcp; 
oDfv Mc q)i'opl)crcu 
aiif^ul^Ku. 3d) bill 
jud)t vicl-'cmmfii auf^ii- 
lefcii, feu Devil ju cifiil- 
Icii. 

18. X);nu id) fac^c cud) 
w?al)rlid) : ^^i^ t,\\i 
Jpimmcl uuD SrDe jcv- 
c<cl)c, iriiD uid)t jcr.AC- 
l)cu tcv i-iciu|h' U3ud)-- 
\ii\hc, ned) (£iu Ind 
VPui (Sifc^, bie; Dajj ct> 
<»llct> iicfd)cl;c. 



SPANISH. 

haru saiada ? No vale 
ya para iiada sino 
para ser cciiada fue- 
ra y pisada do los 
honibres. 

14. Vosotros sois la 
uz del mundo. Una 

ciudad situada sobre 
un monte no pucde 
cscondersc. 

15. Ni se enciende 
una vela para poner- 
la bajo un celeniin 
sino en el candelero, 
y asi alumbra a. todos 
los do la casa. 

16. Brille asi vu- 
cstra luz delante de 
los hombres paraquc 
vean vucstras buenas 
obras y glorifiquen a 
vuestro Padre que 
esta en los cielos. 

17. No crcais que 
yo he venido a. abro- 
gar la Ley 6 los pro- 
fetas : no he venido 
a abrogarlos sino a 
hacerlos cumplidos. 



18. Porque en ver- 
dad OS digo que an- 
tes pasaran el cielo 
y la tierra, que deje 
de pasar una jota 6 
una tilde de la Ley 
sin que todas las co- 
sas scan cumplidas. 



LATIN. 

ad nihilum valet 
ultra, si non ejici 
(bras, et concul- 
cari ab honiini- 
bus. 

14. V»sestis lux 
mundi : non po- 
test civitas ab- 
scondi supra mon- 
te m posit a. 

15. Neque aC' 
cendunt luccr' 
nam, et ponunt 
cam sub niodio, 
sed super cande- 
labrum, ct lucet 
omnibus in domo. 

16. Sic luceut 
lux vcstra coram 
hominibus, ut vi- 
deant vestra pul- 
chra opera, et glo- 
rificcnt Patrem 
vestrum qui in 
ccelis. 

17. Ne putetis 
quod veni dissol- 
vere legem, aut 
Prophetas ; non 
veni dissolveie, 
sed adimplere. 



18. Amenquip- 
pe dico vobis, do- 
nee pra3tereat cae- 
lum et terra, jota 
unum, aut unus 
apex non pi'aiter- 
ibit a lege, donee 
omnia iiant. 



I 



344 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



CREEK. 

19 Off iav ovp 

\vo-r; ixiau TUtv ivTO- 
\a>v Toi TCtiv Tcov e'Aa- 

XicTTCOU, K'M. didder] 

ovTca Tovs dvdpu)- 

TTOUS, eXdx^KTTOS kXt]- 

Bijo-erac iv rfj ^aai- 
Keia ru)V ovpava>v • 
oj b av TTOLTjcrij koX 
8tSu^?7, ovTOs fieyas 
K\j]dr]o-eraL iv rfj 
/SacriXei'a ratv ovpa- 
vav. 

20. Aeyo) yap 
vfup, OTL iav fir] ne- 

pL(T(T€VCrrj t] dlKaiOCTV- 

vrj vpcov nXeiov rav 
Tpafi/xaTecov Ka\ ^w 
ptcraloiv, ov pij ei- 
aeXdrjTe cIsttjv ^acri- 
Xeiav Tcov ovpavav. 

21. 'H/coucrare otl 
ippedi] Tois dp)(aiot9, 
Ov (pouevcreLS • 6? S' 
av (povevcrrj^ '4-^0)(0S 
ecTTai rfj KpLcrei. 



22. 'Eycb 8e Xe'yo) 
vfxivj oTi nds 6 opyi- 
^6p.evos TO) a8eX0c5 
avTQV elxfj, evo^os 
ecrrai rrj Kpia-ei • 6s 
d av f'iitr) rat aSeX- 
cf)(o avTov paKa evo- 
^os ecrrcf. r&i avve- 
Opito ' OS O av €L7rrj 
1^0)/ je, €VO)(os ecrrai 
its Tr}t yeejvav tov 



FRENCH. 

soient faites. 

19. Celui done qui 
aura viole i'un de ces 
petits commande- 

] mens, et qui aura 
j enseigne ainsi les 
hommes, sera tenu le 
plus petit au royaume 
des cieux ; mais celui 
qui les aura faits et 
enseignes, sera tenu 
grand au royaume 
des cieux. 

20. Car je vous dis 
que si votre justice ne 
surpasse celle des 
scribes et des phari- 
siens, vous n'entrerez 
point dans le roy- 
aume des cieux. 



21. Vous avez en- 
tendu qu'il a ete dit 
aux anciens : Tu ne 
tueras point ; et qui 
tuera sera punissable 
par le jugement. 

22. Mais moi, je 
vous dis que qui- 
conque se met en co- 
le re sans cause con- 
tre son frere, sera pu- 
nissable par le juge- 
ment ; et celui qui 
dira a sou frere, Ra- 
cha, sera punissable 
par le conseil ; et ce- 
lui qui lui dira, Fou, 



ENGLISH. 

19. Whosocvei there« 
fore shall break one 
of these least com- 
mandments, and shal! 
teach men so, he shall 
be called the least in 
the kino;dom of heav- 
en : but whosoever 
shall do and teach 
them, the same shal, 
be called great in the 
kingdom of heaven. 

20. For I say unto 
you. That except youi 
righteousness shaP 
exceed the righteous- 
ness of the scribes 
and Pharisees, ye 
shall in no case enter 
into the kingdom ot 
heaven. 

21. Ye have heard 
that it was said by 
them of old time-. 
Thou shalt not- kill : 
and whosoever shall 
kill, shall be in dan- 
ger of the judgment : 

22. But I say unto 
you. That whosoever 
is angry with his 
brother without a 
cause, shall be in 
danger of the judg- 
ment : and whosoev- 
er shall say to his 
brother, Raca, shal 
be in danger of the 
council : but whoso- 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



34^ 



19. ^iT mm (Siiib" 
ton ^lejVu Mcniiini ^c- 
botcii anfi6|'k't, iiaD Id}; 
vet t)ic icutc ai\o, ^cv 

im Jpiminclicicl) ; ircr 
eL> iUh'v tl}ur iiiiD iclnct/ 
tcr )T)irD c\vo^ l;p^"cu 



20. IDcnn ic() fac\c 
fuel) : Qs \n) DCUll cuic 
(^cvccl)ti^tcit bi'ifci-, 
^cull tCL* ©du'ifrc^c- 
Iclntoii UU& ^Ijaiifacr, 
fo ircrDct il)r niil)t in 
t>ait Jpimiiuii'cul) tom- 
inciu 

21. 3^f;r6a(>t,qcl)6rft; 
l)afj 311 Dcii "illtcii .Acfa>u 
i|i : 'X)ii|'oli)t iiidn toD- 
ten ; it>ci- abcr tc^tct, 
tor fell bfi^ (^ci-iil)t0 
fil)ulMvj fci;u. 

22. 3c()a(>cr fa,c\cciifb: 
^iT nut fcmcm '^lu-- 
h'l" jiivnct, ^cl• i\\ ^e^ 
C^crubti' fibulC'iv^; )va- 
alHV 3n fciiicin '^inrcr 
)\u\t : Siacba, ^cl• i|l 
^c^ 5)Iat;)6 fd)»lf*iA ; 
ircr aba- jXAt : 5)u 
9Tuv, tru i|l tc^ bel= 
IU.l)cn ?^cuci-^ )'il)nli)t^. 



SPANISH. 

19. I)c modo que 
ol que qucbrantasc 
uno do estos miiiimos 
inandamientos, y en- 
sonasu asi a los liom- 
bres, sera llamado 
imiy pcHjucno en el 
rcyno de los ciclos. 
Mas el que los guar- 
dare y enseuare, este 
sera llamado grande 
en el reyno de los 
cielos. 

20. Porquc yo os 
digo que si vuestra 
justicia no fuere ma- 
yor que la de los 
Escribas y Pharisees 
no entrareis en el 
reyno de los cielos. 



21. Oisteis que fuc 
dicho a losantiguos: 
no mataras, y cual- 
quiera que matare, 
quedara obligado a, 
juicio. 

22. Mas yo os digo 
que cualquiera que 
se enojare con su 
hermano, quedara 
sujeto a juicio, y cu- 
alquiera que llamare 
Raca a su hermano, 
queda"\i sujeto al Sy- 
nedric Mas el que 
lo llamare insensate 
quedara sujeto al fu- 



LATIN. 

19. Qui ergo sol- 
verit unum man- 
datorum istorum 
minimorum, et 
docuerit sic ho- 
mines, minimus 
vocabitur in reg- 
no cjulorum : qui 
autem fecerit et 
docuerit, hie mag- 
nus vocabitur in 
regno ca:lorum. 

20. Dice enim 
vobis, quod si non 
abundaverit jus- 
titia vestra plus 
ScribarumetPha- 
risa^orum, non in- 
trabitis in regnum 
cailorum. 

21. Audistisquia 
pronunciatum est 
antiquis: Non oc- 
cides : qui autem 
occiderit, obnox- 
ius eritjudicio. 

22. Ego autem 
dice vobis, quia 
omnis irascens 
fratri suo inune 
rito, obnoxius erit 
judiciu : qui au- 
tem dixerit fratri 
suo Raca obnox- 
ius erit conccssui: 
qui autem dixerit 

, I'atue, obuoxiua 



i 



346 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V, 



GREEK. 



irvpis. 



23. *Eav ovp irpoar- 
c^epTjs TO dcopov crov 
ezri TO OvartaaTTjpioi', 

I KaKel p,Vrj(T6^S^ OTl 6 

dde\(})6s (Tov e;^ft rt 

KUTa (TOVy 

24. A^e? iicel to 
bccpou crov, epirpoa-' 
Bev TOV SvaLaaTTjpi- 
ov, Kai uTraye, TrpcS- 
TGv diaWdyrjdt rat 
ade\cf)a (TOV, Koi t6- 
T€ eXddiv Ttp6a<^5pe 

TO dcipOU (TOV. 

25. "icrOt evuocov 
ra duTibLKOi crov tu- 
\Vy ecos oTOv el eu 
rfj 6Sw fxeT avTov, 
fiTjTTOTe ae 7rapn8<^ 

6 duTl^LKOS T(0 KplTJl, 

Kal 6 KpLTTjs a€ ira- 
paSw rc5 VTrrjpeTi], 

Koi fls (f)v\aKrjlf 

^Xrjdfja-jj. 



26. ^Ap-rju \eyco 
<To\, ov [xrj €^e\6r}S 
€K€7Bev €(oe dv dno- 
Saiy TOV ecrxorov ko' 
^pdvTrjv. 

27. HKovcraTf on 
(ppedq Tols dp^aioig 
Oil fxoix^vcreie * 



FRENCH. 

sera punissable par 
la ge. lenne du feu. 

23. Si done tu ap- 
portes ton ofTrande a 
Tautel, et que la il te 
souvienne que ton 
frere a quelque chose 
centre toi ; 

24. laisse 11 ton of- 
frande devant I'autel, 
et va te reconcilicr 
premierement avec 
ton frere ; puis viens, 
et ofTre ton offrande. 



25. Sois bientot 
d'accord avec ta par- 
tie adverse, tandis que 
tu es en chemin avec 
eile ; de peur que ta 
partie adverse ne te 
livre au juge, et que 
le juge ne te livre au 
sergent, et que tu ne 
sois mis en prison. 



26. En verite, je te 
dis que tu ne sortiras 
point de la, jusqu'a 
ce que tu aies paye 
le dernier quadrain. 

27. Vou? avez en- 
tendu qu'il a ete dit 
aux ancien: ; Tu ne 
commettras point 
aduUere. 



EXGLISH. 



ever shall say, Thou 
fool, shall he in dan- 
ger of hell-fire. 

23. Therefore, it 
tliou bring thy gift to 
the altar,' and there 
rememberest that thy 
brother hath aught 
against thee, 

24. Leave there thy 
gift before the altar, 
and go thy way; first 
be reconciled to thy 
brother, and then 
come and offer thy 
gift. 

25. Agree with thine 
adversary quickly, 
while thou art in. the 
way with him ; lest 
at any time the ad- 
versary deliver thee 
to the judge, and the 
judge deliver thee to- 
the of^cer, and thou 
be cast into prison. 



26. Verily, I say 
unto thee. Thou shalt 
by no .means come 
out thence, till thou 
hast paid the utter- 
most farthing. 

27. Ye have heard 
that it was said by 
them of old time, 
Thou shalt not com- 
mit adultery : 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



847 



OEBMAX. 



23. iDanim, wnm ti\ 
tciiic (^<\be auf rem 
'illtav opfcv)t, iiiiD \v\x]i 
all Da ciii^ctcnt-", tafj 
l)ciii ^^nifci* (txvsx^ wi- 
ta Did) l}abc, 

24. ©0 laf; allDa l>ov 
t>fm 2Iltar Dcuic (^abc, 
liiiD c\cl)C jii\?Ln* l}in, 
«uD \)cvf6l}uc Md) nut 
tciiicm *25viit)cv ; uiiD 
aUDauu temm, imb op; 
fcvc Dcmc (^"^abc. 

25. ©ct) n>i(Ifa(}ri.^ 
tcincm 'ICiDcifvidKi 
ImID, Dicircil Ml nod) 
Ici; il}m auf ttcni lDcv\c 
till, auf Da|5 Md) Dci 
^JBiDcvfadun- uidu Dcv: 
malciu|l ubriautmoitc 
t)cm ^iducv, uiiD Dcv 
SKid)tci- ulH'vannroi'tc 
tid) t>cm 2)ifucr, uuD 
trcvDcjt in Dcu ^'cit'ci- 
gciroifcu. 

26. 3d) fa.qc Ml- : 
^at;vlid), Du n?iv|l 
iud)t Vlmi Dauucu l}c- 
raut^ tommcu, bi^ ti\ 
and) Dcu Ici^tcu J^cllci- 

27. 3Dr l}abt c\cl)cvct, 
^a|j ju Dcu Ziltcu c\cfa,'>U 

ill: 2>Uf0lI|t V.ld)tCl}C-' 

bvcc^cu 



SPANISH. 

ego del infierno. 



23. For tanto si tu 
llevarcs tu ofrenda 
al altar y alli te a- 
cordarcs que tu hcr- 
niano ticnc algo con- 
tra ti, 

24. Deja tu ofren- 
da ante el altar y vo- 
te : reconclliate pri- 
mcro con tu hernia- 
no, y despucs ven y 
prcsenta tu ofrenda. 



25. Acomodate con 
tu adversario pron- 
tamente micntras es- 
t'ds con el todavia en 
el camino, no sea 
que el adversario te 
entregue al Juez, y 
el Juez te entregue 
al ministro, y seas 
echado en la carcel. 



26. En verdad te 
digo que no saldras 
de alli hasta que pa- 
gues al ultimo mara- 
vedi. 

27. Oisteis que fue 
dicho a los antiguos : 
No cometerds adul- 
terio. 



LATIN. 

erit in gehennam 
ignis. 

23. Si ergo of- 
fers munus tuum 
ad altare, ct ihi 
recordatus fueria, 
quia fratcr tuu8 
habet aliquid ad- 
versum te, 

24. Relinque ibi 
munus tuum ante 
altare, et vade, 
l)rius reconciliare 
fratri tuo, et tunc 
veniens oflbr mu- 
nus tuum. 

25. Esto bene- 
scntiens adversa- 
rio tuo cito, dum 
es in via cum eo : 
ne forte te tradat 
adversarius judi- 
ci,et judex te tra- 
dat ministro, et in 
custodiam conji- 
ciaris. 



26. Amen dico 
tibi, non exios in- 
de, donee reddaa 
novissimum qua- 
drantem. 

27. Audistisquia 
pronunciatum est 
antiquis : Non 
ma3chaberis 



348 



MATTIIEAV, CHAPTER Y. 



OBEEK. 

28. 'Eyo de Xeyco 
VfUUy OTL TrC:s 6 /3Ae- 
TToiU yvvaiKa npos to 
tTTLdvfXTJa-ai avTqv, 
rjbr] e/xoix^evaev av- 
rrjv iv Til Kapdia 
avTOv. 

29. EZSe5^(/)^aX- 
fxos crov 6 be^to^ 

Xe avTOUf Kcil ^dXe 
OTTO crov • avfjicbepeL 
yap aoi, lua aTroXr]- 
rai tv Tcbu p.(\(ov 

COU, KOL fXTj oXoV TO 

aa>iid crov ^Xrjdrj els 
yeevvav. 



30. Ka\ et T) de^id 
erov X^V aKavdaXi- 
^et (re, e<Ko\\fou av- 

Tr}V, Kol j3dX€ CLTTO 

crov • o-vix(pep€i ydp 
aoL^ Lva aTToX-qTai ej/ 
rwv jxikoiv crov, Koi 
jtxj) oXou TO aoopd 
crov ^Xr]drj els yeeu- 
vav. 



31. 'Eppedrj de oti 
OS au aTroXvcTT] tijv 
yvuiUKU avTov, doTco 
avTT] dirocrTdcnov • 



32. Eyo) Se Xeyo) 
Vfiivy OTL OS av dno- 
Xvaij TTji/ "• <ival.<a av- 



FKENCII. 

28. Mais moi, je 
vous dis que qui- 
conque regardo une 
fcmme pour la con- 
voiter, il a deja corn- 
mis dans son coeur 
un adultere avec elle. 

29. Que si ton ceil 
droit te fait broncher, 
arrache-le, et jette-le 
loin de toi ; car il 
vaut mieux qu'un de 
tes membres perisse, 
que si tout ton corps 
etait jete dans la ge- 
henne. 



30. Et si ta main 
droite te fait bron- 
cher, coupe-la, et 
jette-la loin de toi ; 
car il vaut mieux 
qu'un de tes mem- 
bres perisse, que si 
tout ton corps etait 
jete dans la gehenne. 



31. II a ete dit en- 
core : Si quclqu'un 
repudie sa femme, 
qu'il lui donne la let- 
tre de divorce. 



32. Mais moi, je 
vous dis que qui- 



EXGLI8H 

28. But I say unlo 
you, That whosoever 
looketh on a wo'oan 
to lust after hei, hath 
committed adultery 
with her already in 
his heart. 

29. And if thy right 
eye offend thee, pluck 
it out, and cast it from 
thee : for it is prof- 
itable for thee that 
one of thy members 
should perish, and not 
that thy whole body 
should be cast into 
hell. 



30. And if thy right 
hand offend thee, cut 
it off, and cast it from 
thee : for it is prof- 
itable for thee that 
one of thy members 
should perish, and not 
that thy whole body 
should be cast into 
hell. 



31. It hath been said, 
Whosoever shall put 
away his wife, let hiin 
give her a writing of 
divorcement : 

32. But I say unto 
you, That whosoever 



conque aura repudie | shall put away his 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



349 



OKRMAN. 

28. 3''l^^^t'<'i"r'VKCUc(): 
\^(V cm xIBab aufic; 

^a• I) at filuMi nut il)v 
tic 6;l)e c<cIh-ocI)cii in 



29. 2(cvAcrt t'ld) abcr 
tcm vccluci? 'ZlUAc, fo 
vci|5 ce? aiitt, nuo wivf 
fg \)LMi Dif. €l' ill Mr 
bcifcr, ra|5 ciuci> tK'nia* 
(^licDcv vcvtcrbc, unl> 
\\\d)t t(v c\k\i\]C iiib in 
tic ^oUc flciDOvfcu n)cV' 



80. TTcvc^cvt ticb fcinf 
vccbtc J^aiib, I'o l}am' fic 
al>, unMrivf jicDcii Mr. 
Q\S \\\ Mr bi'lfcv, Da|5" 
ciiici? tciiicr ^^lic^cr 
vcrtcrbc, iiiiD iiiibt i^cr 
c\aii]c U\b \n tic '^5Uc 
9c\t»orfcu iDcrtc. 



31. Sef ijl aucb Acfa.^U: 31. Hase dicho 
^cr flib \)0U fciiicin Cualqnicra que rcpu- 
•^IDcibc jMu'ltct, tor foil diare a su inugcr dc- 
il}r c^cbcu Ciucil Gd)ci: la carta de divorcio. 
tcLuicf. 

32. ^d) vibcr fac\c cud): 32. Mas yo os digo 
^cr fub m^i fcincm j que cualquiera que 
^Clbc fdifiDCt/ (cc> fci) i rcpudiarc a su mu- 

30 



SPANISH. 

28. Yo OS digo pu- 
es que todo aquel 
que pusiere los ojos 
en una inuger para 
codiciarla ya come- 
tio con clla adulterio 
en su corazon. 

29. Y si tu ojo de- 
rccho te fuere oca- 
sion de caer, sacalo 
y arrojalo fuera de 
ti, porque mas te va- 
le que perezca uno 
de tus miembros que 
no, que todo tu cucr- 
po sea arrojado al in- 
fierno. 



30. Y si tu mano 
derccha te fuere" oca- 
sion dc caer cortala, 
y lanzala de ti pues 
mejor te es el que 
perezca uno de tus 
miembros que no el 
que todo tu cucrpo 
sea arrojado al infi- 
erno. 



LATIN. 

28. Ego autom 
dico vol is, (juia 
ouniis conspici- 
ens mulierem ad 
concupiscendum 
earn, jam ma^clia- 
tusestcamin cor- 
de suo. 

29. Si autcm 
oculustuus dexter 
scandal izat te, 
erue eum, et pro- 
jice abs te ; con- 
fert cnim tibi 
ut pcreat unum 
membroiinn tuo- 
rum, ct non totum 
corpus tuum con- 
jiciatur in gehen- 
nam. 

30. Et si dex- 
tera tua manu3 
scandalizat te, ab- 
scinde cam, et 
projice abs te : 
confcrt cnim tibi 
ut percat unum 
mcmbrorum tuo- 
rum, (!t non totum 
corpus tuum con- 
jiciatur in gehen- 
nam. 

31. Pronuncia- 
tum est autem, 
quod quicumque 
al)solveritu.\orem 
suam, det ei re- 
pudium. 

32. Ego autem 
dico vobis, quia 
quicunque absol- 



350 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



GREEK. 

rovy irafj^KTos \6yov 
nopueiaSy noiel av- 
rfju yL0f)(a(T6ai • koX 
OS iau dnoXeXvfiei/rjv 
yafjLTjcrrjy yiOi)(arai. 



33. Hakiv fJKovcra- 
re ort eppedq rols 
dpxaioLS ' OuK eVt- 
opKqcreis^ ayroScocTfi? 
de TQ> Kvpioi rovs 
opKovs crov ' 

34. 'Eyo) Se Xeyo) 
vpiv, prj opoaai 
oXcos ' prjT€ €v rc5 
oypai/Q), on Bpovos 
€(rTi Tov Qeov • 

35. 'M.r]T€ iu TTJ yrjy 

OTt VTrOTTOOLOV eCTTl 

Tutv nobcov avTov • 
/tx»/re €LS 'lepoaoXvfxa, 

OTL TToXlS €(TtI TOV 

♦ ficydXou ^aatXecos • 

38. Mrjre iv rfj 
K€CJ)aXrj (TOV opoaijSy 
OTL ov dvvaaat, plav 
Tpi)(a XevKqu t] p,e- 

XaLJ/aV TTOtJjcTKt. 

37. "Eo-tco 8e 6 X6- 
yos vp,a)u^ Nat, vat • 

OVy ov • TO de TTf- 
OICT'TOU TOVTOiV^ CK 

roil jTovrjpoi) ecrrij/. 

38. ilKOlXTaTe OTL 

tppeOrjy '0(jj6aXp,6u 



FRENCH. 

sa femme, si ce n'est 
pour cause d'adul- 
tere, il la fait devenir 
adultere ; et qui- 
conque se mariera a 
la femme repudiee, 
commet un adultere. 

33. Vous avez aussi 
appris qu'il a ete dit 
aux anciens : Tu ne 
parjureras point; mais 
tu rendras au Seign- 
eur ce que tu auras 
promis par jurement. 

34. Mais moi, je 
vous dis : Ne jurez 
en aucune maniere ; 
ni par le ciel, car 
c'est le trone deDieu ; 

35. ni par la terre, 
car c'est le marche- 
pied de ses pieds ; ni 
par Jerusalem, parce 
que c'est la ville du 
grand roi. 

36. Tu ne jureras 
point non plus par ta 
tcte ; car tu ne peux 
faire un cheveu blanc 
ou noir. 

37. Mais que votre 
parole soit : Oui, Oui, 
Non, Non ; car ce 
qui est de plus est 
mauvais. 

38. Vous avez ap- 
pris qu'il a ete dit : 



ENGLISH. 

wife, saving for the 
cause of fornication, 
causeth her to com- 
mit adultery : and 
whosoever shall mar- 
ry her that is divorced, 
committeth adultery. 

33. Again, ye have 
heard that it hath been 
said by them of old 
time, Thou shalt not 
forswear thyself, but 
shalt perform unto the 
Lord thine oaths : 

34. But 1 say unto 
you. Swear not at all * 
neither by heaven ; 
for it is God's throne : 



35. Nor by tho 
earth ; for it is hi-j 
footstool : neithe r by 
Jerusalem ; for it is 
the city of the great 
King : 

36. Neither shalt 
thou swear by thy 
head, because thou 
canst not make one 
hair white or black. 

37. But let your 
communication be, 
Yea, yea ; Nay, r.'ay : 
for whatsoever is. 
more than these ccm- 
eth of evil. 

38. Ye have heard 
that it hath been said, 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



851 



GERMAN. 



LATIN. 

vorit iixorem su- 
ain, oxccpta rati- 
orie foiiiicationis, 
facit earn mce- 
cliari : ct qui ab* 
sohitam duxcril, 
adultcrat. 

33. Iterum au- 
distis quia pro- 
nunciatum est an- 
tiquis : Non per- 
jurabis : rcddes 
aiitom Domino 
juramcnta tua. 

34. Ego autem 
dico vobis, non 
jura re ornnino, 
neque in cgelo, 
quia tbronus est 
Dei : 

35. Neque in 
terra, quia scabel- 
lum est pedum 
ejus: neque in Hi- 
erosolyma, quia 
civilas est niagni 
re«jis : 

36. Neque in 
capite tuo jurave- 
ris, quia non po- 
tes unum capil- 
lum album aumi- 
grum facere. 

37. Sit autem 
sermo vester, Eti- 
am, etiam, Non, 
non : quod autern 

j abuiidans his, a 

! malo est. 

38. Habc'isoi'loque ' 38. Audi^^tisquia 

ba^ l^a gcM^t ijt : '2iVi- ■ fue dicho ujo jiorojo, pronunciatumcst; 



tcnu mil 6;()cbnub,) 
^cl• mviibct, ^afj jie mc 
Sl)c bricbr ; mil) ircr 
ciuf 21l\»ic|'ilMCteiic frn;: 
ct, txx bvi(i)t Die Si;f. 



33. 3(}v ijixht ircitcr 
pc()6icr, ^af^" 311 ^cll '21 u 
♦i':i :;cfa^t ift: 'i>u|>llil 
fciiifu falfclu'u ^iD 
tl)mi, miD follft ®ott 
tciiicu (SiD l;alcni. 

34. 3i(bvi(H'i-fa,c^cctKl): 
tap, it}i allcl•^n^U' ludH 
filnr6rcii folic, lrc^cl• 
bcr rem J!mnmc[, ^cml 
ci- \\\ (iHHtC'o ©tiil;(; 

35. ^od) (>cr ^fc ^r-- 
tc, Dcm« fic ifl fniia- 



SPANISH. 

ii;or a no ser por cau- 
sa de fornicacion, 
liaee que ella sea 
adultera, y cualqui- 
era que se case con 
la divorciada comete 
adulterio. 

33. Tambien oiste- 
is que fue dicho a, los 
anti^jjuos. No te per- 
juraras, mas cumpli- 
ras lo que liubieres 
juradoal Senor. 

3t. Mas yoosdigo : 
No jureis do ninguna 
manera ni por el cie- 
lo porque es el trono 
do Dios. 

35. Ni por la tierra 
porque es la peana 



gufic ©ibcnui ; nod) de sus pies ni por 



bcp 3frufalnn, tciiii fic 
i«l cinCL> ^^ll•o(jcll ^6huVo 
©ca^t. 

36. Hmh folfl^ Ml 
iiiclH b(i) Dcincm J^aiip; 
te fcbiriHcu; Demi Mi 
l>anui.)|t nidu cm ciiii- 
pctt JPiaav UHMt5 "-"^Dcv 
fcbira;-; 311 luaclnMU 

37. (5uic dine aba- 
fi'P: ^,\, jv\; iKiii, iicm. 
9Ba^ Darubcv i)i, Mo 
i|l vom Ucbcl. 



38. 3br {)aU c^e[}h'n, 



Jerusalem porque es 
la ciudad del gran 
Key. 

36. Ni juraras por 
tu cabcza porque no 
puedes hacer un ca- 
bello bianco 6 necro. 



37. Mas vuestro 
hablar sea si, si ; no, 
no ; porque lo que 
excede de esto, de 
mal procede. 



I 



352 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER V. 



GREEK. 

dvrt ot^^aXjLioG, koi 
otjvTa duTi odowi "*« • 

39. 'Eyo) de Xeyco 
Vfiii/i, fif] dvTicrrrji'ai 
rc5 TTOvrjpa • dW 
ocTts (re paTTiaet ejn 
rrjv de^idv trov aia- 
youa^ crrpiyl/'ou avra 

40. Ka\ rw 6eXop- 
Ti croi Kpidrjuai, KoX 
Tov ^trcom (tov Xa- 
/SeiJ/, «(^es aLirc5 Kal 

TO IfldvLOV, 

41. Kat ocTTis ae 
dyyapeucrei piXiov tf, 
fTraye ju.er auroO 
dyo. 

42. To) aiTovvTi (re 
didov • /ca) roj/ deXov- 
Ta dno arov davei' 
crcicrdai pfj aTTocrrpa- 

43. 'H/couo-arf on 
ippedq, 'Aya7Tr](T€t.s 
TOV ttXtjo-iou aov, Kal 
fiiafjcreis tov €)(6p6v 
aov • 

44. 'Eyo) de Xeyoo 
K/xii/, dyaTrdre tovs 
e^dpoiis vjjLcov, €vXo- 
yelre tovs Karapoy 
fxcpovs vpds, KaXois 
TTOtetre tovs pucrovv' 
Tag v/xay, Ka\ irpoa- 
fv)(eade vnep Toiiv 
inTjpeu^ouTd)* viids 



FRENCH. 



CEil pour CEil, et dent 
pour dent. 

39. Mais moi, je 
vous dis : Ne resistez 
point au mal ; mais 
si quelqu'un te frappe 
a ta joue droite, pre- 
sente-lui aussi I'autre. 



40. Et si quelqu'un 
veut plaider contre 
toi, et t'oter ta robe, 
laisse-lui encore le 
manteau. 

41. Et si quelqu'un 
te veut ' contraindre 
d'aller avec lui une 
lieue, vas-en deux. 

42. Donne a celui 
qui te demande, et ne 
te detourne point de 
celui qui veut em- 
prunter de toi. 

43. Vous avez ap- 
pris qu'il a ete dit : 
Tu aimeras ton pro- 
chain, et tu hairas 
ton ennemi. 

44. Mais moi, je 
vous dis : Aimez vos 
ennemis', et benissez 
ceux qui vous mau- 
dissent ; faites du bien 
a coux qui vous ha- 
Yssent, et priez pour 
ceux qui vous cou- 
rent sus et vous per- 



ENGLISH. 

An eye for an eye 

and a tooth for a 
tooth. 

39. But I say unto 
you. That ye resist 
not evil : but whoso- 
ever shall smite thee 
on thy right cheek, 
turn to him the other 
also. 

40. And if any man 
will sue thee at the 
law, and take away 
thy coat, let him have 
thy cloak also. 

41. And whosoevei 
shall compel thee to 
go a mile, go with 
him twain. 

42. Give to him that 
asketh thee, and from 
him that would bor- 
row of thee, turn not 
thou away. 

43. Ye have heard 
that it hath been said, 
Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor, and hate 
thine enemy : 

44. But I say unto 
you, Love your ene- 
mies, bless them that 
curse you, do good 
to them that hate you, 
anr^ pray for them 
which despitefully use 
you and persecute 
YOU ; 



MAITHEW, CHAPTER V. 



353 



OEUMAX. 



j^c urn 2(u.qc, Sx\[)\\ urn 

39. 3ft)abcrfaqccml): 
ta|5 it)r iiicbr l^l^fl•|U•f-' 
h(n idit ^cm Ilcbd ; 
fou^cnl fo ^lv jctuaut 
cuii'u @tvcicl) c^icbt auf 
DciiKii rccl)tcu '^^adcii, 
tiiu Ini'te Dcu autcvu 
auil) ^ar. 

40. Ull^fo ;cnian&mit 
fcir vfclucn trill, uiiD 
tciiicu iXocf uct^mcn, 
tern lv\(3 aucl) t»cu SOTv\u= 
tcl. 

41. Un^ fo ^i(() jc^ 
maub ii6tl;i,i>Kt cine 
£0?»M(e, fo 9ii;cmit il}m 

42. Q5icb ticm, ^cv 
tub birtct ; lnl^ ^rciiDc 
till) nulH lion Dcm, Dcv 
Ml- vibboi-gru irill. 

43. 3[(;v t)a[>t .Acljort, 
lta|5c\cfayUi|h 3)iifoll|f 
t>nncu 9]ad)|lcii licbcii, 
unit Dciucn SnuD l^af-- 
feu. 

44. 3if^) akrfaqccnd): 
iicbcr cmc gcln^c ; fcvv 
net, Mc cud) fliidn'n ; 
tl)ut irol)( tciicn, Mc 
end) l)a|[on ; bittct fiiv 
tic, fo cud) bclcitivjcu 
uuD vcvfolvu'i^ ; 



SPANISH. 

y dicnte por dienlc. 



39. Mas yoosdigo: 
No opongais rcsis- 
tcncia a la injuria, 
antes si alguno te lii- 
ricse en la mexilla 
derecha, presentale 
la otra. 

40. Y si algiiien 
qiiisiere poncrte pley- 
to y quilarte la tuni- 
ca, alargalc tambien 
tu capa. 

41. Y si alguno te 
comp(dierc a una le- 
gua ve con el dos. 

42. Al que te pidi- 
ere, dale ; y al que 
te quisiese pcdir pres- 
tado, no le vuelvas 
las cspaldas. 

43. Halx'is oidoque 
fue dicho : Aniaras a. 
tu proximo, y abor- 
receras a tu ene mi- 
go. 

44. Mas vo os dio;o : 
Amad a vucstroscne- 
miijos bcndecid x los 
que OS maid icon : sa- 
ccd bien a los que os 
odiiui, y orad por los 
que OS calumnian y 
p";rsigaen. 



30 



LATIN. 

Oculum pro ocu- 
lo, et dentem pro 
dcnte. 

39. Ego auteni 
dice vobis, non 
obsistere malo : 
sed quicumque te 
percusserit in 
dexteram tuam 
maxillam, verte 
illi et aliam. 

40. Et volenti 
tibi judicium pa- 
rari, et tunicam 
tuam tollerc, di- 
mitte ei et palli- 
um. 

41. Et quicun- 
que te angariave- 
rit milliare unum, 
vadecum illoduo. 

42. Petcnti te, 
da : et volentem 
a te mutuare, ne 
avertaris. 

43. Audistisquia 
pronunciatuuiest, 
Diligcs proximum 
tuum, et odic ha- 
bebis inimicura 
tuum. 

44. Ego auteni 
dico vobis, Diligi 
te inimicos ves- 
tros, benedicite 
malcdicentcs vos: 
bene facile odien- 
tibus vos, et orate 
pro infestantibus 
vos et inseclanti- 



854 



MATTHEW, CHAPTERS V., VI. 



GREEK. 

Koi bicoKovTcoi vfias • 
45. "Ottcos yKvrjadr] 
VLo\ Tov Trarpos vjxwv 
rov iv ovpavolsi on 
TOV rjXiov avTov ava- 
.•e'AXei fVi TTOvrjpovs 
Koi dyadovs^ Kcii ^pe- 
^€L eni dLKuiovs Koi 
ad'.Kovs. 



46. *Eav yap dya- 

ITT}(rr}T€ TOVS dyUTTCOV' 

Tas v/xay, rlva piaObv 
i'X^Te ; ov^l Koi ol 
rekoivai rb avTo ttoi- 
oxxri ; 



47. Koi iav acTTra- 
(TTjoSe TOVS aSeX- 
<povs vpcou povov^ tI 
Treptcrcrov ■ Troielre ; 
Jv)(\ Kill ol TeXoovai 
jvToi TvoLovcnv ; 

48. "Eaeade ovu 
vpels TeXeiot^ cocmep 
6 naTrjp vpwv 6 iv 
Tols ovpavols TeXeios 

€(TTl. 

1. Upoaex^Te Trjv 
iKtci)lxoavvr}v vpcov pr 
noiflv epTrpoadev Twt 
av6pu>TT(ov^ Trpbs r ; 
Oead^vni avrols ' e. 
de pfjyc, piaObv ovk 
f'x^Te Trapi tm Trarpl 
vpoov T<a iv To2s ov- 
pavols. 



FRENCH. 

secutent ; 

45. afin que vous 
soyez les enfans de 
votre Pere qui est aux 
cieux ; car il fait le- 
ver son soleil sur les 
mechans et sur les 
gens de bien, et il en- 
voie sa pluie sur les 
justes et sur les in- 
justes. 

46. Car si vous ai- 
mez seulement ceux 
qui vous aiment, 
quelle recompense en 
aurez-vous ? Les pe- 
agers me me n'en 
font-ils pas tout au- 
tant ? 

47. Et si vous faites 
accueil seulement a 
vos freres, que faites- 
vous plus que les 
autres ? Les peagers 
meme ne le font-ils 
pas aussi ? 

48. Soyez done par- 
faits, comme votre 
Pere qui est aux cieux 
est parfait. 



1. Prenez garde de 
ne pas faire votre 
aumone" dcvant les 
hommes pour en etre 
regardes ; autremcnt 
vous n'en recevrez 
point la recompense 
de votre Pere qui est 
a ',x cieux 



ENGLISH. 



45. That ye may be 
the children of your 
Father which is in 
heaven : for he mak- 
eth his sun to rise on 
the evil and on the 
good, and sendeth 
rain on the just and 
on the unjust. 

46. For if ye love 
them which love you, 
what reward have ye ? 
do not even the pub- 
licans the same ? 



47. And if ye salute 
your brethren only, 
what do ye more than 
others ? do not even 
the publicans so ? 



48. Be ye therefore 
perfect, even as your 
Father which is in 
heaven is perfect. 



1. Take heed that 
ye do not your alms 
before men, to be seen 
of them : otherwise 
ye have no reward of 
your Father which ia 
in heaven. 



MATTHEW, CHAPTERS V., VI. 



355 



O&KMAN. 

45. 2(iif ta^ibv 5tin= 
^cl• Ki>D ciivci? latere! 
ill! ^immd. lOcini cr 
laf^f fcirc @onne aiif: 
c\cl}cn ubci* Me ^^6fcu 
iiiiD ubci* Me ©utcii; 
iiiiD lafjt vev)iicii fiber 
(^erecl)te uuD Uw^t- 

40. 5)cim fo i!)v (ie- 
tct, Me euib (ieben,ira^ 
irerDct il;i- fur io[}ii Ija^ 
tn'ii ? ^I)im niilu Daf= 
fclbc auct) Die J^Uuev ? 



47. lint fo if)i* cud) 
nur ]u euven ^vuDeni 
fvciiuDlid) tl)ut, irat? 
tl)ut il)r foiiDeviicbee! ? 
5l)uii md)t Me 3«>ll»fi* 
alfo ? 

48. 3>anim fofft if)v 
t)i.Mlfcmmcufei,ni,c\(eid); 
wiceucr^atevim lim- 
ine 1 voUt'ommeii \\\. 



1. J^v\bt2(duaufeurc 
21(mojVu, Dag it}v Die 
iiid>t i\cbet \)0i- Den h'U-- 
ten, Da|5 il}i- \)cu il}ueu 
f\e|Vt}eii irevDcr ; ibr 
l)abtauDeviU'eineuiol}u 
bei> (uveiu ^atev \t\ 
J^immel. 



SPANISH. 

45. Paraquc scais 
liijos dc vucstro Pa- 
dre que esta en los 
cielos el cual hace 
salir el sol sobre ma- 
los y bucnos, y llue- 
ve sobre justos, e in- 
justos. 



46. Porquc si ama- 
is a los que os aman, 
,; que recompensa ba- 
be is dc tencr ? ^ No 
bacen lo mismo aun 
los publicanos ? 



47. Y si saludais 
solaniente a vuestros 
bermanos ^ que mas 
baceis que los otros ? 
^ No bacen tambien 
lo mismo los publi- 
canos ? 

48. Scd pues voso- 
tros perfectos asi 
como vucstro Padre 
que esta en los cie- 
los es perfecto. 

1. Mirad que no 
bagais vuestra li- 
mosna delante de los 
bombres con el fin 
de ser vistos de ellos 
de otra manera no 
tendreis galardon de 
vucstro Padre que 
I 'i en los ciclos. 



LATIN. 

bus vos. 

45. Ut sitis fill! 
Patris vestri qui 
in Ccclis, quia so- 
1cm suum produ- 
cit super malos et 
bonos, et pluit su- 
per justos et in* 
justos. 



46. Si enim di- 
Icxcritis diligen- 
tes vos, quam 
mercedem babe- 
tis.'* nonneet pub- 
licani idem laci- 
unt.? 

47. Et si salu- 
tavcritis fratrca 
vestros tantum, 
quid abundans fa- 
citis .'* nonne et 
publicani sic faci- 
unt.? 

48. Estote ergo 
vos perfccti, sicut 
Pater vester qui 
in ca^lis, perfec 
tus est. 

1. Attendite mi 
sericordiam ves- 
tram non facera 
ante bomines, aa 
spoctari eis : si 
autem non, mer- 
cedem non babe- 
tis apud Patrem 
vcstrum qui in 



356 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VI. 



GKEEK. 

2. "Orav ovt iroifjs 

(TakTricrrji e'nTrpocrdeu 
crov, oxTTrep ol vtto- 
KpiToi noiovaiv iv 
Tins avuaycoyins Koi 
iv Tois pvjjLais, ottcos 
do^aa6u)ai.v vtto rav 
avdpcoTTcou. Ap.qv 

}^eyco v/jilv, an^xovcrL 
rov picrOov avTcov. 

3. 2oO 5e TTOLOVV' 

TOi eXer]p.ocrvvrjv^ fxf] 
yvmrco rj apicrrepd 
(rov TL TToiei Tj de^id 
(rov ' 

4. "^Ottco? u aov T) 
eXerjuoavuT] eu rc5 

KpVTTTCO ' Koi 6 TTUTqp 

(Tov 6 [3\67ro)u eu ra 

KpVTTTO)^ aVTOS aiTO- 

Scocret CTOt ev tco <jia- 
v^pa. 

5. Kai orav npocr- 
cvxj)-, ovK eaji (oan^p 

ol VTTOKpiTai^ OTl <pl- 

Xovaiv iu rals avua- 
yooycus Kal eu reus 
y'jiviais tcov TrXarft- 
<ou errrcore? irpocrev' 
^ea-BuL, biTcos av c})a- 
voim. Tols avBpOiTTOt^ • 
Ajirju Xf-yco vplv, on 
aTTt)(ovai TOV piaBov 
avTwv. 

6. 2l/ 5e orav npocT- 
fvXHi f'ia-eXde els to 
raixieloK crov^ Ka\ 
tXeiaas tijv 6i pav 



FRENCH. 

2. Lors done que tu 
fcras ton aumone, ne 
fais point sonner la 
trompette devant toi, 
comme les hypoerites 
font dans les syna- 
gogues et dans les 
rues, pour en etre ho- 
nores des hommes. 
En verite, je vous dis 
qu'ils re(^oivent leur 
recompense. 

3. Mais quand tu 
fais ton aumone, que 
ta main gauche ne 
sache point ce que 
fait ta droite. 

4. Afin que ton au- 
mone soit dans le se- 
cret ; et ton Pere qui 
voit ce qui f,e fait en 
secret t'en recom- 
pensera publique- 
ment. 

5. Et quand tu prie- 
ras, ne sois point 
comme les hypo- 
crites ; car ils aiment 
a prior en se tenant 
debout dans les syna- 
gogues et aux coins 
des rues, afin d'etre 
vus des hommes. En 
verite, je vous dis 
qu'ils re^oivent leur 
recompense. 

6. Mais toi, quand 
tu pries, entre dans 
ton cabinet ; et -iyant 
forme ta porte prie 



ENGLISH. 



2. Therefore, vi^hen 
thou doest thine alms, 
do not sound a trum- 
pet before thee, as the 
hypocrhes do. in the 
synagogues, and in 
the streets, that they 
may have glory of 
men. Verily, I say 
unto you. They have 
their reward. 

3. But when thou 
doest alms, let not thy 
left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth : 

4. That thine alms 
may be in secret : 
and thy Father, which 
seeth in secret, him- 
self shall reward thee 
openly. 

5. And when thou. 
prayest, thou shalt not 
be as the hypocrites 
are : for they love to 
pray standing in the 
synagogues, and in 
the corners of the 
streets, that they may 
be seen of men. Ver- 
ily, I say unto you, 
They have their re- 
ward. 

6.' But thou, when 
thou prayest, enter 
into thy closet, and 
when thou hast shut 



MATTHEW, CTIArTER VI. 



85T 



GERMAN. 

2. ^cun Ml mm ZU 
mofcii ({id']}, folljt Ml 
iiicbr laifVii ihh- ^ll• v*-^- 
faiiiKii, iric t»ic -^ciub; 
Icr tl)uu in ^cn ©d>ii^ 
Icii, u^^ aiif Dcu (^af; 
fell; aiif ^at> fif v<?ii I'fn 
iciitcii sicpiii'fcii \v(\''' 
t>cii. 'IDabiiicb, iib 
fac<f cud) : ©ic l;abcu 
iljvcii iol)n tal)iii. 

3. ^cnii Ml a^ci- liU 
mofi'ii iiicbll, fo laf?" 
tciuc iiiitc JP)aiiD iiidn 
xti\J(n, ira^ Mc vcd)tc 
tl}iit; 

4. '2(iif taj; tciu Tlf: 
mofcu vciboicicu fii) ; 
tiuD ^fiu filter, ^fl• ill 
tat: "iBalHn-.Anic jicl)i't, 
lttll•^ i»ii-^ Dcicjiltni cf- 
fciifdd). 

5. UiiMtrnuMt tctcjl, 
fo(l|t tu iiidu fci>u inc 
tic -^cikMcv, tic taiKv- 
lie Ilcl)cii nut bctcu lu 
leu ©dnilcu, uiiD an 
tcu (Sctcu auf tcu Cl%\f: 
feu, auf tixfj fie Dcu ten 
ieiiteu c\cfel}eu irevtcu. 
^al}rlid), ubfavU'tud): 
©ic l)abcu iijieu iolju 
Da I) ill. 

6. ^IDeuu tu aber be- 
tcjt, \o .ael)C ill teiu 
S\ammer(eiu,uutfd^(ie-- 
ii MC il)iii- 3u, uiit 



SPANISH. 

2. Asi que cuando 
lijiccs limosna no lia- 
nas que se toque la ' 
trompota delanle de ; 
ti, como haccn los ! 
liij)6critas en las si- 1 
nagogas, y en las cal- i 
Ics para atracrse hon- 
ra do los liondjrcs. 
En vcniad os digo 
(juc ya rccibieron su 
recoin])onsa. 

ti. Mas cuando dcs 
limosna liaz que. tu 
mano izquierda, no 
sepa lo que hace tu 
derccha. 

4. Paraquc tu li- 
mosna quede secreta, 
y tu Padre que ve en 
lo sccrcto, te prcmi- j 
ara. en publico. 



5. Y cuando ores 
no seas como los 
hipocritas : Porque 
cllos aman el orar en 
pie en las sinagogas 
y en las esquinas de 
las callcs para ser 
vistos de los hoinbres. 
En verdad os digo 
que ya rccibien su 
recompensa. 

G. ]\Ias tu cuando 



LATIN. 

cnclis. 

2. Cum ergo fa- 
ciselec'mosyiu in, 
no tuba clauxcris 
ante te, sicut hy- 
pocritce faciunt in 
synagogis et in 
vicis, ut glorifi- 
centur ab homiiu- 
bus : amen clico 
vobis, excipiunt 
rriercedem suam. 

3. Te autcm fa- 
cicnte elet mosy- 
nam, nesciat si- 
nistra tua quid fa- 
cial dcxtcra tua. 

4. Utsittuaelee- 
mosyna in secre- 
te : et Pater tuus 
videns in sccrcto, 
ipse reddet tibi in 
manifesto. 

5. Etquumores, 
non eris siout hy- 
pocrita3 : quia a- 
mant in synago- 
gis, et in angulis 
platearum stantes 
orare, ut appare- 
ant hominibus. 
Amen dico vobis, 
quod excipiunt 
mercedem suam. 

6. Tu auteni 



orares entra on tu j cum ores, intra in 
aposonto, y cernula cubiculum Aium 
la puertaora u *.u Pa- 1 et claudcns osli» 



858 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VI 



GREEK. 

(Tov, 7rp6(r€v^ai t w 
jrarpi crov tm ip t<m 
KpVTTTco ' Kai 6 rtorr^p 
(Tov 6 laXencov eu tc5 
KpvTTTa^ aTToSwcret 
croi ev Tc5 (pavepa. 

7. IlpO(T€VX^6p,fVOL 

df pf] ^aTToXoyrjcrrj- 
Tf , axnrep oi IBviko'l • 
SoKoGcrt yap otl Iv 
TTJ TToXvkoy'ia avrav 
fla-aKovaOrjaouTai. 

8. Mfj ovit opoidj- 
OtJtc avToii • oi'Se yap 
6 TTaTTjp vpav hv 
Xpclav e;^6re, irpo tov 
Vfids alr^aat avTov. 

9. Oura)ff ovv 

npocrevx^o'de vpeis ' 
Ilarep rjpoyu 6 ev to7s 
ovpavols, ayiaaOrjTOi 

TO OVOpd (TOV ' 

10. 'EX^era> rj ^a- 
cCK^la crov • yeuTjdq- 
TO) TO deXrjpd aov^ 
COS ev ovpavai^ Ka\ 
«7ri Trjs yrjs. 

11. Tov apTOV f)- 

y i f 
fia)v TOV eTTioucriov 

86s riplv (Trjpepov. 

12. Kai a(})€s rjplv 
ra o(pei\qpaTa rjpcov^ 
cos Kill rjfxfls a(f)Up€V 
rols 6(f)€iXeTaLs rjpdv. 

13 Kai prj flcr - 
veyKJjs Tjpas els net ■ 
%>aa-ii6vj aXXc ovaa 



FRENCH. 

ton Pere qui te voit 
dans ce lieu secret ; 
et ton Pere qui te voit 
dans ce lieu secret, 
te recompensera pub- 
liquement. 

7. Or, quand vous 
priez, n'usez point de 
vaines redites,comme 
font les paVens ; car 
ils s'imaginent d'etre 
exauces en parlant 
beaucoup. 

8. Ne leur rcssem- 
blez done point ; car 
votre Pere sait de quoi 
vous avez besoin, 
avant que vous le lui 
demandiez. 

9. Vous done priez 
ainsi : Notre Pere qui 
es aux cieux, ton nom 
soit sanctifie. 

10. Ton regne vi- 
enne. Ta volonte 
soit faite sur la terre 
conime au ciel. 

11. Donne-nous au- 
jourd'hui notre pain 
quotidien. 

12. Et nous quitte 
nos dettes, com me 
nousquittonsaussi les 
dettes a nos debiteurs. 

13. Et ne nous in- 
duis jDint en tenta- 
ta >n ; mais d* Mvre- 



ENGLI8H. 



thy door, pray to thy 
Father which is in 
secret ; and thy Fa- 
ther, which seeth in 
secret, shall reward 
thee openly. 

7. Butwhenyepray, 
use not vain repeti- 
tions, as the heathen 
do : for they think 
that they shall be 
heard for their much 
speaking. 

8. Be not ye there- 
fore like unto them : 
for your Father 
knoweth what things 
ye have need of be- 
fore ye ask him. 

9. After this manner 
therefore pray ye : 
Our Father which art 
in heaven. Hallowed 
be thy name. 

10. Thy kingdom 
come. Thy will be 
done in earth as it is 
in heaven. 

11. Give us this day 
our daily bread. 



12 And forgive us 
our debts, as we for- 
give our debtors. 



13. And lead us not 
into temptation, but 
deliver us from evil. 



MATTHEW, CIIAlTEll VI. 



359 



GERMAN. 

f>ctc ;ju bciiicm ^atci* 
im ^atnnvVMicu ; mil 
^riu ^atci'/ ^a• iii ^aeJ 
^l'l•lHn•^^Cllcjlcl}ct,nJil•^ 
tivi? vcr^cltcii 6|fciit- 
lul). 

tct, follt il;r uiibt \)icl 
ylappcrii, iric Mc J^ci-- 
ten ; ^cuu fic mcinicu, 
flc lrcl•^cll cvt)6rft, 
rrcnu fic vide QBovtc 
uuubcii. 

8. X)arum foKt i(}r 
euc() il)iicii niclu c^Icidv- 
cii: Siicv *33v\tcr iDcijj, 
iDag ibv bcDiivfct, cl)e 
Dcun il}i- i(}n bittct. 

9. 2)anim folft i(}r 
al)> bctiMi : Uiifcr ^a^ 
tor ill tern Jpimmcl ! 
3)ciii 9^mic ircvDe gc^ 
l;ciluv*t. 

10. T»ciu 5Kcic() fom^ 
mc. 2)ciu ^ille gc- 
fclKi)e auf Si- Den, \mc 
im J^immcl. 

11. Uufcr taciHitc^ 
25i'ot) gicb uu^ l}ciite. 



12. Un^ tjcrc^icb lui-ii 
imfci'c @i(iulDcn, iric 
n>ir iiufcni©cl)iilcigcvu 
Vci'gcbcu. 

13. \U\i> fiif}rc iiucf 
jucbt in *^cv|'uc(niu.A/ 
fouDcni cvlofc m\6 i>oii 



SPANISH. 



fire en secreto, y tu 
Padre que ve en lo 
secreto, te recompen- 
sara en publico. 



7. Y al orar no ha- 
bleis muclio como 
los (lentiles creyen- 
tlo que han de ser 
oidos por su mucho 
hablar. 

8. No OS asemejeis 
a. cllos : porque vu- 
cstro Padre sabe dc 
lo que teneis necesi- 
dad antes que voso- 
tros le pidais. 

9. Vosotros pues ha- 
beis de orar asi : Pa- 
dre nuestro que cstas 
en los cielos santifi- 
cado sea tu nombrc. 

10. Vengael tu rey- 
no : hagase tu volun- 
tad en la tierra asi 
como en el cielo. 

11. Danos hoy nu- 
estro pan cotidiano. 



12. Y pcrdonanos 
nuestras deudas a£i 
como nosotros perdo- 
namos a. nuestros 
deudores. 

13. Y no nos dejes 
caer en tentacion mas 
libranos de mal por- 



LATIN. 

um tuum,orL Pa 
trem tuum (\\d in 
secreto : et Paler 
tuus conspicienp 
in secreto, reddet 
tibi in apparenti. 

7. Orantes au- 
tem ne inania lo- 
quamini, sicut 
etbnici, arbitran- 
tur enim quod in 
multiloquio suo 
exaudientur. 

8. Ne igitur as- 
similcmini eis : 
novit enim Pater 
vester quorum u- 
sum liabetis, ante 
vos petere cum. 

9. Sic ergo ora- 
te vos : Pater no- 
ster qui in ca;lis, 
sanctificetur no- 
men tuum. 

10. Adveniat 
regnum tuum. 
Fiat voluntas tua, 
sicut in ca^lo etin 
terra. 

11. Panem no- 
strum super sub- 
stantialem da no- 
bis hodie. 

12. Et dimitte 
nobis debita no- 
stra, sicut ct nos 
dimittimus debi- 
toribus n'stris. 

13. Et ne inte- 
ras nos in tenta- 
tionem.sed libera 



S60 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER YI. 



GREEK. 

TffjLas ano tov Tvo-orj- 
pov ' oTi (rod eoTLu 
17 /3acrtXeia, Kcii r) 
duvajxis, Kal 17 do^a, 
els Tovs aloii^as ' 
djjLrjv. 

.14. 'Eai/ yap dcf)?}- 
re Tois dudpu)7roLs ra 
TvapaivTuipaTa avroiv^ 
dcjyqcreL /cat vptv 6 
TTurqp vjxwv 6 ovpd- 

VLOS ' 

15. Eau de pr] 
d(prJT€ Tols dfdpoinois 
TO. TxapaiTToipaTa av- 
rutVy ovbe 6 Trarrjp 
vpoiv a(pi]a€L TO. na- 
paTVTtopara vpav. 

16. "Orav be vt}- 
(rrevrjTe, prj ylveade 

&(T7r€p 01 VTTOKpiTai, 

(TKvdpcoTroL ' acpavi- 
^ovac yap to. Trpoaco- 
Tra avTWV^ bnoos (pa- 

PtOiJl Tols auBpCOTTOLS 

vfarevovTcs. ^Aprjv 
\eyco vplu, ort dire- 
Xovac TOV piaObv av- 
tS.v. 

17. 2u Se vearevcov 
aXeyj/ai gov rrju K€- 
(Pa\r)V, Ka\ to irpoa- 
(OTTOU crov viyj/ai • 

18. ''OTTcoy pr) cj)a- 
vfjg Tols auOponTTois 

Pl](rT€V(OV^ dXXci TOO 

narp'i aov rw iu rw 

KpVTTTM ' Kul 6 TTU' 

TTjp (TOV 6 (BXencov eu 
fo) KpVTTTco, diToduxreL 



FRENCH. 

nous du mal. Car a 
toi est le regne, et la 
puissance, et la gloire 
a, jamais. Amen. 



14. Car si vous par- 
donnez aux hommes 
leurs offenses, votre 
Pere celeste vous par- 
donnera aussi les v6- 
tres. 

15. Mais si vous nc 
pardonnez point aux 
hommes leurs of- 
fenses, votre Pere ne 
vous pardonnera point 
non plus vos offenses. 

16. Et quand vous 
jeunerez, ne prenez 
point un air trisie, 
comme font les hypo- 
crites ; car ils se ren- 
dent tout defaits de 
visage, afm qu'il pa- 
raisse aux hommes 
qu'ils jeunent. En 
verite, je vous dis 
qu'ils rcyoivent leur 
recompense. 

17. Mais toi, quand 
tu jeunes, oins ta tete, 
et lave ton visage ; 

18. afin qu'il ne 
paraisse point aux 
hommes que tu 
jeiines, mais a ton 
Pere qui est present 
dans ton lieu secret ; 
et ton Pere qui te voit 



ENGLISH. 



For thine is the king- 
dom, and the pov/er, 
and the glory, for ev- 
er. Amen. 



14. For if ye for- 
give men their tres- 
passes, your heavenly 
Father will also for- 
give you : 

15. But if ye for- 
give not men their 
trespasses, neither 
will your Father for- 
give your trespasses. 

16. Moreover, when 
ye fast, be not as the 
hypocrites, of a sad 
countenance : for 
they disfigure their 
faces, that they may 
appear unto men to 
fast. Verily, I say 
unto you, They have 
their reward. 



17. But thou, when 
thou fastest, anoint 
thine head, and wash 
thy face ; 

18. That thou ap- 
pear not unto men to 
fast, but unto thy Fa- 
ther, which is in se- 
cret : and thy Father, 
which seeth in secret, 
shall reward thee 



i 

I 



MATTHEW, CHATTER YI. 



3G1 



GEUMAN. 

tcm Ucbcf. 5)ciiu Dcin 

SiiMft, uiiD tic Jpivi': 
Iicl)[-cit ill Q;iristcir. 
Ziincii. 

14. 3)ciiu fo i()i' fccn 
5DTcnfd)cii il}i-c ?5cl}lci' 
Dci\qcbct, )o inrD ciub 
ciicr l;immln'cl)cv ^atci* 
auil) vciv^cbfii. 

15. ^0 i(}r abcv ^ell 
^Ou'iifiluMi ibvc g^^ 1)^1' I' 
uicbt i>crc\cbct, fo wivt 
cml) cuci" ^atcv cave 
gii}Ia* rtiul) iilcl)t vcf; 
cicbcii. 

16. ^IDciiu i()r fa|kt, 
fiMlt il}v iiiclu fa 11 cr fc-- 
bcii, iric tic Jfpciublcr ; 
tciiu fic Vi'rjhUcu tbic 
'2ln>U'lu-btov, auf tafj fic 
IHH' ten iciitvu fcbcmcii 
mit it}i-cm gafh'u. 
^abiiicb,icbfa.qcciicb: 
©ic l}vibcii it;i-cii iol;n 
tal]iii. 



17. ^cnu Ml abcv 
fiftUlt, fo falbc tciu 
.»PvUipt, nut \t>afd>c tciii 
iiu.Acfubt ; 

18. 'Ziiif taj^ bu niibt 
fcbciiic|l t)or ten icutcii 
mit tciucm gajlcii, \cn'- 
t(\M iHH* tciucm ^^atci*; 
iDiicbfv iHvbov,ACii i|l ; 
anD tcia ^atcr, tcr iii 
tai? ^ciboi'vjciic fici;ft, 



SPANISH. 



que tiiyo cs el rcyno, 

el [)uclcr, y la <^loi'ia 
porlossiglus. Amen. 



14. Porquc si pcr- 
(loiiarois a los hom- 
brcs siis ofcnsas vu- 
estro Padre celestial 
OS pcrclonara tambicn 
a vosotros. 

15. Mas si no per- 
donareis a los liom- 
brcs sLis ofensas tam- 
poco vuestro Padre 
OS pcrdonara vucs- 
tras ofensas. 

16. Y cuando ayu- 
neis no os ponguis 
caritristes como los 
liipocritas, los cuales 
desfignran sus rostros 
para hacer ver a los 
hombresque ayunan. 
En verdad os dio-o 
que ya recibien su 
recompensa. 



17. ]Mas tu cuando 
ayunes unge tu cabe- 
za y lava tu cara. 

18. Para no hacer 
ver a los hombrcs 
que ayunas sino a tu 
Padre que esta en lo 
secrete y tu Padre 
que ve en lo secrete 
te recompensara en 

31 



I.ATIN. 

nos a malo. Quo 
niarn tuum csl 
regnum, et po- 
tentia,et gloria in 
secula. Amen. 

14. Si cnim di- 
miseritis homini- 
bus lapsus coruu), 
dimittet et vobis 
Pater vester eas- 
iest is. 

15. Si autem 
non dimiseritis 
hominibus lapsus 
ipso rum, nee Pa- 
ter vester dimittel 
lapsus vestros. 

16. Quum au- 
tem jejunatis, ne 
fiatis sicut iiy|)o- 
crilcc, obtristati ; 
obscurant enim 
facies suas ; ul 
appareant homi- 
nibus jcjunantes. 
Amen dico vo- 
bis, quia recipiunt 
mercedem suam. 

17. Tu aulcm 
jcjunans, unge tu- 
um caput, et fa- 
cicm tuam lava : 

18. Ut ne appa- 
reas hominibus 
jejunans, scd Pa- 
tri tuo qui in se- 
crete : et Patei 
tuus vldens in se- 
crete, reddet tibi 



362 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VT. 



GREEK. 



(TOi iu TO) <^avcp(0. 



19. My Orjo-avpi^e- 
T€ VjiLV 6q(Tavpovs 

tTTl TTJ^ y^S", OTTOV 

(rfjs Koi ^paa-is a.(^a- 
vL^€i^ /cat OTTOV Kke- 
TTTai diopv(r(rovcrCj 
Kal K\eirTov(ri • 

20. Orjaavpi^eTeSi 
vpiv Brjfravpovs iu 

OVpaUMt OTTOV 0VT€ 
a^Sy OVT€ ^pOKTLS 

a(f)avi^€t^ Kcil OTTOV 
KkenraL ov dtopvcr- 
(TovcnVy ovoi /cXe- 

TTTOVaiV. 

21. "Ottov yap ecr- 
Tiv 6 dqcravpo^ v/xwj/, 
€K€t ecrrat Kal fj Kap- 
bla vpav. 

22. *0 Xvx^os TOV 
croapaTos ecmv 6 
6(p0aXp6s ' eav ovv 6 
6<pda\p6s (TOV ctTT^oiis 
r;, okov TO (rd>>/xa crov 
^cot€iv6p ea-rac • 

23. *Eav be 6 
6(pOaXp6s crov novt]- 
pos rj, bXov TO ao^pd 
70V aK0T€Lv6v eaTai. 

El OUU TO (pMS TO €U 

<ro\, (TKoTos eVri, to 

(TKOTOS TTOCTOV ; 



24. OiJSfiff hvvaTai 
Sv(rt Kvpiots dovXev- 



FBENCH. 

dans ton lieu secret 
te recornpensera pub- 
liquement. 

19. Ne vous amas- 
sez point des tresors 
sur la terre, que Ics 
vers et la rouille con- 
sument, et que les 
larrons percent et de- 
robent. 

20. Mais amassez- 
vous des tresors dans 
le ciel, ou ni les vers 
ni la rouille ne con- 
sument rien, et ou les 
larrons ne percent ni 
ne derobent. 

21. Car ou est votre 
tresor, la sera aussi 
votre cceur. 

22. L'ceil est la lu- 
miere du corps ; si 
done ton ceil est net, 
tout ton corps sera 
eclaire. 



23. Mais si ton ceil 
est mal dispose, tout 
ton corps sera tene- 
breux ; si done la 
lumiere' qui est en 
toi n'est que tene- 
bres, combien seront 
grandes les tenebres 
memes ? 

24. Nul ne pent ser- 
vir deux maitres ; car, 



ENGLISH. 



openly. 



19. Lay not up for 

yourselves treasures 
upon earth, where 
moth and rust doth 
corru{.jt, and where 
thieves break through 
and steal : 

20. But lay up for 
yourselves treasures 
in heaven, where nei- 
ther moth nor rus 
doth corrupt, and 
where thieves do no 
break through nor 
steal. 

21. For where your 
treasure is, there wil 
your heart be also. 

22. The light of the 
body is the eye : if 
therefore thine eye be 
single,thy whole body 
shall be full of light. 



23. But if thine eye 
be evil, thy whole 
body shall be full of 
darkness. If there- 
fore the light that is 
in thee be darkness, 
how great is that 
darkness ! 

24. No man can 
serve two masters : 



MATTHEW, ClUPTKR VI. 



363 



GEUMAN. 

feu r ltd), 

19. 3f}r font fiicl) 
\\id)t <£$iba^c fa mim In 
aiif Si^ni, ta ju' Mc 
DJiottcu iiuD tcr 9io|t 
fvcifni, uiit ^a tic X>ic; 
ic luul) gvabcii iiiiD jicl)-- 
Icn. 

20. ©ammcft curb 
abfv ©iba^c im J^im-- 
mc(, t>a fic irctcv ^JTot: 
ten nod) 5Kc|t fvc|fcii, 
luiD Dvi tic X)icbc uidu 
livid) 9 vale II, nod) |Ul;= 
Icu. 

21. !r>cnn \x>o cucv 
©dnxiji ijt, Da i)t and) 
cuci- Jp'ci]. 

22. 2)aLt 2(iu-;c i|! tci^ 
K'ibcef iid)t. ' ^XDcnii 
tcin '2(u,AC cinfaltiv^ ill, 
fo irivD Dciu cjau^cv K'lb 
lidjt fci;]i. 



23. '2!Dcim abcu tciii 
2(uAC ciu ©cbalt i)l, fo 
irivt tciu .qaujcr icd^ 
finlUr fcriu ^IBcnn 
abcr taj? iuht, ta^ in 
Ml' iit, giujlcvnitj ijl, 
iric ,Arofj ^Dii*t tauii Mc 
giiilUvuijj fclbcv fciju if 

2i. ^'ti email i) hum 
jwccu Jjpcvvcu Dlcucii; 



SPAMISII. 

publico. 



19. No amontoneis 
tcsoros para vosotros 
en la licrra, en don- 
do la polilla y el 
orin los consumcn y 
en donrle los ladrones 
los desentierran y ro- 
ban. 

20. I\Ias amontonad 
para vosotros tesoros 
en el cielo en donde 
ni la polilla ni el 
orin los consumcn, y 
en donde los ladrones 
no los desentierran 
ni roban. 

21. Porquc donde 
est a vuestro tesoro 
alii csti tambien vu- 
estro corazon. 

22. Luz de tu cu- 
erpo es tu ojo, por lo 
que si lu ojo fuerc 
sencillo, todo tu cu- 
erpo cstara. llcno dc 
luz. 

23. Mas si tu ojo 
fucre mali^no todo 
tu cuerpo esta'a lie- 
no dc tinieblas. Asi 
que si la luz que bay 
en ti es tinieblas ^ cu- 
an grandes scran las 
mismas tinieblas .-' 

24. Ninguno pucdc 
serv'ir a dos seaores, 



LkllU 

i.i manircsto. 



19. No tbcsau- 
rizatc vobis tbc- 
sauros in terra, 
ubi serugoct tinea 
exterminat, et ubi 
furcs perlbdiunt, 
et furantur. 

20. Thesauriza- 
te autem vobis 
tbcsauros in Ciclo, 
ubi ncque ocrugo, 
neque tinea ex- 
terminat, et ubi 
furcs non clfodi- 
unt, nee furantur. 

21. Ubi enim 
est tbesaurus ve- 
ster, ibi erit et cor 
vcstrum. 

22. Lucernacor' 
poris est oculus : 
si igitur oculus 
tuus simplex fuc- 
rit, totum corpus 
tuum lucidum 
erit. 

23. Si autem 
oculus tuus m-ilus 

! fuerit, totum cor- 
pus tuum tene- 
brosur.i erit. Si 
; ergo lumen quod 
. in te, tenebrte 
sunt, tenebi'ae 
I quan'.j' r 
I 24. Nemo fio- 
I test duobus domi* 



864 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VI. 



CREEK. 

€iv • fj yap rov eua 
fxiarjaei, Koi rbv ere- 
pov ayanrjcrei • fj euos 
dude^€Taiy Koi tov 
irep >u KaTix^povrj- 
0"6t • ov hvvaaBe 0ea> 
bovKev^LV Koi flap,- 
fX(ova. 

25. Aia rovTo Xeyo) 
vp7v, pf} pepipvare rrj 
"^vxjj vpcbVf Ti (f)dyT]- 
Te, KOL ri Trlr]T€ • prj- 
de T(o (ra)paTL vpo)v, 
rt ei'duarjcrde • ov)(\ 
V ^^Xl TrXeToV eVrt 
rrjs Tpo(f)rjsy KoX to 
vcofia rov ivbvp.aTos; 



26. "'E.p^Xi^arc ds 
TO. TTCTeLva TOV ovpa- 
vovy on ov aiTelpov- 
KTiv, ov8e Bepi^ovdLV, 
ovde avvdyovcTLv els 
aTTodrjKas, Koi 6 na- 
TTjp vpSiV 6 ovpdvios 
Tpe(f)€t avTa. Ov)( 
vpLcls paKkov diacfie- 
pfT€ avrav ; 

27. T/y h€ i^ {,pS>p 
pifpipva)!/ dvvarac 
TcpocrOelvai inX ttjv 
{jXiKLav avTov 7rrj)(yv 
€va ; 

28. Kai 7r€p\ eubv- 
paros TL pepipvare ; 
Karapddere ra Kp'iva 
^ov dypov ircos av^d- 



FRSNCn. 

ou il haVra Tun, et 
a i mora 1 'autre ; ou il 
s'attachcra a Pun, et 
meprisera I'autre ; 
vous ne pouvez servir 
Dieu et Mammon. 



25. C'est pourquoi 
je vous dis : Ne soyez 
point en souci pour 
votre vie, de ce que 
vous mangerez,et de 
ce que vous boirez ; 
ni pour votre corps, 
de quoi vous serez 
vetus. La vie n'est- 
elle pas .plus que la 
nourriture, et le corps 
plus que le vetement? 

26. Considerez les 
oiseaux du ciel, car 
ils ne sement, ni ne 
moissonnent, ni n'as- 
semblent dans des 
greniers, et ce pen- 
dant votre Pere ce- 
leste les nourrit. 
N'etes-vous pas beau- 
coup plus excellens 
qu'eux ? 

27. Et qui est celui 
d'entre vous, qui 
puisse par son souci 
ajouter une coudee a 
sa taille .'' 

28. Et pourquoi 
et68-vous en souci du 
ve te me n t ? A pp re ne z 
comment croisscnt les 



ENGLISH. 

for either he will hate 
the one, and love the 
other ; or else he will 
hold to the one, and 
despise the other. Ye 
cannot serve God and 
Mammon. 



25. Therefore I say 
unto you. Take no 
thought for your life, 
what ye shall eat, or 
what ye shall drink ; 
nor yet for your body, 
what ye shall put on. 
Is not the life more 
than meat, and the 
body than raiment .? 



26. Behold the fowls 
of the air : for they 
sow not, neither do 
they reap, nor gather 
into barns ; yet your 
heavenly Father feed-' 
eth them. Are ye not 
much better than 
they ? 



27. Which of you 
by takingthought can 
add one cubit unto 
his stature ? 

28. And why take 
ye thought for rai- 
ment ? Consider the 
lilies of the field, hoMT 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER Vf. 



365 



okkma:(. 

fntn^c^cv cr lDir^ ciucu 
^aifcii uiit ten an^Cl•ll 
licbcu ; crcr iriiD ci- 
iKiu anl)aiic\CH, iiut) ^cu 
aiiDcni vciMcbtfii. 31) v 
hMiiict uitbt (^ett t»iC' 
Hfii unt> tcin £DTam^ 
won. 

25. T)anim fa.AC icb 
en lb : 0oi',^ict niibt fi'iv 
cncv icbcn, '.ra'.> il;v (i- 
fen nnt tnnlr'cnircvtct; 
and) nicl)t fiir cnvcn 
icib, ttai' il)v anjicl}cn 
iDcvDct. 3!^ nid)t ^a^.^ 
iclcn mct)i', t»cnn tic 
©pcifc if Un^ tcv h'lb 
mcl}r, tcnu Die SClei- 
tnng ? 

26. ©el)ec tie S3o,Ae( 
iintcr tern .«pimnui an : 
fte facn nidu, fic cintcn 
iiiibt, fie fammeln nid?t 
in i^ie @d)cnncn, nnr 
eucr l)imnilifd)ci- '33arev 
iidl^vct fie Dod). @ci>D 
it}r tcnu nid)t \)iel 
mel}f, Dcnn fte ? 



27. ^ei- \\} nntev 
end), ter feiucv ih\^( 
eine Slle Jitfc^en m6c\c, 
ob ev i^leid) tavnm fev- 

28. Itnt tvavnm for- 
get il)i* fnr Me .S^lci; 
Dnni^? ©diaiiet tie ii- 
lieu auf tcmtSi^ltf/ wie 

31 » 



6PAMSII. 

porque 6 aborreccra 
al uno y amara al 
otro, 6 so allc'gara al 
uno y menosprcciara 
al otro. No podcis 
scrvir a Dios y a las 
riquezas. 



25. Por esto os di- 
go : no andeis afa- 
ujidos por vucstra 
vida pcnsando que 
habcis de comer 6 
que liabeis de beber, 
ni por vuestro cuer- 
po que babe is de vcs- 
tir, <; No vale mas 
la vida que el alimen- 
to, y el cuerpo que 
el vcstido ? 

26. Mirad las aves 
del ciclo que no sicm- 
bran ni siegan, ni re- 
cogen en trogcs, y 
vuestro Padre celes- 
tial lasalinienta (j no 
vale is pues vosotros 
mucho mas que e- 
Uas ? 



27. Y quien de vo- 
sotros dandose a dis- 
currir podra auadir 
un codo a su estatu- 
ra.? 

28. Y ,; porque os 
afanais por el vcsti- 
do ? Coiitomplad los 
lirios del canipo co- 



latin. 

nis servire : aul 
enim unum ode- 
rit, et alteruin di- 
liget : aut unum 
amplcxabitur, el 
alterum despiciet. 
Non potestis Deo 
servire et mam- 
monie. 

25. Propter hoc 
dico vobis, ne 
anxiemini animoe 
vestroe, quid man- 
ducetis, et quid 
bibatis : neque 
corpori vestro, 
quid induamini. 
Nonneanimaplus 
est esca, et cor- 
pus indumcnto ? 

26. Inspicite in 
volatilia cteli, 
quoniam non se- 
minant, neque 
metunt, neque 
conj^rcfrant in 
horrea, et Pater 
vester ca^lestis 
pascit ilia. Non- 
ne vos magis ex- 
ceUitis illis ? 

27. Quis auvem 
ex vobis anxiaius 
potest adjicore ad 
statu ram sucni 
cubitum unum " 

28. Et circa ves- 
timentum quid 
anxiamini r Ob- 
sen'ate Idia ugri 



866 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VI. 



GBEEK. 

ret • ov AcoTTia, ovde 
vrjdei. 

29. Aeyo) de v/jilv, 
OTi ovde ^okoixoiv iv 
7rd(TT] Tjj do^rj avTOv 
frepte/SaXero &>s ev 
rovTcov • 

30. Et be Tov x^P' 
rov TOV aypov crrjixe- 
pov ovra^ koi avpiov 
fli KKijSauov /3aXXd- 
fxevov, 6 Gfo? ovToas 
a.fjL<puvvv(nv, ov 7ro}\.- 
Xa> [xaXXov VfMas, oXi- 
yoTTtcrrot ; 

31. Mrj ovv pepi- 
p,vr)(rriT€, \eyovT€s, 
Tt (pdycofxev^ rj t'i ni- 
ooficu, if] Ti TrepijSa- 
Xcofxeda ; 



32. TLdvTa yap 
TavTa TO, edvr} iiri- 
C^Te7 • oldc yap 6 ira- 
rrjp VjJLOiv 6 ovpdvLo^y 

OTL XPliC^'''^ TOVTCOU 

&ndvT(ov. 

33. ZrjTelTf be npco- 
TOV TTjv ^acrCkelav tov 
Gfou, Ka\ Trju bLicaio- 
(rvi>r]v avrov, Ka\ Tad- 
Ta TvdvTa TrpoarTedrj' 
(TfTai vpTiv. 

34. Mr] ovv fxepi- 
ixvf]ar]r€ els rrju av- 
aiou ' jj yap avpLov 



FRENCH. 

lis dcs cbaiTips ; ils 
ne travaillent ni ne 
filcnt. 

29. Cependant, je 
vous dis que Salomon 
me me, dans toute sa 
gloire, n'a pas ete ve- 
tu comme I'un d'eux. 

30. Si done Dieu 
revet ainsi I'herbe des 
champs, qui est au- 
jourd'hui sur pied, et 
qui domain sera jetee 
au four, ne vous ve- 
tira-t-il pas beaucoup 
plutot, 6 gens de pe- 
tite foi > 

31. Ne soyez done 
point eri souci, di- 
sant : Que mange- 
rons-nous } ou que 
boirons-nous ? ou de 
quoi serons-nous ve- 
tus ? 

32. Vu que les 
paVens recherchent 
toutes ces choses ; car 
votre Pere celeste 
connait que vous 
avez besoin de toutes 
ces choses. 

33. Mais cherchez 
premierement le roy- 
aume de Dieu et sa 
justice, et toutes ces 
choses vous seront 
donnees par dessus. 

34. Ne soyez done 
point en souci pour 
Ic lendemain • car le 



ENGLISH. 

they grow ; ihey toil 
not, neither do they 
spin : 

29. And yet I say 
unto you, That even 
Solomon, in all his 
gloiy, was not ar- 
rayed like one of 
these. 

30. Wherefore, i. 
God so clothe the 
grass of the field, 
which to-day is, and 
to-morrow is cast into 
the oven, shall he not 
much more clothe 
you, O ye of little 
faith ? 

31. Therefore take 
no thought, saying, 
What shall we eat .'' 
or. What shall we 
drink } or. Where- 
withal shall we be 
clothed ? 

32. (For after all 
these thinn;s do the- 
Gentiles seek :) for 
your heavenly Father 
knoweth that ye have 
need of all these 
things. 

33. But seek ye first 
the kingdom of God, 
and his righteousness, 
and all these things 
shall be added unto 
you. 

34. Take therefore 
no thought for the 
morrow : for the moi- 



MATTHEW, ClfAPTEll VI. 



367 



GKRMAN. 



flc it>art^fcu : f(c arbci-- 
tcii uiclu, *x\id) fp!ilUCll 
flC \\ld)t. 

29. 3((i (ac{c fuel), ^afi 
ami) @.;(lmiio in allcv 
fcincr^cvvlubf-'citJucOt 
bct'icirct ,qcn>iKii i\}, 
aU Dcvfelbcu Sine. 

30. ©0 ^clm (?ott 
tae? ©iwo auf Dcm gcl-- 
tic alfo t'lciDct, rat? tod) 
l)(\itc iUl)ct, uiiC) moi'-- 
<^cu in ^cn Ofcn (\cirei'-' 
feu wil•^, follte ei- ^^^tt 
«ic()t l>ic(mfbi* end) 
tl)uu? iOit}i- iUciuglau- 
bu\(\\ ! 

31. 5)arnm fodt if}v 
iiicbt foviUMi; uuD fa.Aen : 
QBattircrDeuipir e||Vn? 
^ai? ircircn n?ir tiiu: 
feu ? 9i3omit irevDen 
irir uu^ tleiDeu. 

32. ^ad) fofcbem a(-- 
(en tvv\cl)ten Die J^eiDeu. 
2)enn euer l)immIijM)er 
23atei- weifj, Dafj il;i* Dejj 
allee; beMufct. 



33. '5:racl)tct rttn er-- 
jleu uvicl) tern 9\eicl)e 
(Sotted, uuD nafbfeiner 
^ev<il)tivU'cit; \o irivD 
cucli 'elcl)et> allei^ ^u- 
fallen. 

34. J^avum for>Kt 
iu(l)t fui- tax antn-n 
tOhx^iM ; t>enn Dcr 



SPANISH. 

mo croccn : ellos no 
trubajan, ui liilun. 

29. Y sincmbargo 
OS (li<2;o que ni aiiii 
Salomon en medio 
do toda su gloria no 
estuvo vcstido como 
uno dc cstos. 

30. Pues si la yer- 
ba del campo que 
hoy es y manana es 
ecliada en el homo, 
Dios la viste asi ^ no 
osvestira. muchomas 
a vosotros hombres 
de poca fe ? 

31. No OS afaneis 
pues diciendo que 
comcrcmos ? 6 que 
beberemos ? 6 con 
que nos cubriremos .'* 



32. (Porque los 
Gentiles buscan estas 
cosas) porque vues- 
tro Padre celestial 
sabe que teneis ne- 
cesidad de todas es- 
tas cosas. 

33. Buscad pues 
primero el reyno de 
Dios, y su justicia, y 
todas estas cosas os 
seran ailadidas. 

34. Asi que no an- 
deis cuidadosos por 
el oia de manana, 



LATIN. 

quomono an gen 
tur: non fatigan- 
tur, ne{jU(3 nent. 

29. Dico autem 
vobis, (pioniam 
nee Salomon in 
omni gloria sua 
amictus est sicut 
unum istorum. 

30. Si autem 
fcenum agri hodie 
exist(ms, et eras 
in clibanum in- 
jectum, Deus sic 
circumornat, non 
multo magis vos, 
exfguoe fidci ? 

31. Ne igitur 
anxiemini, dicen- 
tes : Quid man- 
ducabimus, aut 
quid bibemus, 
aut quid circum- 
amiciemur ? 

32. Omnia enim 
ha3C gentcs inqui- 
runt. Novit enim 
Pater vester cae- 
lestis quod opus 
habetis horum 
omnium. 

33. Qua-rite au 
tem primum reg- 
num Dei, et jus- 
titiam ejus, ethane 
on^nia adponen- 
tur vobis. 

34. Ne igilur 
anxiemini incriuj; 
nam ci*as cu nihil 



868 



MATTHEW, CHAPTEKS VI., VII. 



GREEK. 

fiepifj-vfjaei TO. iaV' 

TTJS ' dpKCTOU TTJ J^/iC- 

pa Tj KaKia avTJJs- 



1. Mr) Kpivere, tva 
fL^ KpiBijre. 

2. 'Ei' CO yap Kpi- 
^ari Kpiuere, KpiBi]- 
%X€o6e • Koi €v CO jtxe- 
Tpco pfTpelre, avTipe- 
Tpi]6r]a€Tai, vp.lv. 



3. Ti 5t' ^Xenets to 
Kdp(f)09 TO iv rw 
o(p6aXpc^ Tov aSeA- 
(f)ov aou, TTjv fie eV 
TOO crco 6(j)da\poi do- 
Kov ov KaTavoels ; 

4. H TTcos epels r(p 
dbe\(pco cToVy "Acfifs 
tK^aXci) TO Kdp<pos 
UTTO TOV 6(p0aKpov 
aov ; Ka\ Idoii rj 8o- 
Kos iv T(o 6(p6aXpoi 
trov ' 

5. *YTT0KpiTa, e/c- 
/SaXe TvpwTOv ttjv do- 
Kov €K Toil 6(pdaXpov 
aov, Kal t6t€ dia^Xe- 
ylrets fx^aXelv ro 

KapipOS €K TOV ocpduX' 
fioii TOV d8eXcf)ov aov. 

6. Mi; d(OT€ TO dyi- 
ov Tuls Kva\, prjdi 
JliaXijTe Tovs papya- 
piTas vp(ov ep-rpo- 

aOiV TUiV \OipoiV 'XI] - 



rUENCII. ENGLISH. 

Icndemain prendra row shall take ihouglit 
soin de ce qui le re- 1 for the umi^s of itr.elf. 
garde : a chaque jour \ Sufficient unto the 



suffit sa peine. 



1. Ne jugez point, 
afin que vous ne soy- 
ez point juges. 

2. Car de tel juge- 
ment que vous juge- 
rez, vous serez juges ; 
et de telle me sure 
que vous mesurerez, 
on vous mesurera re- 
ciproquement. 

3. Et pourquoi re- 
gardes-tu le fetu qui 
est dan^ I'oeil de ton j 
frere, et tu ne prends , 
pas garde a la poutre [ 
qui est dans ton ceil ? | 

4. Ou comment dis- ! 
tu a ton frere : Per- i 
mets que j'ote de ton I 
oeil ce fetu, et voila, ' 
tu as une poutre dans 
ton oeil .^ 

5. Hypocrite, ote j 
premie re ment de ton 
ceil la poutre, et apres 
cela tu verras com- • 
ment tu oteras le fetu | 
de Pceil'de ton frere. 

6. Ne donnez point 
les choses saintes aux 
chiens, et ne jetez 
point vos perles de- 
vant les pourceaux, 



day is the evil thereof. 



1. Judge not, that yc 
be not judged. 

2. For with what 
judgment ye judge, 
ye shall be judged ; 
and with what meas- 
ure ye mete, it shall 
be measured to you 
again. 

3. And why behold- 
est thou the mote thai 
is in thy brother's 
eye, but considerest 
not the beam that is 
in thine own eye ? 

4. Or how v/ilt thou 
say to thy brother. 
Let me pull out the 
mote out of thine 
eye ; and behold, a' 
beam is in thine own 
eye ? 

5. Thou hypocrite, 
first cast out the beam 
out of thine own eye ; 
and then shalt thou 
see clearly to cast out 
the mote out of thv 
brother's eye. 

6. Give not that 
which is holy unto the 
dogs, neither cast \q 
your pearls before 
swine, lest they tram 



MATTHEW, CIIAPTEKS VT., VII. 



869 



OEUMAy 

moraentc "Jaa itirD fTii* 
taeJ ©cnicfoi\uii. ^'o 
ifl Acuu.q, ^a|j cm jcci-- 
(icbcv 'Xac\ feme cicjcuc 

L 9ticl>wt uic(u, auf 
^a|5 i()i- ni(l)t gcnd)rct 
trcvDct. 

2. 2)cnn initn?cfc(KV-' 
III) (ScviclH 1 1) I- vicbtct, 
ircrtct it)v (\cvifbtct 
unntcii ; uuMnitircld): 
cvici; dTuu\\i itjv mc|fit, 
vriiD cud) oicmcifcu ircr- 
tcii. 

3. "IBiU^ficl^cjl Ml aBcv 
ten ©plittcr ill ^ci-- 
tice: ^^iiiDcv Zuo,(, lm^ 
triij^ uid)t ,cicmal)f ^cll 
*i3aU'cu ill tcincm 2hi- 
9c? 

4. £)Dci- wic ^al•f|l Ml 
fac\cii ^11 tciiicm iJ5ni' 
In : J6^dt, idi irill ^il• 
ten ©plittcf aut? t(u 
ticiii 'ZiiiAc jic()cu ? uu^ 
ficl)c, fin 'i5a{l:c ijl iu 
tciucm 2i.u(\(, 

5. 2)u JP)cud)fci*, jic= 
!)c am cv|U'u ten ^^a(: 
hu aiiit ^cmcm 2tuw\v ; 
taviuub bcficbc, iric Mt 
tea ©piittcr aiii^ tci-- 
nc^ ^^vutci{5 2iiyc jiC'- 

6. 3il)v follt ^a£f J^ci^ 
Iic\tt}um iii d)t ^^^l ^iiu- 
trii c\cbcu, ull^ ciivc 
^evlcn follt il}v md)t 
toor Mc ©auc rocrfcu ; 



SPANISH. 

porquc el dia dc ma- 
fiaiKi traoru su ciii- 
(lado ; bastale al dia 
su proprio afaii. 



1. No juzgueis pa- 
raquo no soais juz- 
gados. 

2. Porcjue con el 
juicio con que jnzgu- 
rcis sercis juzgados, 
y con la medida con 
que m idle re is sc os 
volvera a mcdir. 

3. Y <f porque ves 
la niota en el ojo de 
tu liermano y no 
eclias de ver la viga 
que csta en tu ojo ? 

4. O (f como dices 
a tu hcrinan.o, deja 
que saque la mota de 
tu ojo, y he aqui tu 
ticnes una viga en tu 
proprio ojo ? 

5. Hipvirita, echa 
primero .a viga de 
tu ojo, y entonces 
veras claramente pa- 
ra sacar la mota del 
ojo de tu hermano. 

6. No dels lo santo 
a los perros ni eclie- 
is vuestras perl as dc- 
lante de los puercos, 
no sea que las hu- 



LATIN. 

suaipsius : sufli- 
ciens diei malitia 
sua. 



1. No judicate, 
ut non judicc mi- 
ni. 

2. In quo enim 
judicio judicave- 
ritis, judicabi mi- 
ni : et in qua 
mensura mensi 
fueritis, remctie- 
tur vobis. 

3. Quid autem 
intueris fcstucam 
qua3 in oculo fra- 
tris tui, at in tuo 
oculo trabcm non 
animadvert is ? 

4. Aut quomodo 
dices fratri tuo : 
Sine ejiciam fe- 
stucam de oculo 
tuo, et ecce trabs 
in oculo tuo .'* 

5. riypocrita, 
ejice primum tra- 
bem de oculo tuo, 
et tunc intucberis 
ejice re fcstucam 
de oculo fratris 
tui. 

6.Ne detissanc 
tum can i bus, ne- 
que mittatis mar- 
fj-aritas vcstras 
ante porcos, ne 



3T0 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



GREEK. 

rroT€ KaraTTaTrjcrcca-tv 
aVTOVS €V Tols TToalv 
avTcau, Ka\ crrpacjieu- 
T€S pq^cocrLU vpas. 

9r)(TeTai vjjuu • C^rei- 
rf, KOLi cvf>r}cr€T€ • 
Kpovere, /cat difoiyrj- 
oerai vfxiv. 

8. Ilaj yap 6 at- 
T(ov XapfSdvei, Koi 6 
^rjTav evpicTKei, Kal 
TW KpovovTi avoiyr)- 

9. H rls iariv e^ 

Vp.WV civOpcDTTOS, OU 

iav alrrjcrr] 6 vtos av- 
rov apTOVy prj \'l6ov 
f-mddicrei avT^ ; 

10. Kal iav Ix^dvu 
aLTTjarjt prj 6(ptu eVt- 
Scbcret avTci ; 

1 1 . Ei ovu vue^s, 
irovrjpol ovres^ o'ibarf 
bopara aya$a bibovai 

Tols T€KVOiS VpSv,7r6' 

srco paWov 6 irarrjp 
vpaw, 6 iv Tois ovpa- 
voist doicrei dyaOa 
Tols alrovaiv avTOU ; 

12. nduTa ovu ocra 
h.u 6i\rjTe Iva ttoioS- 

(TIV Vp'iV oi (ivOpCOTTOlf 
OUTOO Kai Vpdi TTOlfl- 

rf avTols • 067 >$■ yap 

i<XTlU O VOpOS k U 01 



FRENCH. 

do peur qu'ils ne le' 
fbulent a leurs pieds^ 
et que se retournan 
ils ne vous dechirent. 

7. Demandez, et i 
vous sera donne ; 
cherchez, et vous 
trouverez ; heurtez, 
et il vous sera ouvert. 

8. Car quiconque 
demande, re^oit ; et 
quiconque cherche, 
trouve ; et il sera ou- 
vert a celui qui 
heurte. 

9. Mais qui sera 
I'homme d'entre vous 
qui donne une pierre 
a son fils, s'il lui de- 
mande du pain ? 

10. Et s'il lui de- 
mande un poisson, lui 
donnera-t-ii un ser- 
pent ? 

11. Si done vous, 
qui etes mechans, sa- 
vez bien donner a vos 
enfans des choses 
bonnes, combien plus 
votre Pere qui est aux 
cieux, donnera-t-il des 
biens a ceux qui les 
lui demandent ! 

12. Toutes les 
choses done que vous 
voulez que les 
hommes vous fassent, 
faites-les-leuraussi de 
meme, car c'est la loi 



ENGLISH. 



pie them under their 
feet, and turn again 
and rend you. 



7. Ask, and it shall 
be given you ; seek, 
and ye shall find ; 
knock, and it shall be 
opened unto you : 

8. For every one 
that asketh, receiv 
eth ; and he that seek- 
eth, findeth ; and to 
him that knocketh, it 
shall be opened. 

9. Or what man is 
there of you, whom 
if his son ask bread, 
will he give him a 
stone ? 

10. Or if he ask a 

fish, will he give him 
a serpent ? 

11. If ye, then, be- 
ing evil, know how to 
give good gifts unto 
your children, how 
much more shall your 
Father which is in 
heaven give good 
things to tMem that 
ask him ? 

12. Therefore s.U 
things whatsoever ye 
would that men should 
do to you, do ye even 
so to them : for this 
is the law and the 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



371 



OEKMAN. 

auf t»af5 fie ^icfc(tM^uu 
uidu jcrtntcii nut il}-- 
i*cu ^ntJcJi/ I'liD Jul) 
»rcn^cll, mi& cud) jcv: 
fcif^'cii. 

7. U)irtct, fol^iv^cucl) 
^^.c^cbcu ; fud)ct, \o wn- 
bet il}i- jiiiDcn ; Hopfct 
an, \o iriiD cud) vuif^jc-- 
tl}au. 

8. 2>cnu iriT ba Mt-- 
tct, ^cl• cmpfan.At; un^ 
n>cv ^a fud)ct, rev tin- 
tct; unD n?a* ^a an- 
flopfct, t>cm iDivD au*"^ 
gctl}aa. 

9. QyDc(d)cv i\t untcr 
cud) 93?rufd)cn, fo il;n 
fciu ©ol)U bittct urn 
25i'C&, Dci- il;m ciucu 
©tcin bictc? 

10. £)^cv fo ci- if)u 

bittct nm cincn ^i\d), 
Dci- il;m fine (Sd)lanc\f 
Metc^ 

11. ©0 ^eun it)r, ^lf 
il}v fed) ar,A fci^D, fen- 
net feunod) euicu Stin-' 
tevu c\nte ©abcu ({(- 
ften, it)ie i>ielmcbr ^T>iif 
cuei- ^ater im J^iinmel 
®ute^ .Acbcu feacn, Me 
il;n bitten. 

12. 2UIe^ nun, )rat? 
il)f n?olIct, fafj end) ti( 
kdiu tl}un follcn, tae; 
thit il)r il)ncn; fa;?; i)I 
^al?C^cfe^uut>Oic^l•o- 
pbetcu. 



SPANISH. 



LATIN. 



ellen con sus pios y forte conculcent 
volviciidoso contra ! eas in pcdihus su- 

is, ct convcrsi di- 
rumpant vos. 



vosotros OS dcspoda- 
cen. 

7. Pcdit, y se OS 
dara : buscad, y lia- 
llart'is : Hamad, y se 
OS abrira. 

8. Porqiic todo a- 
qiicl que pide recibc ; 
y el que busca halla, 
y ;d ([ue llama se le 
abrira. 

9. O qinen dc vo- 
sotros OS el hombre 
a (juien si su liijo pi- 
die re pan acaso le 
dara una picdra ? 

10. O si le pidicre 
un poz, acaso le dara 
una serpicnte ? 

11. Si voi^otros puos 
siendo males sabi'is 
dar b'"^nas dadivas a 
vuestros hijos ^ cuan- 
to mas vuestio Pa- 
dre que esta en los 
cielos dara buenas 
dadivas a los que se 
las pidieren ? 

1*2. Asi que todo lo 
que quisicroisque los 
iiombres hagan con 
vosotros, haccdlo asi 
vosotros tambicn con 
ellos : porque esta es 



7. Petite, ct da- 
bitur vobis : quffi- 
rite, et invenietis : 
pulsate, etaperie- 
tur vobis. 

8. Omnis enim 
petensaccipit : et 
quajrens invenit, 
et pulsanti iperi- 
etur. 

9. Aut quis est 
ex vobis liomo, 
quern si petierit 
fdius suus panem, 
nunquid lapidem 
da bit ei ? 

10. Etsi piscem 
petierit, nunqiiid 
serpentem dabit 
ei? 

11. Si ergo vos 
mail existentes, 
nostiS) data bona 
dare filiis vestris, 
quan o magis Pa- 
ter vester qui in 
ca^lis, dabit bona 
petcntibus se ? 

12. Omnia ergo 
qua^cumque vul- 
tis ut f'aciant vo- 
bis bominc's, ila 
et vos facile illia, 
Hajc enim &>' 



372 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



GREEK. 

7rpc(j)i)Tai. 

13. EiVcX^ere Sta 
TVS (TTev-qi ttvKtjs ' 
OTL TrKanla r) 7rv\r), 

r} dTrdyovaa els rfju 
dnooiXeiav, Koi noWol 



eiatv OL €i(T€p^oixevoL 
6i' avTTjs. 

14. "Oti arevfj y 
^ TTvXrjy K'-U TeBXi'fifxivrj 

Tj odos rj dndyovcya 
(Is Trju C(^T)v, Koi oXl- 
yoi elalu ol (vpiaKcu- 

T€S aVTtjU. 

15. Upocrex^T^ 5e 
ano rav ■^evhoTvpo- 
(jyrjTSu, oiTLves 'ipxpv- 
Tai TTpos Vfids iv ev- 
dvjxao-i TrpoQcircov, 
€(TU)6(v be elai XvKoi 
aprrayes. 

16. 'Atto T(ou Kap- 
irwv avTbiv iTTiyvoi- 
ceaBe avrovs. Mtjtl 
avWeyovariv utto d- 
KavBuiv aTa(pv\f]Vy rj 
OTTO rpi^oKoov avKa ; 

17. Ouro} TTCLU SeV- 
dpou dyaOov Kaprrovs; 

KuXoVS TVOul ' TO di 

aarrpov deudpov Kap- 

TTOVS TTOVrjpoVS TTOul. 

18. Ov Bvvarat 
divbpov dyaQov Kap- 

TTOVy TTOVqpOVS TTOieiV, 

ovbe bevbpov (ranpov 
KaoTToiis Ka\ovs ttoc 
iiv. 

19. Hdv diubpov p.f) 



FRENCH. 

et les prophetes. 

13. Eiitroz par la 
porte etroite, car c'cst 
la porte large et le 
chcmin spacieux qui 
inene a la perdition ; 
et il y en a beaucoup 
qui entrent par elle. 

14. Car la porte est 
etroite ; et le chemih 
est etroit qui mene a 
la vie ; et il y en a 
peu qui le trouvent. 

15. Or gardez-vous 
des faux prophetes, 
qui viennent a vous 
en habits de brebis, 
mais qui au-dedans 
sent des loups ravis- 
sans. 

16. Vous les con- 
naitrez a leurs fruits : 
Cueille-t-on les rai- 
sins a des epines, ou 
les figues a des char- 
dons ? 

17. Ainsi *oui bon 
arbre lait de bons 
fruits ; mais le mau- 
vais arbre fait de 
mauvais fruits. 

18. Le bon arbre ne 
pent point faire de 
mauvais fruits, ni le 
mauvais arbre faire 
de bons fruits. 

19. Tout arbre qui 



ENGLISH. 

prophets. 

13. Enter ye in al 
the strait gate : for 
wide is the gate, and 
broad is the way, that 
leadeth to destruction, 
and many there be 
which go in thereat : 

14. Because strait is 
the gate, and narrow 
is the way, which 
leadeth unto life, and 
kw there be that find 
it. 

15. Beware of false 
prophets, which come 
to you in sheep's 
clothing, but inward- 
ly they are ravening 
wolves. 

16. Ye shall know 
them by their fruits. 
Do men gather grapes 
of thorns, or figs, of 

thistles ? 

17. Even so every 
good tree bringeth 
forth good fruit ; but 
a corrupt tree bring- 
eth forth evil fruit. 

18. A good tree can- 
not bring forth evil 
fruit, neither can a 
corrupt tree bring 
forth good fruit. 

19. Every tree that 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



3'73 



OEUMAX. 



13. CPcbct ciu Mivrb 
tic I'UvU' ^foitc ; tcuii 
fcic ^fmtc i\] ir>cit, uu^ 
tcr ^H?c>^ \\l Incit, tcv 
;{ur ^ciDammuif] ab-- 
jriil)vct; uuD il}icr fiiiD 
Vide, Die Dv^vauf n?au- 
Dclii. 

14. Uut> tie spfpvte 
i|^ (\UM\ unt> tcr 'IBc.a 
ill fcbnuxl, Dcv jiiiu if= 
tn'ii ful^i'ct; \u\t> wiw'u 
c(i fiiiD il}rcr, tie il}u 
ttiitcu. 

15. ^cl)ct ciicf) lun*, 
Vcv ten faI|M>cii ^10: 
pl^etfu, tic ill ©clwf'o: 
irlcitcvu in cmb tom' 
nicu ; iinrcnti.a abcr 
juitfievci|5CuDe ICelfe. 

16. 2(11 if}vcu gviu()-' 
ten follt il;r fie evt-'cu; 
lien. 5^\inu man rtm() 
^iMubeu (cfcu von ten 
2)crufn, ctcr geigen 
Von ten 'X>i|le[n ? 

17. 2I(fo cin jcAliflu'r 
c\ntei- 'i^iinm Ininc^ct 
c^ntc giviclue ; atn'v cm 
fanler i3Mun bringet 
Ai*9e §viicl)te. 

IS. Sin .qntev S5anm 
fann nidu ar>K gvucbtc 
Inin^cn, nut em faiilci 
^^anm hum nicl)t cjute 
gi'iuttc biinc)cn. 

19. Sin jeglii()cr 



SPANISH. 

la Ley y los Profctas. 
1;;}. Entrad por la 
pucrta angosta, por- 
que aiiclia cs la pu- 
crta, y cspacioso el 
camino que conduce 
a. la perdicion, y mu- 
chos son los que en- 
tran por ella. 

14. Porque estrccha 
es la puerta, y an- 
gosto el camino que 
conduce a. la vida y 
pocos son los que 
atinan con el. 

15. Guardaos de los 
falsos profctas que 
vienen a. vosotros 
vestidos de pielos de 
ovejas y por dentro 
son lobos rapaces. 

16. Por sus frutos 
los conocereis. Aca- 
so se coiijen uvas de 
los espinos, 6 higos 
de los abrojos .'* 

17. Asi mismo todo 
arbol bueno lleva bu- 
en fruto, y el arbol 
malo lleva mal fruto. 



18. No puede el 
arbol bueno llevar 
nial fruto, ni el ar- 
bol malo llevar fruto 
bueno. 

19. Todo arbol que 
32 



LATIN. 

Lex et Prophetae. 

13. Intratc per 
angustarnportam, 
quia lata porta et 
spatiosa via du- 
cens ad perditio- 
nein,et niulti suet 
ingredientes per 
earn. 

14. Quia angus- 
ta porta, et stricta 
via ducens ad vi- 
tam, et pauci sunt 
invenientes earn. 

15. Attenditeve- 
roa falsis |.-oplie- 
tis, qui vcniunt ad 
vos in indumentis 
ovium, intrinse- 
cus autom sunt 
lupi rapaces. 

16. A fructibus 
eorum agnoscetis 
eos. Nunquid col- 
ligunt a spinis 
uvam, aut de tri- 
bulis ficum ? 

17. Sic omnis 
arbor bona fruc 
tus bonos facit . 
at cariosa arbor 
fructus males fa- 
cit. 

IS. Non potest 
ar!)or bona fruc- 
tus malos face re, 
neque arbor cari- 
osa fructus pul- 
chros face re. 

19. Onuiis arboi 



374 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



GREEK. 

TTOIOVV KapTVOV KoKov 
(KKOTTTfTai, Koi cls 

TTvp /SaXXerai 

20. "Apaye drro toov 
KapiTuiv avTcav iiri- 
yvcjcreade avrovs. 

21. Ov iras 6 Xe- 
ycov pot, KvpL€, Kv- 
pte, elafXevaerai els 
TTjU jSaaiXciav ra)v 
ovpavav • aW 6 ttoi- 
<5v TO BeXrjpa tov 
Trarpos p.ov tov iv 
ovpavols. 

22. IloXXoi ipovcrl 
fiQi ev eKeiVTj Trj rjpe- 
pa^ Kvpi€, Kvpie, ov 
TO) (7<i> ovopari Trpo- 
€(f)rjT€vcrap(v, Ka\ tco 
aa ovopaTi baipovia 
€^e(3aXop€Vy Koi t(o 
tro) ovopaTi Svvdpeis 
TToXXay €7roif}aap(v ; 



23. Kat t6t€ Spo- 
Xoyrjaoi avTols, oti 
ovbeTTore eyvccv vpas ' 
aTTO)(a)p€7T€ ajr' epov 
oi epya^opcvoi ttjv 
dvopiav. 

24. Ila? OVV OCTTIS 

OKovei pov Tovs Xo- 
yovs TovTovs, Koi noi- 

€1 aVTOVS, SpOlODO-CO 

avTov avbpX (ppovipco, 
oaTis (pKodop-qcre ttjv 
oIkUiv avrov enl ^rjv 
TTtTpav • 



FRENCH. 



ne fait point de bon 
fruit, est coupe et je- 
te au feu. 

20. Vous les con- 
naitrez done a leurs 
fruits. 

21. Tous ceux qui 
medisent: Seigneur! 
Seigneur ! n'entre- 
ront pas dans le roy- 
aume des cieux ; mais 
celui qui fait la vo- 
lonte de n^on Pere 
qui est aux cieux. 

22. Plusieurs me di- 
ront en ce jour-la : 
Seigneur ! Seigneur ! 
n'avons-nous pas pro- 
phetise en ton nom ? 
et n'avons-nous pas 
chasse les demons en 
ton nom ? et n'avons- 
nous pas fait plusieurs 
miracles en ton nom ? 

23. Mais je leur di- 
ra alors tout ouverte- 
ment : Je ne vous ai 
jamais reconnus ; re- 
tirez-vous de moi, 
vous qui vous adon- 
nez a I'iniquite. 

24. Quiconque en- 
tend done ces paroles 
que je dis, et les met 
en pratique, je le com- 
parerai a I'homme 
prudent, qui a bati sa 
maison sur la roclie ; 



ENGLISH 

bringeth not fortii 
good fruit is hewn 
down, and cast into 
the fire. 

20. Wherefore by 
their fruits ye shall 
know them. 

2L Not every one 
that saith unto me, 
Lord, Lord, shall en- 
ter into the kingdom 
of heaven ; but he 
that doeth the will of 
my Father which is 
in heaven. 

22. Many will say 
to me in that day, 
Lord, Lord, have we 
not prophesied in thy 
name ? and in thy 
name have cast out 
devils ? and in thy 
name done many 
wonderful works ? 



23. And then will I 
profess unto them, I 
never knew you : de- 
part from me, ye that 
work iniquity. 



24. Therefore who- 
soever heareth these 
sayifigs of mine, and 
doeth them, I will 
liken him unto a wise 
man, which built hia 
house upon a rock : 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



375 



gj;rman. 

S5aiini, ^cl• nuht .qiitc 
giudUc tnin.Act, umvD 
al\vvi:aiii'n iiuD iin.''^cu; 

20. T>anim an il}vcii 
§i-iicl)tcu folk il;i- fic 
fit'cinuMi. 

21. Q;t> wcvtcu iiii()t 
rtllc, tic ,^,u mir ]\u}in : 
^cir, ^crr ! in tai> 
^iinmcli-cicl) (■ODimcu ; 
foiiDciu Mc tcu'IDilicu 
tl)im mciuctj 23atcii> 
im J^immcl. 

22. €tt it»crbcu iMcfc 
in miv |'ac\ni an jcucm 
^ac^c: Jpcir, J^cvr, l)a- 
bcii irir iiidu lu tciucm 
STamfii c\circi|fa.Kt ? 
•^vilcii ii?ir uicl)t 111 Id- 
Jicm SRamcii "Jcufcl 
aui?\.icfi'ifbcu ? J^abni 
UMi- mfl)t in tiMiicm 
S^amni i>iclc ^tjatcu 
SctljiUi ? 

23. X>ann \v(x^( id) 
il}ucu bct-cnncii : ^d) 
l}abc cud) nod) nic cv-- 
iaiint ; ircid>ct allc l>ou 
mil-, i^i* UcbcUl;Atcv. 



24. 2)avum, ircv bic: 
fc mcinc 9^ctc ()&rct, 



SPANISH. 

no lleva buen fruto, 

sera cortado y ccha- 
do al i'uego. 

20. For sus fnitos 
pucs los conoccreis. 

21. No todo aqucl 
que mc dice Senor, 
Senor, cntrara en el 
reyno de los ciclos, 
sino aqucl que hicie- 
re la voluulad de mi 
Padre que esta en 
los ciclos. 

22. Muchos me di- 
ran en aqucl dia Se- 
nor, Senor <; no he- 
mes profctizado en 
tu nombre ? ^ y no 
hemos en tu nombre 
lanzado dcmonios ? 
i y hecho muchos rni- 
lagros en tu nombre ? 



23. Y entonecs yo 
les dire cUiramente. 
Nunca os conoci ; 
apartaos de mi ope- 
rarios de la maldad. 



24. For tanto todo 
aquel que oye estas 



\u\t tl)iit fic, tea \)ci': I mis palabras y las 
.Alcidu" id) ciimn t'lUvV'U i practica, lo compa- 
53(ainic, t>cr fciii Jpaiu'jrare a un bombre 
auf eiuCU Si'ih''l Lwu- 'cuerdoquccdinco su 



iU, 



casa sobre pcna. 



LATIN. 

non laci'jns fruc- 
tuni pulcbrum, 
cxscinditur, ct in 
igncm injicitur. 

20. Ita(juc ex 
fructibus eorum 
agnoscetis cos. 

21. Non omnis 
dicens mibi. Do- 
mine, Domine, 
intrabitinrcn-num 
ca.'lorum : sed fa- 
cicns voluntatem 
Fatris mei, qui in 
cailis. -^^ 

22. Multi dicent 
mibi in ilia die : 
Domine, Domine, 
nonne tuo nomi- 
ne prophctavi- 
mus, et tuo no- 
mine damonia 
ejecimus, et tuo 
nomine t (Ticien* 
tias mullas feci- 
mus ? 

23. Et tunc con- 
fitebor illis, Quod 
nunquam novi 
vos ; absccdite a 
me omncs ope- 
rantes iniquita- 
tem. 

24. Omnis ergo 
quicunque audit 
mea verba }ia3C, 
et flic it ea, assi- 
milabo ilium viio 
prudenti, qui cedi- 

, ficavitdonuim su- 
I am super pelTara 



876 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VH. 



GREEK. 

25. Kai KUTe^T] rj 
^poxr), Koi rj'kOov ol 

TTOTCifJiULf Kal 673 fSV- 

Tav oi auejjioi, Kai 
npoaeTrecrov tj] oIkIo. 

€KeLUr]^ KCti OVK eW- 

tre • TedefJiiXicoTO yap 
Vi rrju Trerpav. 



26. Kai TTcis 6 d- 
Kovcov fxov rovs Xo- 
yovs Tovrovi, Ka\ p,r} 
TTOIMU avTovs, 6/xoico- 
6t](TeTai c^m^ p-oipoi 
oavLH (pKo86ixr]ae ttjv 
oiKiau avTov enl ttju 
ayipiov ' 

27. Kat KaT€[3rj r/ 
^poxrjy KCH rj\6ov ol 
TTOTafxol^ Kal envev- 
crav ol (iuep-ot, Kal 
7rpoaeKo\j/'av rfj oIkio. 
€K€Lurj, Kal eVf (re • 
Kal rju fj TrTMcis av- 
Ti]S fXcyaXrj. 

28. Kal (yevcTo 
OT€ avvereT^eaev 6 
Irjaoi/s Tovs Xoynvs 

TOVTOvSy i^enXrja- 
aovro ol o;(Aot inl 
rfj dibaxi} avTov • 

29. 'Hi/ yap SiSa- 
fTKoiV avTuvi 0)5 e^ov- 
criav €\(ou, Kal ov)( 
W oi ypafxjn relf. 



FRENCH. 

25. ct lorsque la 
pluie est tombi'^e, et 
que !es torrens sent 
venus, et que les 
vents ont souffle, et 
ont doniie centre 
cette maison, elle 
n'est point tombee, 
parce qu'elle etait 
fondee sur la roche. 

26. Mais quiconque 
entend ces paroles 
que je dis, et ne les 
met point en pratique, 
sera semblable a 
I'homme insense, qui 
a bati sa maison sur 
le sable ; 

27. et lorsque la 
pluie est tombee, et 
que les torrens sent 
venus, et que les 
vents ont souffle, et 
ont donne centre 
cette maison, elle est 
tombee, et sa mine 
a ete grande. 

28. Or il arriva que 
quand Jesus eut ache- 
ve ce discours, les 
troupes furent eton- 
nees de sa doctrine ; 



29. car il les ensei- 
gnait com me ayant 
de I'autorite, et non 
pas comme les 
scribes. 



ENGLISH. 

25. And the rain 

descended, and the 
floods came, and the 
winds blew, and beat 
upon that house ; and 
it fell not : for it was 
founded upon a rock. 



26. And every one 
that heareth these 
sayings of mine, and 
doeth them not, shall 
be likened unto a 
foolish man, which 
built his house upon 
the sand : 

27. And the rain 
descended, and the 
floods came, and the 
winds blew, and beat 
upon that house ; and 
it fell : and great was 
the M\ of it." 



28. And it came to 
pass, when Jesus had 
ended these sayings, 
the people were as- 
tonished at his doc- 
trine : 

29. For he taught 
them as one having 
autliority, and not va 
the scribes. 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VII. 



377 



GERMAV. 



25. ^anuiicin^fal;.- 
V(<vn fid, unii cm (i^c: 
)va\h'v Klin, uiiD \rfl)c- 
rcn Die ^l^^l^ im& 
tltc(5Cii an Dai> J^aiii^ 
jicl ci^'Docl) iiic()t, Dciiii 
cc; irai- auf ciiicu ?$clfni 
SfgruuDct. 



SPAMSir. 

25. Y descend io 
lluvia, y viiiioroii ri- 
os, y soplaron vien- 
tos, y dieroii con im- 
pctii subrc aquella 
casa y no cayo por- 
que cstaba cimcnta- 
da sobrc pena. 



26. UiiD ircr Mcfc j 26. Y todo aqucl 
mciiic 5)\c^c l)6rct/ iiiiD que eye esta's mis 
tl}Ut fie niibt, ter i|l palabras, y no las 



^iucm tbonducn 5DTaii; 



cumplc, sera seme- 



ue i^lcicl), Dev fiiu Jp»aui> j'li^to a. un hombrc 



auf Den ^m\^ Iniucte. 



27. 2)amtnein^fvi^-- 
ve.aeii fid, uiiD him cm 
(i^ciraifcr, iiuD mcbctcn 
tie lOmtc, ull^ jlicfj'oi 
au Dvit.> Jpaiit^, Da fid ct', 
uiiD cl;at eiiicii svctjeu 
gad. 



28. lliiDei? (>c,qab fic(), 
Da ^efu'o Dicfc fHcDe 
VolIcuDct batte, ciufc^tc 
ful) Dai^ ^olf iibcv fei- 
uc hi)ve. 



29. 2)cnn er ^vcDi.^^ue 
.qnra(tic\, uuD iiiclH in? 
Die <S(l)i-ifrcjcIel)rtcn. 



loco que edifico su 
casa sob re arena. 



27. Y descend io 
lluvia, y rios vinie- 
ron, y soplaron vien- 
tos, y ditron impetu- 
osamente sobre a- 
quella casa, y cayo, 
y fue grande su rui- 
na. 

28. Y sucedio que 
cuando Jesus hubo 
concluido estos razo- 
namientos las jrontes 
estaban pasniadas do 
su doctrina. 

29. Porque los cn- 
senaba como quien 
tiene autoridad y no 
a la manera de los 
Escribas. 

32* 



LATIN. 

25. Et descen- 
dit pluvia et vene« 
runt fluniina, el 
flaverunt venti, et 
procubuerunt do- 
mui illi, et non 
cecidit : fundata 
erat enim super 
petram. 

26. Et omnis 
audiens mea ver- 
ba hacc, et non 
faciens ea, assi- 
niilabitur viro 
stulto, qui a^difi- 
cavit domum su- 
am super are- 
nam : 

27. Et descen- 
dit pluvia, et ve- 
nerunt flumina,et 
flaverunt venti, et 
})roruerunt doniui 
illi, et cecidit, et 
fuit casus illius 



28. Et factum 
est, quum con- 
summasset Jesus 
scrmones hos,stu- 
pebant ilium tur- 
ban super doctrina 
ejus. 

29. Erat enini 
docens eos utauc- 
toritatem habens, 
et non sicut Sen- 
bae. 



878 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VIII. 



GREEK. 



FRENCH. 



1. Kara^duTt Be] 1 . Et quand il fut 
avTOi sirti Toii opov9, descendu de la mon- 
fiKoXovdqoav avrS tagne, de grandes 



o;(Xoi TToXAoi. 

2. Kai Idov \€7rpos 
e\do)U7rpoaeKvv€i av 
T<5, Xeycoi/ • Kupie, eav 
BekrjSy duvaaai fie ku- 
dapiaai. 

3. Kal eKTetPas rrjv 
f^fipa, fj\j/aTo avTov 
6 ^Irjaovs, Xeyaiv • 
©eXco, Kadapiadqri • 
Kai eu^ews SKaOapi- 
(tBt) avTov fj Xenpa. 

4. Kai Xe'yei aurw 
6 'li/couy "Opa jxr]' 
5f i/t eiTT?;? • aXXa 
VTraye, creavTov del' 
^ou TO) tfpet, Kai 
rrpoaeueyKe to bcopov, 
6 7rpo(T€Ta^€ Mojo-^y, 
et? fxapTvpiov avTols. 

5. Eto-eX^oi/Ti Se 
Tx> ^Irjcrov els Kanep- 
vaovfx^ npoarjXdev 
avra eKarovrapxps 
irapaKaX<ov avrov, 

6. Kai Xeycar, Kf- 
pie^ 6 rrais pov ^e- 
^XrjTai ev ry oIklo. 
frapaXvTiKoSf deivcos 
Saaai^i^opevos. 

7. Kui Xeyfi avTOt 
'lTjaro\s • 'Ey<a tX- 



tioupes le suivirent. 

2. Et voici, un le- 
preux vint et se pro- 
sterna devant lui, en 
lui disant : Seigneur, 
si tu veux, tu peux 
me rendre net. 

3. Et Jesus etendant 
la main, le toucha, en 
disant : Je le veux, 
sois net ; et inconti- 
nent sa lepre fut gue- 
rie. 

4. Puis Jesus lui dit : 
Prends garde de ne le 
dire a, personne ; mais 
va, et te montre au 
sacrificateur, et offre 
le don que MoVse a 
ordonne,afin que cela 
leur serve de temoi- 
gnage. 

5. Et quand Jesus 
fut entre dans Caper- 
naiim, un centenier 
vint a lui, le priant, 



6. et disant: Sei- 
gneur, mon serviteur 
est paralytique dans 
ma maison, et il souf- 
fre extremement. 

7. Jesus lui dit: J'i- 
rai, et jc le guerirai. 



ENGLISH. 

1. When he was 
come down from the 
mountain, great mul- 
titudes followed him. 

2. And behold, there 
came a leper and wor- 
shipped him, saying, 
Lord, if thou wilt, 
thou canst make me 
clean. 

3. And Jesus put 
forth his hand, and 
touched him, saying, 
I will ; be thou clean. 
And immediately his 
leprosy was cleansed. 

4. And Jesus saith 
unto him. See thou 
tell no man ; but go 
thy way, show thyself 
to the priest, and ofi€ f 
the gift that Moses 
commanded, for a tes- 
timony unto them. 

5. And when Jesus 
was entered into Ca- 
pernaum, there came 
unto him a centurion, 
beseeching him, 

6. And saying. Lord, 
my servant lieth at 
home sick of the pal- 
sy, grievously tor- 
mented. 

7. And Jesus saiih 
unto him, I will come 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VTII. 



379 



«FRMAN. 

1. X)a rr abn l>oin 

2. Unt) fic{}p, ciu 1in\>= 
frt§ic\ci- Cam, uiiD bctcte 

1)11 ail, unt) fpracb : 
J^cvr, fo Ml irillit, 
faniijl I'll mid) irol;( 
Vfiuiqcu. 

3. lIiiD 3:cfue: jTrfcftc 
fcinc ^aiiD aiv:^, viil}rc; 
tc il}u an, \u\t? fpracl) : 
3fl) iDilltJ tbiiii; fcp c^c-- 
vcini.qct. U:l^ alfobalct 
n>avD ci* i>ou fciiicm 
2iin?faft vein. 

4. Uiib ^cfitit fpracb 
^u il)m : ©icl)c ju, fa= 
,ac ct^ uicmv\nD ; foi^ 
tcni pcl}c l}in, ^^l^ ^ci^ 
go Md) ^cm ^licjln-, 
iiiiD cpfcvc tic ©abc, 
tic?[)?efci> bcfo[}(iMi bat, 
ju ciucm S^ij^uilj iibcv 
fic. 

5. 2)a atcr 3icfu? r in- 
9in»:< ^ii Svipcniaum, 
trat ciu J^auptmaiiu 
pi iljm, Ux bat il)u, 



6. Uut fpvad) : J^cvr, 
mciu 5(ucd)t lic.at },n 
Jf3aurc, uut i|l.aid>tbiiu 
rt)i,a, \mi> l}at giofjc 

7. 3»n'i'''^ fpvadi ^u 



il}m 3d) lt>lll tcui- Yo ire y le sanare. 



SPANISH. 

1. Y CLiando IiuVk) 
(lescendido del inontc; 
Ic scgLiian mucluis 
gcntcs. 

2. Y he aqui vino 
un leproso, y le ado- 
raba dicicndo Scnor, 
si tii quicrcs puedcs 
liHipiarmc. 

3. Y cstcndicndo 
Jesus la mano le to- 
co dicicndo : Quie- 
ro, se linipio, 6 in- 
mediatamcnte quedo 
limpio de su lepra. 

4. Entonces Jesus 
le dijo : Mira no lo 
digas a nadic mas ve, 
presentate a! Sacer- 
dole, y ofrece el don 
que Moyscs ordeno 
en testimonio a ellos. 



5. Y habicndo en- 
trad o Jesus en Ca- 
j)iuirnaum se Uego a. 
el un centurion ro- 
gandole. 

6. Y dicicndo : Sc- 
nor, mi criado esta 
postrado en cama 
paralitico rcciame;ite 
atormentado. 

7. Y Jesus Ic dijo : 



LATIX 

1. Dcscendeijte 
autcm CO d(! mon- 
te, sccuta^ sunt 
cum turbug mul- 
ta?. 

2. Et ecce le- 
prosus veniens, 
adorabat cum, di- 
cens : Domine, si 
velis, efiicax ea 
me mundare. 

3. Et extenc.cns 
manum, tetigit 
cum Jesus, di- 
cens: Volo, mun- 
dare. Et confes- 
tim mundata est 
ejus lepra. 

4. Et ait illi Je- 
sus : Vid(\ ncmi- 
ni dixcris : sed 
abl, tcipsum os- 
tende sacerdoti, 
et offer munus 
quod pra;cepit 
Moyses, in testi- 
monium illis. 

5. Introcunte au- 
tcm Jcsu in Ca- 
pernaum, acccs- 
sit ad cum Ccn- 
turio, appellans 
cum, 

6. Et dicens : 
Domine, juer 
mens jacet in do- 
mo paralyticus J 
vehementer dis- 
c rue i at us. 

7. Et ait illi Je 
sus : Ego venicna 



^80 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VIII. 



GEEEK. 

6o)v BepaTrevaco av- 
rov. 

8. Kat anoKpi6€\s 
o eKUTOVTapxos e(f)r] • 
Ku/3te, ov< €lp\ iKa- 

V6s Iva pOV VTTO TTJV 

aTeyrjv flae\6r]g • 
dWa povov elrre Xo- 
•yo), Kol ladrjacraL 6 
nais pov. 

9. Kat yap iy<b av- 

BptOTTOS el pi VTTO e^- 

nvaiav, exo3V vtt 
ipavTov arrpaTKaras ' 
Kal Xeyo) rourw, tto- 
pevdrjTi^ Kal nopevf- 
rai ' Kal aXXw, ep- 

Kal tS dov\co pov^ 
irolrjaov roiiTO^ Koi 

TTOiel, 

10. AKovcras Se 6 
lT](rovSy eOavpaae, 
Kal etVe Tols aKoKov- 
Bovcriv Kprjv Xcya> 
vpXv^ ovbe iv Tw 'itr- 
parfK ToaavTrju irl- 
CTTiv ivpov. 

11. Ae'yo) he vplv, 
OTt. TToXXoi OTTO dua- 
Tok(t)V Kal dvapoiiu rj- 
^ovcii Kal dvuKKidr]- 
trovrai ptTO. A^puap 
Kal 'l(raa< Kat 'la- 
Ko>(i iv TTJ jSaariXeia 
tS)U ovpavcoi/ • 



12 01 Se 



viol ryy 



FRENCH. 



8. Mais le centenier 
lui repondit : Sei- 
gneur, je ne suis pas 
digr.e que tu entres 
sous mon toil ; mais 
dis seulement la pa- 
role, et mon serviteur 
sera gueri. 

9. Car moi-meme, 
qui suis un homme 
constitue sous la puis- 
sance d'autrui, j'ai 
sous moi des gens de 
guerre, et je dis a 
Tun : Va, et il va ; et 
a un autre : Viens, et 
il vient ; et a mon 
serviteur : Fais cela, 
et il le fait. 

10. Ce que Jesus 
ayant entendu, il s'en 
etonna, et dit a ceux 
qui le suivaient : En 
verite, je vous dis que 
je n'ai pas trouve, 
n:eme en Israel, une 
si grande foi. 

11. Mais je vous dis 
que plusieurs vien- 
dront d'Orient et 
d'Occident, et seront 
a table dans le roy- 
aume des cieux, avec 
Abraham, Isaac et 
Jacob. 

12. Et les enfans du 



ENGLISH. 

and heal him. 

8. The centurion 
answered and said, 
Lord, I am not wor- 
thy that thou should- 
est come under my 
roof : but speak the 
word only, and my 
sei-vant shall be 
healed. 

9. For I am a man 
under authority, hav- 
ing soldiers under 
me : and I say to this 
man, Go, and he go- 
eth ; and to another, 
Come, and he cometh; 
and to my servant. 
Do this and he doeth 
it. 



10. When Jesus 
heard it, he marvelled, 
and said to them that 
followed. Verily I say 
unto you, I have not 
found so great faith, 
no, not in Israel. 

11. And I say unto 
you, That many shall 
come from the east 
and west, and shall 
sit down with Abra- 
ham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, in the kingdom 
of heaven : 

12. But the children 



MATTHEW, CirAPTER VIIi. 



381 



GKKMAN 

men, mil) lijn lUfunD 

tlMClKU. 

8. Vtv .Oauvtmaini 
antwoi-tftc,unD|'piaib : 
J^ivr, id) bill iiid)f 
rrcitl}/ tixfy t»ii luirci' 
mciii 'S)m[) <\([)(\l ; fon- 
^cl•ll fpriil) iiui* ciii 
^ert/ j'o \v\xi> mciii 
5liicd)t i\c|'uuD. 



9. T>cnu id) bin ciii 
5B(cnfd), tajii ^cl• 
£)ln-iv\fnt iiiitin-t()v\n, 
lln^ l}abc uutcv mil 
S^i-ifv\t^hicd)tc ; tcd> 
ircnii id) \\u\( ^u ciufin : 

(^Cl}f I) I II, fO jACl?Ct 

cr ; iniD jam v\ll^cl•u : 
^omm l)cv, fo tcmmr 
ci' ; iiiiD ^u mctiicm 
^ncd)tc : il}itc Dat', fo 
rl;iit a&. 

10. ^a ^a(? ^({nc^ 
fjbvitc, ln'l•^ruu^Cl•tc cr 
fid), iiiiD fpiMd) ^u ^c-' 
iicii, tic il)m luubfclA- 
tcu : ^abrlid), ub |> 

,AC cud), )>ld)Cll (^(v\U-' 

bcii l)abc id) in ^)i\ui 
iiid)t .Acfuu^cu. 

11. 'Zlbcr id)fvx,qccuc(): 
533ic(c ircrtni to mm en 
IHMU 93TiM\uMi nnc> Vlmu 
2lbcuD, nn^ mit libra- 
bam un£> '^\^<\^ niiD 
3i'd'ob im ^iiumdieid) 
fi^cn. 



srAxisii, 



8. Entonccs cl ccn- 
turJDn le respondio 
diciondo: Scuor yo 
no soy digno do que 
entres debajo de mi 
tocho, mas di sola- 
mciitc la palabra, y 
sanara. mi criado. 

9. Porquc yo tam- 
bien soy hombre su- 
jcto a. la autoi'idad de 
otro, y tcngo a mis 
ordenes soldados, y 
digo a este : Ve y 
va ; y al otro vcn, y 
viene : y a mi cria- 
do : haz csto, y lo 
liace. 



10. Al oir Jesus sc 
maravillo y dijo a 
los que le seguian : 
En verdad os digo 
que no he hallado le 
tan grande, no, ni en 
Israel. 

11. Y OS digo que 
vend run muchos de 
oriente, y de occi- 
dente, y se sentaran 
con Abraham, e 
Isaac y Jacob en el 
raviui de los cielos. 



12. 'Uhcx tie Winter 12, Y los hijos del 



r iTiy. 
curabo eum. 

8. Et respon- 
dens Centurio ait: 
Domine, non sum 
idoneus ut meum 
sub tectum intres: 
sed tantum die 
verbum, et sana- 
bitur puer meus. 

9. Etenim ego 
homo sum sub 
auctoritatem, ha- 
bens sub meip- 
sum milites : et 
dico huic, Vade, 
et vadit : et alii, 
Veni, et venit : et 
servo meo, Fac 
hoc, et I'acit. 



10. Audiensaii- 
tem Jesus, mira- 
tus est : et ait se- 
quentibus: Amen 
dico vobis, ncque 
in Israel tantam 
lidem inveni. 

11. Dico auttm 
vobis, quod multi 
ab orientibus et 
occidentibus ve- 
nient, et recum- 
bent cum Abra- 
ham, et Isaac, et 
Jacob in regno 
coclorum. 

12. Filii autem 



382 



iTATTHEW, CUAPTER VTI.. 



GRUEK. 

(Tovra: els to aKoros 
TO e^oiTepov • e/cel 
earuL 6 KXavd/JLOs Ka\ 
6 ^pvyiJLOs Toiu oSay- 

TOiV. 

13. Kai CLTvep 6 
Irja-ovs rw iKaTov- 

Tcipxf^ ' VTvaye, Koi 
(OS inl(TT€V(ras yevi]- 
6fjT(o aoi. Kat Xddr] 
6 Tvais avTov iv Trj 
&pa. iKeivrj. 

14. Kai eXdcbu 6 
Irjcrovs els ti^v oiKiau 

HeTpov, t'lSe Trjv nev- 
Oepav avTov jSe^At;- 

fieVr]V Kol 7rVp€(T(T0V- 

crav • 

15. Kai rj\l/'aTO Trjs 

X€Lp6s aVTTJS, KOL d- 
(pJ]<6V aVTTjV 6 TTVpe- 

Tos ' Kai TjyepOrj^ koi 
dirjKouei avTco, 

16. ^OyjfLas 8e ye- 
vopevrjs TTpocrrjueyicav 
avTco ^.aLp.ouL^op,ivovs 
TToXXovs ' Kol e|e/3a- 
Xe TO. TTvevfxaTa X6- 
ycp, KOI TrdvTas tovs 
KaKcos e^ovTas ide- 
pdnevcreu. 

17. "Ottcos TrXrjptx)- 
6rj TO pr]deu did 'H- 
aatov Tov 7rpo<priTov, 
XeyovTos • " Avros 
ras aadeveias rjpoiu 
fXafBe, Kcu Tag vocrovs 



FIIENCH. 

royaume seront jctes 
dans les tenebres de 
dehors, ou il y aura 
des pleurs ct des 
grincemens de dents. 

13. Alors Jesus dit 
au centenier : Va, et 
qu'il te soit fait selon 
que tu as cru. Et a 
I'heure me me son 
serviteur fut gueri. 



14. Puis Jesus etant 
venu dans la maison 
de Pierre, vit la belle- 
mere de Pierre qui 
etait au lit, et qui 
avait la fievre. 

15. Et lui ayant lou- 
che la main, la fievre 
la quitta : puis elle se 
leva, et les servit. 

16. Et le soir etant 
venu, on lui presenta 
plusieurs demoni- 
aques, desquels il 
chassa par sa parole 
les esprits malins, et 
guerit tous ceux qui 
se portaient mal ; 

17. afin que fut ac- 
compli ce dont il avait 
ete parle par EsaVe 
le pro]jhete, en di- 
sant : II a pris nos 
langueui-b, et a porte 
nos maladies. 



EXOLISII. 

of the kingdom shall 
be cast out into out- 
er darkness : there 
shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth. 

13. And Jesus said 
unto the centurion, 
Go thy way ; and as 
thou hast believed, so 
be it done unto thee. 
And his servant was 
healed in the self- 
same hour. 

14. And when Jesus 
was come into Peter's 
house, he saw his 
wife's mother laid, 
and sick of a fever 

15. And he touched 
her hand, and the fe- 
ver left her : and she 
arose, and ministered 
unto them. 

16. When the ev.en 
was come, . they 
brought unto him 
many that were pos- 
sessed with devils . 
and he cast out the 
spirits with his word, 
and healed all that 
were sick : 

17. That it might 
be fulfiLed which was 
spoken by Esaias the 
prophet, saying. Him- 
self took our infirmi- 
ties and bare our sick 
nesses. 



MATTHET^, CHAFTER VIII. 



883 



GERMAN. 



SPANISH. 



^f(> iHcicl)'o trcl•^cn aut?; reyno scran cchados 
pC|lotiCU 111 Mc auf^cVjUv a. las tinichhis csteri- 
§iii|Unnif3 Ijiiiaik^, ^a ores. Alii sera el 
Wivt \(\)n ^inUn UllD llanto y el crugir de 



3^1)11 Happen. 

13. llnb ^(\\vs fprad) 
ju t»cm ^viuptnuiiinc : 
(gii;e l}in, l>iv Ai"fitcl}c, 
n?ic ^ll c\Cv^laubct l;vi|t. 
Ihib fciu Kiu'cbt iraiD 
.qcfmiD ju Dfvfclbu^cii 
©tuuDc. 

14. lint) gcfnit Fani 
in ^ctri J^am^ nuD 
fat}c, Daf^' fcinc Gcbn^ic- 
<\cvmnttci- (vi.^, un& l;vit-- 
U Dai> gicbcv. 

15. ^vx c\vi|f ci* ibvc 
.^anD kWX, nnD tai> gic-- 
bci-\)cilict3 fu. llnDfic 
jlanD anf, unt) ficnctc 
il;nfn. 

16. Urn TibcnD abcr 
luMcbtcn fic inclc ^^i- 
fcijcnc jn ibm ; m\^ cv 
trifb tic ©ciitci' ani? 
mitvIBoi-tfn^nntmacb; 
tc allcvlcn kvantc c^f- 
fnno. 



17. Znf Uf, cvfnllct 
ittfirtc, Datt jAcfa^u i|^ 
tnnb t>cn ^pfopbctcn 
^cfaia, tci* ta fpiubt : 
€r bvU nnfcvc ©ibiraib; 
t; c i t a n f j'l cb <a c n o ni men, 
UiiD unfcfc (Seucbe l}at 



dicntes. 

13. Y Jesus dijo al 
centurion : Ve y co- 
nio crciste asi te sea 
hcclio. Y fue sano 
el siervo en aquella 
hora. 



14. Y habiendo 
llegado Jesus a. la 
casa de Pedro vio a 
su sucgra postrada 
en cania, y con fie- 
bre. 

15. Y toco su ma- 
no, y la fiebre la dejo, 
y le van lose, y los 
servia. 

16. Y vcnida la tar- 
dc Ic trajeron rnu- 
chos endemoniados, 
y con su palabra lan- 
zaba los espiritus, y 
euro a todos los do- 
lientes. 



17. Para que so 
cumpliese lo que fue 
dicho por el profeti 
Isaias, cuando dijo 
El mismo tomo nu- 
estras enfermedadcs, 
y cargo con nuestras 



LATIN. 



rerrni ejic:entUT' lo 
tenebras extc: lo- 
res : ibi erit flo- 
tus, et freni.tus 
dentium. 

13. Et dixit Je 
sus Centurioni : 
Abi, et sicut cre- 
didisti, fiat tibi. 
Et sanatus est 
puer ejus in bora 
lUa. 

14. Et ino;rcssus 
Jesus in donium 
Petri, vidit so- 
crum ejus jacen- 
tem et f'ebrici- 
tantem : 

15. Et tetigit 
manum ejus, et 
dimisit earn fe- 
bris : et surrexit, 
et ministrabat eis. 

1(). Vespere au- 
tem facto, obtu- 
Jerunt ei dicmoni- 
acos multos, et 
ejiciebat spiritus 
verbo et omnes 
male babentes sa- 
nabat : 

17. Ut adimple- 
retur dl:tuni per 
Isaiam Propbe- 
tam, dicentem : 
Ipse ijfirniitates 
nostras acccpit,et 
"a^grotatioues por- 



384 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VITI. 



GREEK. 

18. ibcbv de 6 'Ij;- 

(TOVS TTOWOVS OX^OVS 

nepi avTovy cfceAeu- 
<rev ajreXOelu els to 
rrepav. 

19. Kat TrpocTfX- 
6cbu els Tftafinarevs^ 
eiirev avrco • AtSd- 
OTKaXe^ aKoXovOfjaa) 
(Toi 01T0V eau dnep- 

xn- 

20. Kai Xeyet av- 
rw 6 ^lr]crovs * Ai 
aXaneKes (pcokeovs 
exovai^ Kol to. Trerel- 
va Tov ovpavov Kara- 
<rKr)V(X)aets ' 6 8e vlos 

TOV duOpdiTTOV OVK 

e^ei TTOv rf}u Kecj)a- 
Xr]v kXlvtj. 

21. ''Erepos Se rcov 
p.a6rjT(ov avTov einev 
at)rc5 • Kvpie eniTpe- 
yfrou pot npcoToi/ 
aneXOelv^ Koi 6dy\rai 
rou narepa pov, 

22. 'O he 'lr]<Tovs 
(iirev avTW • 'Ako- 
'kovQei poi, Koi a(f>es 
rovs veKpovs Bdy^ai 
Tovs eavTcov veKpovs. 

23. Kai ep^avTL 
avTU) eis TO rrXoloVj 
rjKoXovdrjcrav avToi ol 
p,a6r]Tai avToi). 



FRENCH. 



18. Or Jesus voyant 
autour de lui de 
grandes troupes, com- 
marida de passer a 
I'autre rivage. 

19. Et un scribe 
s'approchant, lui dit : 
Maitre, je te suivrai 
partout ou tu iras. 



20. Et Jesus lui dit: 
Les renards ont des 
tanieres, et les oi- 
seaux du ciel ont des 
nids ; mais le Fils de 
I'homme n'a pas ou 
il puisse reposer sa 
tdte. 

21. Puis un autre de 
ses disciples lui dit : 
Seigneur, permets- 
moi d'aller premiere- 
ment ensevelir mon 
pere. 

22. Et Jesus lui dit: 
Suis-moi, et laisse les 
morts ensevelir leurs 
morts. 

23. Et quand il fut 
entre dans la nacelle, 
ses disciples le sui- 
virent. 



24. K«i IBou, o-eio-- 24. Et, voici, il s'e- 
fi6s p.eyas eyevtTo ' leva sur la mer une si 



ENGLISH. 

18. Now when Je- 
sus saw great multi 
tudes about him, he 
gave commandment 
to depart unto the 
other side. 

19. And a certain 
scribe came, and said 
unto him, Master, I 
will follow thee 
whithersoever thou 
goest. 

20. And Jesus saith 
unto him. The foxes 
have holes, and the 
birds of the air have 
nests ; but the Son of 
man hath not where 
to lay his head. 



21. And another of 
his disciples said un- 
to him. Lord, suffer 
me first to go and 
bury my father. 



22. But Jesus said 
unto him. Follow me: 
and let the dead bury 
their dead. 

23. And when ho 
was entered into a 
ship, his disciples fol- 
lowed him. 

24. And behold, 
there arose a grea* 



1 



MATTHEW, CnAPTER VIII. 



385 



GERMAN. 



18. lliiDDa 3cfus?l>icl 
^t4t-'i? urn Vicl) \\\[)(, 



SPANISH. 

dolencias. 

18. Mas como vie- 
se Jesus imichas ccn- 



^U'(3" cr l}iuubci- jciifat i tes al rcdcdor do si, 



t)c^ iDiccv^ fvU;icii. 



19. Hub c(> tiMt ju 

il}m fill @dn-iffv^c[ii)i-: 
Uv, ^c^ fpracl) ju i|;m: 
5DIei|U'r, id) irill Mr 
foljjcu, wo Dii l;iuj^cljc)l. 

20. ^cfiib- ^.u\tc in 
il)m : 2)ie gfubfc l}a- 
Immi (TM-ubcii, nnt' Mc 
^6.qii untcr Dim J^im= 
md l;abcu inc|ler; vibcv 
t>ci> 90Tcii|'d)Cu ©ol;u 
I}at uifbt, ^a ci* fciu 

21. lln^ ciu au&rrci* 
nnta* ffiucu 3riii>Ki'ii 
fprad) ju ii}m: Jpcrr, 
cilaubc mir, fcajj ub 
l}iii>u1}C; ini& ju\)or 
tufiucu ^atcr bccjvabc. 

22. 2(bcr ^cfiii^ {\^i\\d) 
in il)m : ^^i^^U' tu mil', 
iiiiD laf^' bic ioDtcu il)vc 

23. Hub cr trat in ba^ 
(gdMtf, II n^ feme 3im: 
gcr folgteu il;iu. 



24. Itub f(cl)c, ba cr= 
t;ob fid) cm grojjcg Uu- 



ordcn6 pasar a la 
otra parte del lago. 

19. Y llegandose a 
el un Escribaledijo : 
Maestro te scguire 
adonde quiera que 
fueres. 

20. Y Jesus le dijo 
las zorras tienen ma- 
drigueras y las aves 
del cielo nidos, mas 
el Uijo del hombrc 
no tiene donde rccli- 
iiar su cabeza. 



21. Y otro de sus 
discipulos le dijo : 
Seuor pcrmite que 
primero vaya y eiiti- 
erre a mi padre. 



22. I\Ias Jesus le 
dijo : sigueme y de- 
ja que los muertos 
entierren a sus mu- 
ertos. 

23. Y habicndo el 
entrado en un barco 
le siguieron sus dis- 
cipulos. 

24. Y he aqui se 
levanto una tempes- 

33 



LATIN. 

lavit. 

18. Vidcns au- 
tcm Jesus multas 
turbas circuin se, 
jussit abire in ul- 
terius. 

19. Et accedens 
unus Scriba, ait 
illi : Magister, sc- 
quar te quocum- 
que ieris. 

20. Et dicit ei 
Jesus : Vulpes fo- 
veas habent, et 
volucres ca3li um- 
bracula : Filius 
autem hominis 
non habet ubi ca- 
put rcclinet. 

21. Alius autem 
discipulorum ejus 
ait illi : Domine, 
penniite mihi pri- 
muin abire, et se- 
pelire patremme- 
um. 

22. At Jesus ait 
illi : Sequere me, 
et dimittc mortu- 
os se pel ire suos 
mortuos. 

23. Et ascen- 
dente eo in navi- 
culam,secuti sunt 
eum discipuli e- 
jus. 

24. Et ecce mo- 
tus magnus lac- 



386 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VIH. 



GREEK. 

€V T7 dakdacTTj, coore 

TO TtXoIoV KClXvTTTe- 

adai VTVQ TU)V KVjj.d' 
Tcou ' avTos be cko.- 
Oev^e. 

25. Kai TrpocreX' 
66vT€S ol ixaBrjTal 
avToi/ fjysLpav avroVf 
X^yovres' Kuote, crco- 
(Tov fjfxdsj aTToXXu- 
fieOa, 

26. Kal Xeyet av- 
TOLS ♦ Ti SetXot ecrre, 

oXiyOTTLO-TOL ,' T6t€ 

eyepdels eTreriiiTjcre 
Tols dueixoLS KoX rfj 
daXdaarj • kcu iycve- 
TO yaKr]vr] jxeyaXr].^, 

27. Ol be avOpoi- 
TTOi edavfiacrav, Xe- 
yovres • JJoraTros 

eCTTLV OVTOS, OTL Kol 

ol avep.01 KCLL rj Od- 
Xacrcra vrraKovovcnv 

28. Kal eXddvrt 
avT(o els TO nepuv els 
rrjv ^6)pau toc'V Tep- 
yecrrjvav^ VTTijvTrjcrav 
avTco tvo Baipovi^O' 
fieuoi, eK Twv pvr]p.ei- 
(ov e^epxdpevoi, )(a- 
AeTTOt Xiau, ware p^ 
a^veiu TLva trapeX- 

Oelu 5ia TTji 68ov 
£K€ivrs. 



FRENCH. 

grande tempete, que 
la nacelle elait cou- 
verte de flots ; et Je- 
sus dormait. 



25. Et ses disciples 
vinrent, et I'eveille- 
rent, en lui disant : 
Seigneur, sauve-nous, 
nous perissons ! 

26. Et il leur dit : 
Poarquoi avez-vous 
peur, gens de petite 
foi ? Alors s'etant 
leve, il parla forte- 
ment aux vents et a 
la mer, et il se fit un 
grand calme. 

27. Et les gens qui 
etaient la s'en eton- 
nerent, etdirent: Qui 
est celui-ci que les 
vents meme et la mer 
lui obeissent ? 

28. Et quand il fut 
passe a Pautre cote, 
dans le pays des Ger- 
geseniens, deux de- 
moniaques etant sor- 
tis des sepulcres vin- 
rent le rencontrer ; et 
ils etaient si dan2;e- 
rcux que personnc ne 
pouvait passer par cc 
chemin-la. 



29 Kcu ISov eKpa- 29. Et, voici, ils 
^auj Xeyovres • Tt ! s'ecHerent, en disant 
riulv Kid (Toi, 'irjaov QuV a-t-il entre nous 



ENGLISH. 

tempest in the sea 
insomuch that the 
ship was covci'ed with 
the waves : but he 
was asleep. 

25. And his disci- 
ples came to him, and 
awoke him, saying, 
Lord, save us : we 
perish. 

26. And he saith 
unto them. Why are 
ye fearful, O ye ot 
little faith ? Then he 
arose, and rebuked 
the winds and the 
sea ; and there was 
a great calm. 

27. But the men 
marvelled, saying, 
What manner of man 
is this, that even the 
winds and the seu 
obey him ! 

28. And Avhen he 
was come to the othei 
side, into the countiy 
of the Gergesenes, 
there met him two 
possessed with devils, 
coming . out of the 
tombs, exceeding 
fierce, so that no man 
might pass by that 
way. 

29. And behold they 
cried out, saying, 
What have we '.o do 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VIII. 



887 



Gi:r.MAN. 



qrflum im 53Tcfr, a(fp, 
»^a|; amb Dai' ©chiiflciu 
nut Allien h'^Clir 
\Vi\\t> ; iiiiD cr fcl)licf. 

25. U\\^ Mc 3rin>Kr 
ti-i\rcu 311 il)tn, iinD 
nn'cttfu 1 1; 11 nuf, imD 
fpiMcbni: J^cir, l}ilf 

2G. ?)a faatc cr ^,u 
il)ucii : '^i)v S\lcin.^(au. 
bivKU; iraiiim \(i)l> it)v 
)0 fur clnfaiu if Unt 
jtaiiD anf, iniD (>fDror 
l)ctc ^cll ^iiiD uiiD Dae: 

)n!lc. 

27. T>ie ?r)?cnrf^cn 
ab(v i>rv)riinDcrtni )ub, 
iiiiD fpraibcn : lBai> i»l 
Dai> fur ciii ?)3?aiin, t^xfj 
ilnn IDiiiD uiiD 50?a'r 
9cl;oifam i|t ? 

28. Un^ fv fam jcip 
fcit bct^ iDTccve!, in t»ic 

iKv. T^a (icfni ibm 
cntvKc^cu jirccu '^cfcf^ 
fciic, l\( t-auuMi aiie: Dcu 
■iioDtcujuabcun, imb 
iraicn fiin- vn-immi.c\, 
alj'o, Daj; iiifmaiiD Mf: 
fflbc @tvat)C iraubclii 
t-cuutc. 

29. UiiD fkbc, fie 
fibnrca uiiD fpiacbcn : 
^ib 3if»/ ^u <0i)l)u 



SPANISH. 

tad tan grande en el 
mar que las olas cu- 
biiaii el barco. Y el 
(lorniia. 

25. Y lle<:!;an(]ose u 
el sus discipulos le 
dispcrtaron diclendo: 
Senor, salvanos que 
pereceinos. 

2n. Y el les dijo : 
^ Que temeis 6 hom- 
l)res de poca fe ? Y 
levatitandose repren- 
dio a. los vieiitos y a 
la mar y siguiose 
gran bonanza. 

27. Y los hombrcs 
sc niaravillaron y 
decian : ^ Quieu es 
este que hasta los 
vientos, y el mar le 
obedecen .'' 

28. Y cuando Je- 
sus hubo pasado a 
la otra parte del la- 
go en el pafs de los 
Gergesenos vinicron 
a su encuentro dos 
endemoniados que 
sali'an de los sepul- 
cros de tal manera 
fieros que nadie po- 
dia pasar por aquel 
camino. 

29. Y he aqui que 
(Mnj)(v.ar()n a dargrl- 
to6 diciendo ; que te- 



LATIN. 

tus est in mari, 
ita ut navieulani 
operiri sub Hucti- 
bus : ipse vero 
dormiebat. 

25. Et acceden- 
tes diseipuli ejus, 
suscitaverunt e- 
um,dicentes: Do- 
niiue, salva nos, 
perimus. 

26. Et (licit CIS : 
Quid timidi estis, 
exiguoB fidei ? 
Tunc surgens im- 
peravit ventis et 
mari, et facta est 
tranquillitas mag- 
na. 

27. At homines 
mirati sunt, di- 
centes : Qualis 
est hie, quia et 
venti et mare obe- 
diunt ei ? 

28. Et venienti 
l^)si in ulterius in 
rei2:ionem Gerire- 
senorum, occur- 
rerunt ei duo drc- 
moniaci de menu- 
mentis e.xeuntCs, 
sa^vi nimls, ita ul 
non valeie quen- 
quam transire oer 
viam illam. 

29. Et ecc c cia 

ma\-eruut, d.cen- 
tcs : Quid nobis 



388 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VHI. 



GREEK. 

vie 70V Qeov , rjXdes 
Side TTpo K(up ..'V (ia- 
aauicraL fjjxas ; 

30. ^Hu Be naKpau 
cztt' avTcov dyeXrj ^oi- 
pcov TToXKcop ^oarKO- 
fiei/T], 

31. Ol Be batfxoves 
rrapeKoXovu avrov, 
Xeyovres • Ei eKJ3a\- 
XeLS rjfias, enLTpe-^ov 
tjuiv dneXdelv els 
Trjv dyeXrjv roiv -xol- 
pcov. 

32. Kat etTrey av- 
Tois ' 'Yndyere. Oi 
de e^eXdovres dnrjX- 
6ov fi? Ti)v ayeXrjv 
Tutv )(n'Lpu)V. Kai IBoVy 
copj,r)(Te Trdcra rj dye- 
\t) tmu -^^oLpcov Kcird 
7 ov Kpi]jjLVOV els Tqv 
OdXaaorav, koI drre- 
Oavov ev Tois vdaaiu. 

33. Ol be jSoa-Kov- 
T€s e(f>vyov, Kill arreX- 
Bovres els rrjv ttoXlp, 
aTTrjyyetXau TxavTa^ 
KaX TO. TOiv daiixoui' 
^ofxeuav. 



3^. Kai Idov, nda-a 
*) TToXiy e^rjXOeu els 
(rvvdvTrjaiv rat 'ir;- 
Tov • Ka\ Ihovres av- 
novy m^HKuhecrav 6- 



FRENCH. 

et toi, Jesus, Fils de 
Dieu ? Es-tu venu 
ici nous tourmenter 
avant le temps .'' 

30. Or, il y avait un 
peu loin d'eux un 
grand troupeau de 
pourceaux qui pais- 
sait. 

31. Et les demons 
le priaient, en disant : 
Si tu nous jcttes de- 
hors, permets-nous 
de nous en aller dans 
ce troupeau de pour- 
ceaux. 

32. Et il leur dit : 
Allez. ' Et eux etant 
sortis, s'en allerent 
dans le troupeau de 
pourceaux ; et, voila, 
tout ce troupeau de 
pourceaux se preci- 
pita dans la mer, et 
ils moururent dans 
les eaux. 

33. Et ceux qui les 
gardaient s'enfuirent, 
et etant venus dans la 
ville, ils raconterent 
toutes ces choses, et 
ce qui etait arrive aux 
demontaques. 

34. Et voila, toute 
la ville alia au-devant 
de J/^sus ; et I'ayant 
vu ii3 le prierent do 
sr rctircr de leur 



ENGLISH. 

with thee, Jesus, thou 
Son of God ? art thou 
come hither to tor- 
ment us before the 
time } 

30. And there was 
a good way off from 
them an herd of mary 
swine, feeding. 

31. So the devils 
besought him, saying 
If thou cast us out, 
suffer us to go away 
into the herd of 
swine. 

32. And he said un- 
to them, Go. And 
when they were come 
out, they went into 
the herd of swine : 
and behold, the whole 
herd of swine ran vio- 
lently down a steep 
place into the sea, 
and perished . in the 
waters. 

33. And they thai 
kept them fled, and 
went their ways into 
the city, and told ev^ 
ery thing ; and what 
was befallen to the 
possessed of the dev 
ils. 

34. And behold, the 
whole city came out 
to meet Jesus : and 
when they saw him, 
they besought him 



MATTHEW, CHAPTER VIII. 



389 



GERMAN. 

C?ottctt, itiait l)abcii mv 
ni't Ml" },n tbun'( '^\\\ 

jii qiialcii, cl}c ^ciui ct? 

IJO. St? \rav abcr fcr-- 
iic\)oii il}HCH cine .qvot^'c 
J^ccl•^c @vuic ail t(\' 

31. 2^a baton ihn Mc 
^cufcl, nu^ fprad?cn : 
^ill|t ^u une; an^tvci-- 
tn'u, \\> ciLu'bc nni5 in 
Die JpccvDc ©due ju 
fa I) veil. 

32. ItnD ci- fpracl) : 
gahvct bin. y>a fnl)i'cn 
fic an;?, nn^ tnt)vcn in 
t>ic JpccvDr ©dnc. UnD 
ficbc, Die vvm^c JpccrDc 
©dnc lluv^tc ficl) niit 
cincm ^cniin in Dai' 
93u'cr, nnD cvfotfcn im 
QBaifcv. 



33. llnD tie J^ivfcn 
|iol)cn, unt> .Ain.U'n bin 
in Die ©caDt, nnD fa^v 
ten t»a^ allee?, nnt n?ie 
ct? niit ten ^^efcjfcncn 
fi;5 an 01 en iDar. 



34. Unt f(e()e, Dac^inv^ 
bie vian^e ©raDt bevani.' 
^cfn cntacaen. II uD Da 
[le ibn faber, baton \\y 
il;U/ tajj cv tciv il)iei' 



SPANISH. 

nemos que ver con- 
tipjo Jesus Ilijo (lc3 
Dios ? ^ Has vonido 
aca. a atorincntarnos 
antes do ticmpo ? 

30. Y Ic-jos d(3 cllos 
cstaba paciendo una 
gran piura do puer- 
cos. 

31. Y los demon ios 
lo rogaron diciendo : 
Si nos echas de aqui 
pcrniitenos que vay- 
amos a aquella piura 
de puercos. 

32. Y 61 les dijo, 
Id. Y habiendo el los 
salido se fueron a la 
piara de los puercos. 
Y ho aqui que tod a 
la piara de los puer- 
cos se procipito on la 
mar por un dospcna- 
dero, y perecieron en 
las ajiuas. 



LATIX. 

et tibi, Jcsu fdi 
Dei .'* Venisti hue 
ante tem\)us tor- 
que re nos ? 

30. Erat autem 
longe ab illis grex 
porcorum multo- 
rum j)ascens. 

31. Verum dae- 
mones a p pel la- 
bant cum, diceii- 
tes : Si cjicis nos, 
permittb nobis 
abire in gregem 
porcorum. 

32. Et ait illis, 
Abiie. llli autem 
exeuntes abicrum 
in grcgom porco- 
rum. Et occe ir- 
ruit totus grex 
porcorum per 
pra3Cops in mare, 
et mortui sunt in 
aquis. 



33. Y los que los 33. Pastores au« 
ouardaban huvcron tern, fuijorunt, et 
y se fueron a la ciu- 1 venicntes in civi- 
dad, y lo contaron { tatem, nunciave- 
todo con lo quo ha- ; runt omnia, ct ilia 
bia aconlecido a los , qua? dajmoniaco- 
endemon